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SOUTH 



MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT 
SOUTH AMERICA 



by 

HAROLD T, WILKINS 



RIDER & CO. 

LONDON : : NEW YORK : : MELBOURNE I SYDNEY 
68, FLEET STREET, LONDON, E.C-4 



Dedicated to my distinguished friend 
MILES POINDEXTER 

Senator of the United States, one time U.S. 
Ambassador to Perti, whose travel-studies on the 
mysteries and prehistory of the old Inca Em- 
pire, and the Ayar-Incas, have made him famous 
all over the countries of the Andes and won him 
the Gold Medal of the Sun ofPerti. 



First published January 
Reprinted . . September 



Prittted in Great 'Britain 

by The Anchor Press, Ltd., 

Tiptrm, Bsrtx 



FOREWORD 

"/ have but one object: to bare the mysteries that the jungle fastnesses of 
South America have concealed for so many centuries. We are encouraged 
in our hope of finding the ruins of an ancient, white civilisation and the 
degenerate offspring of a once cultivated race" . . . 

(The last message sent to London over the Overland 
Brazilian Telegraph in Rondonia, by Colonel P. H. 
Fawcett, on April 20, 1925.) 

To the above message to Britain, from the first, but, I hope, not 
the last of the British conquistadores who conquered South America 
by brains and courage, not by rapine and blood and banditry, the 
author ventures to add that he has tried as best he may to fill up the 
lacunae, which fate ordained that this soldier and explorer of the 
Legion of Frontiersmen, forever pushing forward into the un- 
known, should leave with a great question mark across them. It 
seems unlikely to hope, now, for Colonel Fawcett's return from the 
lost world of Brazil's jungles, nearly twenty years after he and his 
son and Mr. Rimell vanished. So, having said Ave et Vale to these 
brave British spirits, I express the hope that this book may be found 
not only entertaining, but to carry farther the trail he, and a long 
line of Englishmen, Scotsmen and Americans, from Ephraim 
George Squier to Sir Clements Markham and el Gran Caballero, Don 
Roberto (the late R. B. Cunninghame Graham), blazed into un- 
known and mysterious South America. 

THE AUTHOR, 

Bexleyheath 9 

Kent, England. 
Spring 1945 



Extract from the 1943-44 volume of Who's Who in America: 

Wilkins, Harold T.: Author and traveller, born Gloucester, Eng., March 18, 
1891, educated Grammar School and Cambridge U.; began as schoolmaster 
and went into journalism, serving in all grades from reporter to editor ; worked 
in Fleet Street, London ; travelled in many parts of Europe . . . has done exten- 
sive work in S. American archaeology and Brit, and Am. archives for pirate and 
treasure hunting stories and general adventure by sea and land. * . . Author of 
more than a score of popular and general interest books, pubd. in New York, 
Boston, and London, Eng. 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 



PAGE 



AUTHOR'S FOREWORD 5 

i. OUR EARTH'S GREATEST DISASTER .... 9 

H. DEAD CITIES OF ANCIENT BRAZIL 35 

HI. JUNGLE LIGHT THAT SHINES BY ITSELF 60 

IV. THE MISSIONARY MEN IN BLACK: FORERUNNERS OF THE 

GREAT CATASTROPHE 96 

V. THE SIGN OF THE SUN : WORLD'S OLDEST ALPHABET . 117 
VI. SIGN-POSTS TO THE SHADOW OF ATLANTIS . . .130 

VH. THE ATLANTEAN " SUBTERRANEANS" OF THE INCAS . 152 

TIAHUANACU AND THE GIANTS 1 82 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 201 

INDEX 2O9 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

FACING PAG1 

Gateway of the Kalasasaya Sun Temple, Tiahuanacu . 32 
Treasure Tomb of Guatemotzin, Chiappas, Mexico . . 33 
Pre-Inca wood figure of notable 48 

Colossal head of Atlantean type of notable found at Tabasco, in 
1940 48 

QuetzalcoatPs Temple of a Thousand Columns, Chichen Itza 49 
Cuneiform (Gilgamesh-Nineveh) brick of Deluge . . .112 

Meteor (or Platinum) crater, Arizona 112 

Sachsahuaman ruins, Cuzco Hill, Peru . . . -113 

Old Inca Wall, Cuzco 113 

Colossal head at R.C. Capilla, Tiahuanacu village (pueblo) 128 

Ra-Mac: colossus 128 

Evolution or stairway sign on Mayan Cap . . , .128 
Human Sacrifice stone of old Mexico 129 

Gordon- Medusa heads of old Greece, Syracuse and Mayan 
Palenque 129 

Stairway-evolution sign tattooed on backs of Boro Indians 129 



LIST OF DIAGRAMS 

VAGI 

Hieroglyphs and letters of dead Atlantean-Brazilian city 43, 45, 60 
Tibetan and Kanheri letters 61 

Ceramics, symbols, petroglyphs of extinct animal and human 
subjects, and architecture of ancient South America . . 90 

Ideograms of Koaty and Sampaya Indians of Lake Titicaca, 
Peril 95 



8 LIST OF DIAGRAMS 



PACK 



Letters from the Kounboum "Alphabet Tree' ', Tibet . .118 

Comparative tables of Atlantean-Brazilian, Asoka, Hindu, 
Phoenician (Pauch), Babylonian, Egyptian, Early Greek 
and Karian ideograms, hieroglyphs and letters . 1 19, 120 

Ideograms of Koaty and Sampaya Indians, Lake Titicaca, 
Perti 121, 122 

Comparative tables of unknown South Californian ancient 
race, Maraj6 (Lower Amazon), Egyptian, and ancient 
Chinese 123 

The Lingam and Yoni of ancient Brazil . . . .125 

Comparative tables of symbols, hieroglyphs and ideograms of 
Marajo (Brazil), Egypt, old India, ancient China, and pre- 
Aztecan and Aztec Mecico ..... 125-130 

Petroglyphs, ceramics and statuettes, and symbols of ancient 
North and South America . . , . . .132 

Petroglyphs found in the Aleutians, in 1937, and in North and 
South America 138, 139 

Unknown and ancient inscription at Huari, Peru . . .140 

Unknown alphabetical ( ?) or syllabary signs at Sahpuayacu, 
Peru 141 

Rupestrian engraving found near Arequipa, Peru . .142 

The Zodiac comparative table of ancient symbols . . . 145 

End-paper chart, by Author of this book, of the Great 
Atlantean ( ?) Tunnels of the Andes 



CHAPTER I 

OUR EARTH'S GREATEST DISASTER 

"As above, so below. That which hath been shall return again.'* 

Warning of an Ancient Mystery, 

A FEW months before the outbreak of the Second World War I 
was aboard a steamship sailing from Singapore to San Francisco, 
making her course for Honolulu. The high, cobalt sky of the 
North Pacific had changed to a strange unearthly grey, and the 
barometer had fallen. We were, as the radio warned, some miles 
and an unpleasantly few hours from the vortex of a typhoon. The 
sky seemed to have descended till our mast trucks and the radio 
antennae touched what resembled the lid of a flat box or canopy. 
Below our keel the sea stretched flat and grey. There were no 
waves ; but the waters appeared to drum with the pulsing of a 
heavy ground-swell above one of the deepest abysses of the North 
Pacific. There came a sudden flash of lighting and the reverbera- 
tions of tropical thunder. Then the wind unaccountably died and 
the sea began to rise and heave. A strange thing now happened. 
All over the ship could be felt a singing hum. Our steel hull had 
become a gaint 'cello in the hands of some Titan of a maestro, 
who was playing a sort of fugue of an apocalypse. The waters 
responded somewhat in the way a flat disc will do when sand has 
been laid on it in formless heaps, and the vibration of a fiddle- 
bow causes the particles to take a pattern. 

Looking over the bulwarks, or gazing down from the navigator's 
bridge, passengers and ship's officers saw that the sea had now 
become covered with a vast scum of light grey colour. It was pumice- 
ash from submarine volcanoes erupting in a tremendous convulsion. 
In port, where the captain had divers examine our keel and pro- 
pellers to discover what possible damage the ship had sustained, it 
was found that the steel had been scoured clear and bright from 
marine foulness and barnacles and the blades of the bronze pro- 
pellers burnished till they shone. The tremendous submarine con- 
vulsion had filled the deep ocean craters till the surface of the 
ocean had become one vast detergent and abraded whatever metal 
passed through it that day. Possibly, far down below, there lay, 
many fathoms under the keel of our ship, some of the highlands of 
that drowned continent called Rutas, in the old Sanscrit traditions 
current in the goparams of old Hindostan ; or, as others call it, Mu, 
Lemuria or Gondwanaland. 

But, some ten or twelve thousand years ago when the Great 

9 



IO MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

Deluge of Noah and Ogyges happened, even worse convulsions of 
the shuddering earth and sea stretched right round our globe from 
the Pacific across South America to the shores of Africa, where 
stood that giant pharos called the Pillars of Hercules, right into the 
Mediterranean, till they shook the old Levant and a more ancient 
Greece. In the skies of terrible night shone a giant comet, or aerolite, 
or wandering star, or planet (we do not know which), but which 
brought such destruction on the earth that those who survived the 
disasters regained sanity only slowly, and, in some cases, never. 
(As in that of the lunatic civilisation of the old Aztecs, to which a 
definitely paranoiac twist was given, making murder of bestial 
sort a rite of barbaric religion.) 

Comets, of course, are not identical with aerolites. The comet 
has a tail of deadly and lethal gases, usually too attenuated to 
poison mankind in the manner described by fantaisiste novelists. 
But the comet has also a hard core, or metallic nucleus, enveloped 
by a "coma" that has always, as far back as tradition goes, made 
mankind fear and wonder. It has a luminous course of its own 
and flashes across our skies like a dog with his tail behind him, and, 
past perihelion, may never return, vanishing into infinite space. 
But the aerolite is as a cosmic bull running amok in a china shop. 
What it may do and, luckily for us, we have no record of the 
falling of such gaint lawless bodies, in historic and recorded times, 
on thickly populated lands has been vividly seen between the years 
1908 and 1937, in North Siberia and in Brazil's hardly explored 
forests, where a giant body of this sort laid waste hundreds of miles 
of woods and primaeval jungle and bush, and brought death and 
destruction upon hundreds or thousands of primitive or savage 
people in villages within a radius of hundreds of miles of its 
impact. 

I was on my way to South America to try how far I could verify 
a theory of mine that Atlantis, the famed drowned land, may be 
looked for in the splendid and mysterious ruins of her old colony in 
unexplored Brazil and parts of western South America. In that 
colony, if indications be correct, a very high degree of scientific 
civilisation had been attained more than 20,000, perhaps, even 
6o>poo years ago, in a day when modern archaeologists, who have 
never come within hundreds of miles of these great ruins in the 
South American jungles, too confidently assert that nothing but 
lowest savagery existed, and perhaps not even a vestige of humanity 
was found. 

True, we shall have to verify these theories, not by waiting till 
some iron man of the year A.D. 1960 can dive to the floor of the 
Atlantic, way beyond the modern Canaries and Gape Verde 
Islands, in order to grope along carved pillars and splendid temples, 
clutched in a forest of sea weeds and the Jair of deep or middle sea 



OUR EARTH'S GREATEST DISASTER n 

cephalopoda, or devil-fishes* I think the late Doktor Eckener of the 
exploded Graf %eppelin airship has indicated the way to this know- 
ledge ? or the exploration may be done in one of those giant three or 
four-engined Flying Fortresses and Liberators now used to bomb 
vast cities and munition works, but which, in our new and better 
age to come, may be put to solve the age-old secrets now barred to 
us by dense woods and wild uplands, beset with vile insect plagues, 
and hunger and thirst and legions of fierce unpacifiable savages, 
such as haunt the now deadly and mysterious Brazilian Matto 
Grosso and the unknown hinterland of the Andean cordilleras to the 
east of Bolivia and Peru. Science has much to learn and unlearn, 
and the path of the air-minded may yet rise to stars where, alas, it 
now befouls the whole earth! 

But, to return to the subject of this giant cataclysm, of the day 
when South America was the cradle and beacon of the older 
world's civilisation and the home of a humane and civilised race of 
white men and beautiful women as it actually was. This cataclysm 
is no theory or fantasy of mine. It happened about 9753 B.C., 
according to the long-lost if, indeed, they are not merely buried, 
to be resuscitated in due time archives and libraries of the ancient 
temples of the Pharaohs at Thebes and Sais, on the Nile. It was 
actually witnessed by the remote ancestors of the strange and vanish- 
ing race of dwarfs, called Bushmen, still found today in a palaeo- 
lithic state of culture, wandering in the dreaded Kalahari desert 
of South Africa. 

In this book, I find it necessary to start at the end, rather than 
the beginning; since there are many intelligent people who have 
to be convinced that this cataclysm told in a rather naive and 
garbled form, in Genesis, and certainly no myth actually occurred 
and was no merely local catastrophe of what is now called Iraq. 

Twelve thousand years ago not more than a short hour in the 
long history of our planet the ancestors of the fast-vanishing 
Bushmen dwarfs of the Kalahari desert of South Africa were cower- 
ing in terror behind big boulders or in the darkness of deep caverns 
shrouded by forest and dense jungle. They were watching the 
night skies, in awed fascination or shrinking in fright from the hoarse 
rumbles and cliff-crashing reverberations preceding and accompany- 
ing the most appalling earthquake that has ever shaken and con- 
vulsed our earth. And well might they be afraid ! They were under- 
going the greatest disaster that has ever befallen man since he had 
quitted the monkey trees, straightened his back and become true 
man, homo sapiens. Night and day the ground shook and heaved. 
On the sea coasts, looking eastwards towards a great island-con- 
tinent where dwelt a race of men like gods, who h$d evolved a 
high type of civilisation, terrific tidal waves were rolling in higher 
than the highest hills. They crashed on the beaches with immense 



13 MYSTEfclES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

force and a momentum carrying them very far inland, while 
colossal league-long rollers came on behind. 

Whole countrysides that had never seen the sea were drowned, 
while the waves, like some gigantic bore or eagre, swept up the 
sides of mountains and even drove backward the powerful current 
of deep, wide rivers. Night closed down in terror. There came a 
rain of fire from the heavens, which set ablaze great primaeval 
forests, or cut mile-long swathes in them when the searing wave 
and blast of hot air and gases, preceding the incandescent metallic 
core of the immense meteorites, scorched over the woods, rolling 
up earth as a scroll of the past that had now no meaning or validity. 
As the appalling night wore on the terrifying noises reached a 
truly diabolical crescendo of crashing detonations. It seemed 
as if Titans in the skies were bombarding the earth with a deluge of 
rocks, cleaving earth's skin in order to penetrate to the magma that 
lies deep below. The watchers began to fancy that the heavens 
were drawing nearer the earth, which was behaving very much like 
a planet that has been forced out of her orbit under great stresses 
and gravitational pulls from without. 

Game day, or a slight lessening of the nocturnal blackness, and 
the light of the sun appeared to have gone out like a candle blown 
out on an altar. For many days, indeed, night and day could hardly 
be told apart. A great pall of black smoke covered the vault. No light 
pierced the blackness, unless the vivid, eye-ball-searing blaze of 
lightning of an electric glare never seen before even in that sub- 
tropical country, or the white flare of the sudden fall of an aerolite. 
At times, when the pall of smoke showed a rent in its veil, the sun 
hung like a ball of blood, but the penumbra soon darkened all the 
air, as in time of eclipse. Then, an immense cloud of reddish powder 
filled the air, and to the terrified Bushmen it looked as if the whole 
world were now going to blaze up. The powder was followed by a 
rain of fine cinders which covered the trees still left in the de- 
vastated forests and blanketed the vegetation, with white. 

Now, the watchers and listeners cohered on the earth in the 
heart-sickening fear of a man who hears the shriek and whistle of a 
falling high-explosive bomb deepening its pitch, before it crashes near 
to where he lies. . . . The air was pierced by an ear-shattering 
shriek then another, and another, and another. Four tremendous 
explosions made the ground tremble. Men clinging to trees on the 
tops of hills were thrown to the earth. Four enormous white-hot 
globes had fallen from the sky into the forest behind the screen of 
trees. The river that flowed near by became a cloud of hissing steam 
which rose into the air of the night and increased the already terrible 
heat engendered by the flames, springing up from the mass of com- 
pressed air, glowing white-hot and incandescent, that is borne in 
front of aerolites. 



OUR EARTHS GREATEST DISASTER 13 

Scenes like this were witnessed on a great belt all round our 
globe, stretching from isles of Java and Malaysia, right across the 
Pacific *to the Andes of South America and the high sierras of old 
Mexico and the Antillean islands of the Caribbean, on over the 
South and North Atlantic to the shores of North Africa and the 
greater Mediterranean basin. They were seen, too, in Northern, 
but not Central Asia. 

One Bushman, more daring than any other of his cowering clan, 
ventured out from his "air-raid" shelter into the night in a lull of 
the cosmic bombardment, when the pall of smoke had partly 
cleared, and saw, as he said, two moons riding in the sky, where 
before there had been no moon ! Far out over the ocean, raging in 
a tumult never before seen by man, a whole vast island-continent 
in the South Atlantic had vanished, and a highly civilised people in 
millions whose pioneers had contacted the Bushmen had been 
swallowed up in an abyss which engulfed great palaces and temples 
and high towers in the depths of the sea. This is a "legend" told 
among the South African Bushmen even to this day ! 

(Lest the reader suppose that this is a fantasy of my invention 
I may point out that the Herreros, or Ova-hereros, a turbulent 
Bantu people of former German South- West Africa, have an 
ancient tradition that after a great deluge two white men arrived 
among them, as their (Ova-herero) ancestors were refuging on 
mountain- tops. They add that these white people became the an- 
cestors of the black Ova-hereros, which doubtless means that the 
strangers acted the part of apostles of a civilisation from a vanished 
continent. The Bushmen of die Kalahari are, of course, neighbours 
of the Ova-hereros. Also, the Namaqua Hottentots, in the west of 
Cape Colony, report the arrival of what they call a "swimming- 
house", or Noah's Ark, very long ages ago, aboard which were 
men and cattle. These men settled in the country and among them 
was one Heitsi-Eibib, a pioneer of culture who, says an ancient 
tradition, "came from the east", which may or may not denote an 
Atlantean colony of the Old World. In the Sahara desert are 
races with traditions of an appalling convulsion which created the 
Sahara, and also destroyed vestiges of a very ancient civilisation). 

Then torrents of rain, lasting many days forty, says the story 
in the Hebrew book of Genesis fell hissing on the hot earth. 
Across the raging ocean, in far-away Brazil, to the west, aboriginal 
Indians who had taken refuge on the summits of the Serra do Mar, 
the eastern coastal range of old Brazil, said there were great and 
terrible rumblings, both above and below ground. The sun and 
stars turned red, blue and yellow, and wild beasts mingled fearlessly 
with men. "A whole month passed and our forefathers heard a 
roar and saw darkness ascending from the earth to the sky, while 
thunder rolled terrifyingly and great rain in spouts blotted out the 



14 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

earth, and made day night. * . . People fled to the trees for refuge 
against the rising waters, and many died of hunger and cold as 
they hung perched on the highest boughs." (Vide p. 18.) 

"Human nature was never lost, even in the days when the 
world perished," says an Aztec Codex Letellier "and so the ancients 
celebrated their feast (called Pilquixta) of the renewal of the human 
race. . . . 

"Every four years the ancients (in Mexico and Central 
America) added another eight days in memory of the three occas- 
ions that the world perished and so they call it on these occasions, 
sefior, because although this was lost, that did not perish. They call 
it the Feast of Renewal, and so they say that that fast and feast 
having concluded, men changed their bodies like children, 
and thus, in order to represent this feast in the dance, men sym- 
bolically led children by the hand." (Translated from the 
Codex Letellier.) 

It is remarkable that in far-away Egypt of the Pharaohs there 
was in the great hall of the temple of Rameses at Karnak (Thebes) 
by the Nile, a picture, col. 8, with legend of a feast of renewal cele- 
brating and mourning the loss of a drowned continent in the Western Ocean. 
In those days of the Pyramids, it cannot be suggested that ancient 
Mexicans cut or painted such a picture on the walls or pillars of the 
temple of ancient Karnak, more than 6,400 miles away. 

The ancient Mexicans recorded three great catastrophes, of 
which the third was the supreme disaster. They were caused, say 
their traditions, by volcanic fires, tidal waters and hurricanes. 
They participated together, say the ancient Mexican traditions, in 
shaking the earth at various times. Each catastrophe was followed 
by an era of ruin, and the destruction of the human race. Men 
climbed trees, ran everywhere in their terror, crowding and pushing 
together, embarked in ships, hid themselves in caves, got on moun- 
tain-tops. The few survivors were so far dispersed that they thought 
they were alone in the world. Every four years & fiesta was held in 
Central America, wherein ancient princes and peoples prostrated 
themselves before the gods, praying tor no return of these calamities. 
Dances and feasts celebrated the escape of the survivors. 

The Codex Chimalpopoca speaks of a 

"rain of fire, which followed the c sun of rain'. All that 
existed burned and there fell a rain of rocks and sandstone". 

The same Codex Chimalpopoca, containing the history of the king- 
doms of Gulhuacan and Mexico from "creation downwards", tells 
us also; 



OUR EARTH'S GREATEST DISASTER 15 

"The sky drew near the water and, in a single day, all was 
lost The mountains themselves sank under wafer, but the 
water remained calm for fifty-two springs. At the end of the 
year, Nata and his wife Nena escaped in a hollow cypress 
tree, when the waters had drawn near the sky. . . . 

"It is said that the rocks that we see, actually, today, were 
spread all over the land, and that the tetzontli boiled and bubbled 
with a great noise, and that then there also rose up rocks of 
vermilion colour. There were two repetitions of these terrible 
celestial disturbances, which followed periods when the darkness 
covered the face of the earth. One period lasted even unto 
twenty-five years. . . ." 



This volcanic rock tetzontli is a rock known to geologists 
as "porous amygdaloid". It was used to build most of the houses 
in Mexico City. Bustamente, the historian, who commented on the 
Mexican history of Padre Bernard Sahagun, says that little volcanoes 
surrounding the valley of Mexico to the south-east formed the 
tetzontti. Native Indian traditions say that this lava-bed spread as 
far as Acapulco, on the Pacific. 

Another Aztec codex has a picture of the Great Catastrophe : 

"Now, it was in the year Ce Tecpatl, which meaneth 'Flint', on 
the day Nahui-Qyiahuitl (which signifieth Tour Rains'), that 
men were lost and carried away to destruction in a rain of 
fire, and were changed into birds. The sun was even burnt and 
all was consumed with the houses . . . and all the lords perished." 

Reminders of this rain of fire are seen near Mexico City, in the 
great lava-bed, Pedregal de San Augustin. Under the bed are 
ancient houses and ancient pottery. 

The Qiiich (Guatemala) "legends", in the book of Popul 
y paint a vivid picture of men lost in terrible floods and rising 
waters . . . 

"There came a great flood, followed by a thick rain of 
bitumen and resin, when men ran, here and there, in despair and 
madness. They tried, beside themselves with terror, to climb on 
the roofs of houses, which crumbled and threw them to the 
ground. Trees they tried to ascend, which threw them far away. 
They sought to enter caves and grottoes and immediately they 
were shut in from the exterior. The earth darkened and it rained 
night and day. Thus was accomplished the ruin of the race of 
man which was given up to destruction." 

The effect on the survivors, rendered insane by such frightful 
phenomena which naturally followed on the violent disturbance of 



l6 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

the earth's orbit and the setting-up of an appalling centrifugal 
force which drove our planet farther from the sun, is possibly sug- 
gested in the curious myth of the Popul Vuh : 

"The creators preserved a small number in memory of man- 
kind, of men of wood. . . . These are the little monkeys which 
today live in the woods. . . ." 

Some of the Mexican myths repeat, in a different form, what is 
said of pre-diluvian men and of the later eruption that destroyed 
Sodom and Gomorrah, and the Biblical cities of the plain : 

"They who came from the east beyond the sea could not 
cause the savages of the land to work or worship, and so there 
came a great deluge." 

This is a remarkable reference to the coming of the civilised 
Atlanteans of old Brazilian Atlantis : the men in black, missioners, 
law-givers, teachers, such as the men, Quetzalcoatl, to Central 
America; Bochicha, to old Colombia; Manco Capac and Vira- 
cocha to old Per 6. 

The Washoan Indians a small tribe on the eastern slopes 
of the Sierra Nevada who speak a language quite different from 
other California Indians have traditions about foreign invaders 
landing from the sea, and making them into helots. This happened 
long ago. (Later in this book we shall refer to similar prehistoric 
invasions of the South American west coast.) These invaders would 
appear to have been survivors from some great cataclysm; for, 
says the myth, they made the ancestors of the Washoans pile up 
stones for a great temple whereon these "great lords might take 
refuge". It also appears that a great deluge rushed in from the sea, 
before this temple or Babel-Tower had been erected, and drowned 
many of the Washoans and their conquerors. A pharos (fire) burnt 
night and day on top of this high tower. Then came a great heav- 
ing of the earth and a second cataclysm which submerged the 
Babel-Tower and drowned the lords who had fled to it. Only the 
top'of this great erection remained above the waters. Another curious 
variant of the same myth says that the Lord of the Universe flung 
the men who survived the cataclysm on to the summit of a temple- 
pyramid far away, "as if they were but pebbles". 

The Piman, or Papagos Indians of Arizona and Sonora, Mexico, 
say that a great or divine man, whom they call Montezuma, 
escaped from some great drowned land beyond the sea and arrived 
in a ship or ark on the mainland of ancient North America. Some 
time passed and he built a refuge tower to reach the skies, whett 
thunders from the god of cataclysm destroyed the partly built tower 



OUR EARTH ' S ORE ATEST DISASTER 17 

and the sun vanished into heaven along with the Great Spirit, 
which, of course, may be rationalised as an eclipse, 

The west coast Okinagan (Salishan) Indians, now in British 
Columbia and the Colville Reservation in Washington, U.S.A,, 
have a tradition that, ages ago, when the sun which may mean 
the satellite that was to become our present Moon was no bigger 
than a star, a female semi-divinity of a race of nephilim the giants 
or demi-gods mentioned in Gen. vi, 4, and Num. xiii, 33, R.V. t 
translated "giants", in the A.V. known as Scomalt, reigned over 
a large island where her subjects rebelled. She drove them all into 
a corner, broke off that corner and sank it and them into the sea. 
(This sounds like a version of the catastrophe that befell the 
Atlantis of the Plato-Solon story). Again, the Kutchins or Loucheux 
Indians, an Athabascan Indian tribe of Central Alaska and North 
West British America, speak of a great flood and the coming of a 
divine or godlike man a culture hero, common in ancient myths 
who came to them from the Moon and went back there after 
he had imparted to their ancestors elements of culture. 

Nor did other aboriginal Indians of far North America, British 
Columbia and Alaska escape the catastrophe. The remote an- 
cestors of the Taimshans of the region of Queen Charlotte Island, 
British Columbia, say that, before the catastrophe and the terrible 
deluge, "the earth was not as it now is: for there were neither 
mountains nor trees". 

In Alaska, the forefathers of the Tlingits took to their canoes, 
which were ultimately stranded on the sides of high mountains. 
Bears and wolves swam off to board the boats and were driven back 
by clubs and spears. Then comes the story of a curious spectacle 
witnessed by these ancient Indians, 12,000 or more years ago: 

"Our folk landed right on the mountain- top and set to and 
erected walls of great height to keep out the rising water.*" 
Here, they docked their boats, and watched floating past great 
trees torn up by the roots, and monstrous devil-fish and other 
strange and terrible creatures of the land and sea swam and 
floated past, dead or alive or dying. . . . When the tide went 
out it tore past like a mill-race . . ." 

In the region of the Upper Maranon, or Amazon, the ancient 
Indians were terrified by a deluge of hot and steaming water which 
poured down on the earth, burning and scalding it all up, and 
destroying the great forests. "On earth all was dark as night for 
many moons. The sun was completely hidden for days." 

The Coroados, or tonsured Indians, also called the Kainganags, 
who live in the country of the Rio Grande do Sul (South Brazil), have 
the tradition of a great flood that covered the whole earth inhabited 

B 



l8 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

by their forefathers. Only the top of the coastal range of the Serra do 
Mar the eastern coastal range of Brazil remained above water. 
The Ipurina, of the Rio Purus, Upper Amazon territory, tell of a 
deluge of hot water , . . apparently too hot to bring fried fish ! 
This scalding liquid poured down on earth, burning all up, includ- 
ing the forests. On earth all was dark as night, and the sun and 
moon hidden. Other tribes in the same region of the Amazon the 
Parrarys and Abederys, and Kataushys tell a vivid story of 
catastrophe, identical with that of Eastern Brazil, supra : 

"Once on a time, folk heard a great rumbling above and 
below ground. The sun and moon turned red, blue and yellow, 
and the wild beasts mingled fearlessly with men. A month 
passed and our forefathers heard a roar and saw darkness 
ascending from the earth to the sky, accompanied by thunder 
and heavy rain which blotted out the earth and made day into 
night. Some people lost themselves ; others died without know- 
ing why things were in so dreadful a state of confusion. The 
waters rose very high, till the earth was sunk beneath them, and 
only the branches of the highest trees stood out above the 
flood. Thither people fled for refuge and perched high among the 
boughs. They died of cold and hunger, and only Uassu and his 
wife were saved. When they came down from the height they 
found not a single corpse or even a heap of bleached bones." 

Out in the Arctic sea, off Northern Siberia, are now desolate 
islands with a vegetation of only stunted bushes and the hardiest 
mosses. Before the Great Catastrophe these tundra islands were 
merely mountain-tops rising over a warm and lush country^ where 
great monsters, such as mammoths and mastodons, ranged round 
feeding on the luxuriant grasses and vegetation of warm pasture- 
grounds. Then, raging, rising floods drove vast herds of these 
monsters on to the high grounds where they were trying vainly to 
seek safety. But salvation there was none! They died by thousands, 
of cold and starvation, bogged to the necks in marshes, where, 
today, these huge beasts are found complete in carcases, even to the 
hide ^nd hair. It is obvious that they were refrigerated before their. 
bodies could decompose. . . . Signs of thick sediments around show 
that a great and widespread flood came roaring on them from the 
southwards. 

The same thing happened on the slopes of Andean ranges far 
lower than today. At almost the same height as are now the ruins of 
mysterious Tiahuanacu*, the city of the dead, 12,000 feet up on a 
Ueak paramo, at the elevation of Lake Titicaca, Peru, you can 

* It is, of course, possible that two epochs and two widely sundered peoples were the 
victims of these cataclysms on the site of Tiahuanacu. 



OUR EARTH'S GREATEST DISASTER 19 

today see, in a great plain near Bogotd, the capital city of modern 
Colombia, South America, what are called "the Giants* Fields". 
Th& strange flat is heaped with fossilised and petrified bones of 
mastodons, overtaken by sudden catastrophe, which withered 
their pasture-grounds, then near the sea and warm and lush. They 
too died of cold and starvation and also of rarefaction of the air, 
wherein they could not breathe. For their death was accompanied 
by an appalling and sudden rising of their old plains right into the 
clouds, more than two miles high! That brings us to the strange 
fate of highly civilised Tiahuanacu and its astonishing megalithic 
ruins, then located, like the pasture-grounds of the mastodons, 
close to the shores of the Pacific. (Or it might, even ages before, have 
been submerged under the waters of the ocean !) 

That was a civilisation of a reddish-skinned race, with some 
subjects who had, in some cases, prognathic features projecting 
jaws and black skins, as objects of pottery and terra-cotta ware, 
dug up from under the ruins, show. So far back is their time, that 
the images found in the alluvium are fossilised and petrified. . . . 
So suddenly came disaster on them that none but men who were 
engaged on duties in ancient mines in the mountains not then so 
high as the modern cordilleras and paramos of the Andes could 
have escaped the cataclysm. And even so, the appalling raising of 
the Andes, which certainly followed the great deluge and flooding 
in of the sea over the land, and upheaved Tiahuanacu and the 
nearby Lake Titicaca, more than two miles into the clouds and 
rarefied air, very likely exterminated most or all of the survivors. 

Says the most ancient legend current among the modern 
Aymara Indians of Bolivia Perti: 

"After a long night there dawned, standing upright to the 
eyes of our forefathers, the great ruins you now see.** 

More than 11,000 years later came the gold-hungry conquista- 
dores of Don Francisco Pizarro, who smashed the giant monoliths 
of ancient Tiahuanacu in order to get out the great silver bolts 
which riveted the 2OO-ton stones, the silver itself in each bolt weighing 
half a ton ! They also smashed up many fine and very ancient 
statues of men, women with babes in their arms, "so real they 
seemed alive", youths and fair maidens, sitting or standing in an 
ancient colonnade by a stream once flowing under the great 
walls. 

Nor was this the only highly civilised, now dead city to vanish 
as a dream in the night on these ancient shores of South America, 
when megalithic Tiahuanacu fell. When I was at Santa F6 de 
Bogotd, in Colombia, just before the present World War, I met on* 
Sefior Mufioz, a haciendero who owns an estate on the seashore not 



SO MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

far from Guayaquil, Ecuador. He set a diver to fish up statuettes 
from a drowned and very ancient city lying under water just off 
shore. (The age of this ancient civilisation is not known.) The diver 
came up with artistic statuettes of men and of women whose hair 
was dressed in very Egyptian fashion ! They had the same curiously 
long slanted eyes as you find in frescoes in the tombs of the Pharaohs. 
On their breasts were jewels carved in stone. The dead and ancient 
civilisation must have been, even then, very, very old ; for some of 
the statuettes are pornographic a sign that the makers are of a 
race that has lapsed from a higher state of culture. 

As said Mufioz to me : "Sefior Wilkins, it may amaze you to 
hear that every race in the world is represented in these statuettes, 
so incredibly ancient, found under water by my diver. There are 
Aryans, Semites, Caucasians, and even a race remarkably like 
the modern Japanese ! The race had seals like prisms, covered with 
hieroglyphs. Also, I have found ancient convex lenses, under water, 
there, and also reflectors. They were made of obsidian. . . . They 
must have been scientific opticians, even astronomers." 

Maybe, the drowned race, like their highly civilised con- 
temporaries the Tiahuanacuans, were ancient American colonists 
from the vast, sunken, highly civilised continent of the mid-Pacific, 
called Rutas, in the pagoda traditions of old Hindostan, and which, 
they say, was disrupted by a series of terrific earthquakes and a 
deluge, sinking it far under the ocean, in a day, "before the Hima- 
layas existed". 

Sir James Jeans, F.R.S., the British physicist and astronomer, 
tells us that, about 2,000 million years ago, a rare event happened 
in our universe. A second star, unmoored, so to speak, came near the 
vast incandescent and gaseous mass that was our proto-sun. At 
perihelion, the pull of the star raised a huge tidal wave of glowing 
gas on a zone of the sun. So terrific the pressure became, that the 
sun threw off fragments of itself that ever since have been circulating 
as planets round our Sun. Modern evolutionists and scientists say 
such an event has happened only once in our universe and this 
may be true in relation to the sun. But a modern scientific associ- 
ation meeting in Vienna, some years ago, calculated that, in 
9684 B.., our earth, spinning at the poles, sustained a collison with 
the head of a tremendous comet. The terrible impact caused the 
earth a spinning top or freely rotating gyroscope to lurch and 
tilt violently at the axis. Followed a revolutionary change in world- 
climate from lush, steamy warmth of a tropical forest, or marsh, 
to the intense cold of the ice ages, with glaciers covering the north 
and farther south hemispheres. 

In polar Spitzbergen, for example, you find under the present 
frozen surface of the beaches successive layers of fossilised plants, 
ranging over the whole gamut from the tropical and equatorial 



OUR EARTH S GREATEST DISASTER 1 

to the temperate and arctic. It is difficult to suggest an explanation 
unless you visualise our earth, tilted at the poles, under the impact 
of sotne body from outer space and slowly swinging through an arc 
of ninety degrees, so that equator and poles change place I 

According to another extremely ancient tradition, about 
9700 B.C. this date, as I said, is based on evidence once existing 
(in the time of Solon, the legislator of Hellenic Athens) in the 
temple archives of the old Egyptian temples of Heliopolis and Sais, 
or Thais, on the Nile a great comet approached the earth. Per- 
haps it may have been Halley's, which makes its periodic appearance 
every seventy-six years in our skies, heading towards the sun. 
Certain astronomic calculations appear to import as much, though 
none can say with certainty. More likely, it may have been some 
great, stellar body of a lost or dead world, from outside the galaxy 
of our own Milky Way of an "island-universe", which approached 
our sun on a parabolic, or hyperbolic course, and, having caused 
a grave catastrophe to our earth, vanished, never again to reappear. 
Or it may have been our present, dead Moon ! 

On earth, the times were disturbingly like the present. Dis- 
harmony and disunity reigned over the planet. Live and let live 
was an outmoded and despised principle. There was a great world 
war raging. Psenophis, the old priest of Heliopolis, showed the secret 
temple archives, concerning the story of this forgotten and ancient 
world war, to Solon, the Greek, visiting the Nile about 573 B.C. 
The old Egyptian priest said the catastrophe happened 9,000 years 
before. A race of militarists had sailed out of the Atlantic and in- 
vaded all Western Europe and Northern Africa, as far as Libya's 
deserts. They had a large navy and army. Paying no heed to any 
nations desiring, in that far-off day, to remain neutral, they over- 
ran every country between Gibraltar and the moderij Levant, 
till they finally confronted one army alone : That of an ancient 
Attican race of probable Pelasgian origin. These ancient men of a 
forlorn hope of freedom stood in much the same position as did 
Britain, in 1940, at bay behind her moat, and defying the armies of 
Hitler, who had also overrun most of Europe. 

"The earth was corrupt and full of violence . . . the wickedness 
of man was very great in the earth . . . every imagination of his 
heart was only evil continually." (So Genesis, drawing on some 
extremely ancient, pre-Babylonian source, long lost.) 

Militarism and rage for conquest had made a hell both of 
Atlantis and, according to the old Sansar legends, of the land in the 
Pacific called Rutas (Lemuria), where black and yellow races 
struggled perpetually. Aelianus Glaudus, the Roman rhetor, who 
died A.D. 410, cites a very curious story about conditions in Atlantis 
prior to the great cataclysm. It is taken from a vanished book of 
the great Greek historian Theopompus, who flourished at Chios, 



22 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

in 354 B.C. Only a few fragments of the histories of Theopompus 
have survived, and in one of them there is a very curious talk 
between a certain Silenus and Midas. (I give my own translation 
from the Latin) : 

"Europe and Asia and Libya (Africa), islands, are girdled 
by the ocean. Beyond them are continents of infinite size, 
which support great animals, and men double our size, and span 
of years. In the same are great cities, with laws and customs of a 
life wholly different from ours . . . this land possesses great 
quantities of gold and silver, which are reckoned by these 
people as of less value than iron is with us. ... Among these 
cities are two greater than the rest : one named Machimus, the 
other Eusebius. They are quite unlike. Machimus is warlike; 
Eusebius is pious and peace-loving. The peace-loving people reap 
the fruits of the earth without plows, or oxen. They have no 
need to sow or till. As he said, they live free from sickness and 
die laughing, and with great pleasure. They are so exactly 
just that the gods many times vouchsafe to converse with them. 
The other inhabitants are continually armed and fighting, and 
subdue their neighbours. Sometimes, they die of sickness, but 
this rarely happens. Most commonly they are killed in war, by 
stones or wood; for they are invulnerable to steel. ..." 

There follows a story of a great invasion of Europe by the war- 
like race of this Atlantean continent, and two people, named Mar- 
cellin and Avienus, make statements about this great island-con- 
tinent. 

Says Marcellin : 

"In the Atlantic sea, in the European sphere, is a more 
worthy island." 

He is capped by Avienus, who seems to refer to America \ 

"Fruitful in the ocean stretch lands, and beyond, backwards, 
other m shores stretch to another world. ..." 

This battle of Atlantean warriors and "old Greeks" figured on 
a peplos, or embroidered robe, which used to be carried round, in 
Plato's own day, in the harbour streets of Athens, at a festival of the 
goddess Athena. One old Greek writer, named Grantor, who lived 
in 310 B.C., says he actually was shown pillars, in a temple by the 
Nile, where the Egyptian priests said there was pictured, in hiero- 
glyphics, the history of the drowned continent of Atlantis. 

Naturally, however, had the pre-Diluvian-age man been good 



OUR EARTH'S GREATEST DISASTER 23 

or evil, man of a golden age or necromancer of a race of half-demons, 
he could not have prevented the impact of that wandering, cosmic 
body from outer space. "What had to be had to be"; for, as the 
Greeks themselves said, not the gods on the high hill of violet- 
crowned Olympus can deflect by a hair the decrees of death and 
destiny. 

It may be, as Mr. H. G. Wells contends, that history never re- 
peats herself in an infinitely varied and incessant universe; but, on 
this occasion, at least, as old Lord Palmerston might have said, she 
"came damned near it". 

Suddenly, without warning, as the two embattled armies con- 
fronted each other, there came, as the ancient Egyptian records 
said: 

. . . "violent earthquakes and floods, and, in a single night 
and day of misfortune, all the warlike men in a body sank into 
the ground, and the island of Atlantis . . . disappeared* into the 
depths of the sea." 

The old priest Psonchis, of the Egyptian temple of Thais (or 
Sais), made a further remarkable statement : 

"There was a rain of fire from the skies . . . caused by a 
declination of astronomical bodies moving round the sun and 
in the heavens. The great conflagration recurs at long intervals 
. . . and those who live on high mountains and lofty places are 
more liable to destruction than people by rivers or seashore . . .* J< f 

He also spoke of a boundless continent beyond the submerged 
island continent, which can be nothing but North and South 
America, 

Here, as evidence in the shape of amazing ruins of dead cities 
in the jungles and on the unexplored plateau between Goyaz and 
the Rio Roosevelt of modern Brazil today attests to those who 
have seen them there lived between 15,000 and 10,000 B.C., 
perhaps even earlier, a highly civilised race of handsome, intellectual 
men and beautiful women with classic Greek features, and often 
bright red hair like that of Berenice. (But they were not Greek in 
origin, nor any colony from old Greece.) They lived in walled 
cities walled not against savages, but the mighty gulf of the 
Marafion, the older name of the Amazon. They had a gold coinage, 
fleets, cities of shining white stone, with magnificent plazas, paved 
with great flags, and exquisitely ornamented temples and great 

*Vide Plato's Dialogues of Critias and Timaeus, apparently quoting Solon, or traditions 
in Solon's family to whom Plato belonged. It is Plutarch who names the old 
priests as Solon's instructors. 



24 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

mansions, with fine fountains. Their coasts were lit by pharos or 
lighthouses, for mariners. Lenses they had invented, and reflectors 
they knew which are the elements of the astronomical telescope. 
They built peculiar pyramids, rounded at the tops, and their ruins 
seen still, today, deep in the jungle, for this is no fantasy of a lost 
world of fiction bear many letters identical with those of the 
Phoenician and Greek alphabet, as well as other forms of bizarre 
and more archaic shape. Native traditions say they used a light 
which seems akin to that of the electric bulb. 

It is probable that their priest-astronomers had been perturbed 
by the increasing frequency of violent earthquakes such as we, in 
our modern world, have witnessed between A.D. 1938 and A.D. 1944. 
They had kept a keen watch on the skies, night and day, and 
sensed the approach of some cosmic disaster. Before this happened, 
this mysterious race of Hy-Brazil* of prehistoric South America 
sent forth bearded men in black, of gentle mien and high culture, 
to civilise the savages and barbaric races of Central America and 
the highlands of the Andes and Colombia. There is good reason to 
suppose that the race, like the Carthaginians, hoped to find out 
some more stable countries, to which they might flee from the 
wrath they foresaw was at hand. One of these pioneers was named 
Qjietzalcoatl, another, Bochicha and a third, Viracocha. They 
were sun- worshippers. There was no temple to a moon. Head-dresses 
of this amazing South American race of the pre-deluge are found, 
today > on totem poles in British Columbia, and these Indians have a 
garbled version of the name Qiietzalcoatl, associated with a legend 
of an appalling deluge and great catastrophe that shook tiie earth. 
They said he and his brother travelled round, working wonders 
and were magicians of a powerful sort. All were in black robes or 
tunics. 

Probably, over the land-bridge linking Brazil with Atlantis, 
the motherland, and North- West Africa and Europe, the same 
Atlantean men in black travelled the vast way to Asia, bearing the 
same warnings and carrying out the same civilising mission. Says a 
Burmese tradition : 



luxury prevails, fire consumes the world and water 
washes it away. A thousand years before the destruction of the 
world a certain Nat came from the superior abodes. His hair was 
dishevelled, his face sad, his garments were black. He goes every- 
where through the public ways and streets, with mournful voice, 
warning men of the approaching cataclysm. " (Burma: Asiatic 
Researches, Vol. VI, pp. 172-244.) 

*Hy or Royal Brazil is the name given in the Old Irish legends to a lost * olden world. 
As stated elsewhere in this book, the old Irish, nearest to the Keltic root-stock, maintained 

, and in the Cordilleras 



of the Argentine, today, there is actually an Indian tribe speaking Erse\ AUTHOR. 



OUR EARTHS GREATEST DISASTER 85 

It may be more than a coincidence that the name Nat, in the 
form of Nata, is that borne by another Atlantean missioner, who is 
the Noah in the Mexican Codex Chimalpopoca version of the Great 
Catastrophe. (Vide pages 14-15 supra.} 

Then came the Great Catastrophe which annihilated this strange 
and mysterious civilisation of old Hy-Brazil, the royal colony or 
empire of Atlantis. 

The day of the world's judgment was also about to fall on a 
strange island with a mausoleum* and temple where mighty rulers 
and warriors with Caucasian features met in a sort of Valhalla with 
the spirits of their dead. This eerie island, on which hardened 
travellers of today, who are sceptical of most things under the moon, 
say rests an aura or spirit of ancient evil, we know as Easter Island. 
It lies 2,000 miles westwards into the eye of the sunset's fires from 
the South American coast and the other mighty civilisation repre- 
sented by Tiahuanacu, the mysterious. Here all round were tall 
cliffs on the top of which ancient but very skilful architects and 
engineers had designed and erected a colossal platform made of 
megalithic stones, laid beautifully together without the bond of 
any cement or mortar. The imperious race who made this strange 
island-mausoleum were like the Egyptians of the old Pharoahs : they 
conscripted, for the work of raising these mighty stone blocks into 
position, slave-labour. 

Right round the towering cliffs stretched these gallery-platforms. 
They rise tier above tier, terrace on terrace. Each terrace, at dignified 
intervals, was occupied by the towering figures of colossal men in 
stone gazing in calm disdain, or frowning menace inland and not 
out to sea where lay the Fatherland of their great Southern Sea 
Empire. A queer "red top-hat" beetled over the great brows of 
each colossal man. One figure is thirty feet high and so huge and 
spreading that thirty of the English sailors of Captain Cook's day 
easily dined in the shadow of its form, at noon ! 

The "wrinkled lip and sneer of cold command" on the faces of 
these imperious colossi seems to menace anyone approaching the 
great amphitheatre from inland. Behind the grand platforms of 
cyclopean blocks the thunder of the great Pacific surges crashes on 
the beach, while the rude bourdon of the music of the South Pacific 
winds roars like an organ above the heads of these Ozymandiases, 
kings of kings. There are no fewer than 550 of these tremendous 
images of martial men and rulers, mostly without feet. Almost 
every face is arrogant and masterful men of a race of world-con- 

* But so obscure is the chronology that the cataclysm which destroyed the great Pacific 
empire, of which Easter Island may have been an island-outpost, might have occurred 
many thousands of years before the /fy-Brazilian-Atlantean disaster, and contemporaneously 
with the cataclysm which, if it did not raise Tiahuanacu from the bed of the ocean into the 
clouds, two or four miles above, assuredly, on geological evidence alone, raised it two miles 
into the sky from the sea-shore of old South America! AUTHOR. 



26 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

qucring imperialists and militarists. Yet every face is different and 
individual. Indeed, it is obvious that they are portrait faces of 
actual human beings, and not gods or nephilim. A few have a merci- 
ful, or contemplative look philosophers, or physicians, or teachers, 
or sages but in nearly all the jaw is big, and the chin juts out like 
a rock. 

This island is a Valhalla-graveyard of very strange sort. The 
master-race does not live in it. No; their empire island-continent 
lies far over the Pacific, and the slaves and skilled craftsmen of the 
corvee, along with their task-masters and the supervising engineers 
and architects, and the priests of the Valhalla-temples down the 
majestic causeway, inland, are fed, clothed, munitioned and 
supplied by food-ships arriving periodically from the Fatherland. 

Inland from the giant megalithic platform goes a tramway, 
supported on bags of leather-hide which are inflated, to act as ties 
or sleepers, as the British call them, to the "railroad" track. Down 
this tramway come those giant red toppers made of red tufa from a 
volcanic crater, inland, to be fitted on to the brows of the colossal 
images, on the sea cliffs, on which the crimson top-hats are wedged 
with white stones ! Arriving at the feet of the images (represented 
stylistically at the end of the great trunk), the toppers are rolled up 
an inclined ramp, where slaves have the job of fitting them on the 
cyclopean heads. 

Four splendid stone causeways radiate inland from the plat- 
forms. They are magnificently paved, and lined at intervals with 
splendidly carved statues of men. They pass on to an open plaza of 
great extent where towers up into the sky a domed temple, many- 
sided and polygonal, with statues at every angle of the building. 
The sign of the female vulva on some of the stones suggests that a 
form of the oldest worship on earth is carried on by this strange 
race : that of reproduction, of which this is one of the phallic sym- 
bols. But another symbol, a circle, sometimes cleft with a rod, and 
on some of the images themselves engraved in series on the necks or 
backs, imports that they also worshipped the sun; perhaps, an 
emblem of a central mystic sun : the unrevealed God. 

Close by the cyclopean cliff-platforms are seen queer half- 
pyranjids, with rounded tops ; but another even more amazing thing 
is seen carved on the walls of strange catacombs hidden in the cliffs, 
and whose pedestal stones were, with great difficulty, found 12,000 
years later by American "gobs" of the U.S.S. Mohican. It took them 
two days' hard work to force a way into these hidden catacombs. 
They discovered niches with human remains in them and, on the 
walls, frescoes or carvings of a queer animal of prehistoric sort, which 
has a cafs head and the curved form of a man with a bent back and long thin 
arms. Zoology and geology know of no such prehistoric monster; but 
it was also found on pieces of very ancient pottery dug up on the 



OUR EARTH'S GREATEST DISASTER 27 

shores of South Peru by U.S. Paymaster Thomson who, in Easter 
Island, directed the opening of the cunningly sealed and hidden 
catacoftib. Nothing could more graphically testify to the great age of 
this unknown race. 

The menacing stare of these cold-lipped, stern-eyed colossi 
of the cliff-platforms must have played some mysterious, if not 
sinister part in whatever queer or occult rites, or ancestor-cults 
were celebrated in this island graveyard. Else, why do they gaze inland 
and not out to sea? 

, A woman's cyclopean statue has also been found, lying face 
downwards in a crater of the island. It was the last to be set up. 
But mostly they are of men with oval faces, great eyes and a short 
upper lip. 

Drawings in the rocks suggest that the race sailed three-masted 
ships, and knew of four-footed birds. In some cases, they have ears 
with enormous lobes, singularly reminding us of the Orejones, or 
long-eared warriors of the old Incas of Peru. How they moved these 
mammoth blocks of stone, many tons in weight, often twenty feet 
thick at the base and fifteen feet high, is still a problem unsolved 
except for the suggestion of the ancient tramway. The foundation 
stones of the colossal platform are of such hard basalt that even 
modern tools, with specially tough alloys, would be blunted. 

One day, while the slaves and slave-artisans, under the eyes of 
their taskmasters, were putting the finishing touches to a number of 
heads of great figures lying in a vast quarry-crater of a workshop 
to which the avenues lead from the cliff-platforms there are 500 
colossal human heads in carved stone lying on the sides of this great 
amphitheatre, and more or less covered in grass or bush, today 
a stern-faced supervisor, cracking a hide-whip, had just stepped for- 
ward to flog the back of a craftsman who had been detected scamping 
the work on the back of one of the images, where he believed it 
would not be noticed. While the crack of the heavy thong still re- 
sounded in the hot air of a windless day, a black cloud seemed sud- 
denly to cover the face of the sun. It spread very rapidly to the 
horizon. The ground heaved violently in tremendous tremors 
that lasted many minutes. The whole island shook to the rim and 
tops of the crater. Mountainous waves of an ocean infuriated and 
maddened by some tremendous force swept right over the tall 
cliffs and crashed on to the feet of the colossal images. The light of 
day went out. The night of total eclipse had come. A heavy black 
pall covered the vault of the heavens. Strange rains of blood-red 
water and white ash, mingled, cascaded on to the causeways and 
covered the dome of the great temple of ancestors and ghosts. The 
terrified slaves in the quarry-workshop threw down their tools, 
heeding not the whips and curses of the taskmasters, who, them- 
selves, white to the very lips, began to stammer and to follow the 



St8 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

headlong rush of the panic-stricken workers to the safety of caves 
in a neighbouring hillside. 

At the end of the tramway, a gang of many hundreds of slaves 
had just hauled a cyclopean statue on to the platform where it was 
to be set up, when the island shook and the vast tidal waves swept 
right over the mighty balustrades. In the unearthly darkness, as of a 
last day of earth, the terrified slaves cast off the hauling-ropes and 
the great trunk and head of the statue crashed on to its face, with the 
head looking out to the maddened ocean, raging as under the force 
of a hundred typhoons. They fled, seeking safety and harbour, as 
they raced, many being crushed under the weight of mighty 
masonry and great carved stones, toppled over by the violent quakes. 
The quarry was abandoned, the keeper of the sacred mausoleum- 
temple fled with the rest, the architects, the officials, and the en- 
gineers. May be, mephitic gases overtook them on their way to 
shelter in the secret caves of the cliffs on that dreadful island night ; 
but those who managed to survive the long days and nights of cos- 
mic cataclysm ran out on the cliffs to wait for the relieving food- 
ships that were never to come. (The master-race's policy did not 
permit the slaves to grow food in the island.) For the mighty Pacific 
island-continent of Rutas-Mu-Gondwanaland had toppled from 
her foundations deep, deep down into the hell of the abyss, and the 
boundless, heaving waters of the ocean now covered a whole vast 
land where life, legend whispers, had been one long dream of 
paradisiacal bliss, peace and prosperity, until one of its races, the 
men of blood and brawls, had turned it into almost continual 
fighting internally, with wars of ancient conquest abroad. 

But who were these strange people who left the amazing number 
of 550 colossal images in Easter Island, of whom not even the un- 
quiet sea whispers tales of old, unhappy things and battles long 
ago? 

May be, the answer is to be found in the book of Genesis : 

"There were giants on the earth in those days; mighty men 
who were of old, men of renown . . . and God said the earth is 
filled with violence through them, and behold I will destroy 
them with the earth." 

The old Goths, in one of the Eddas, say the giants were drowned 
in the deluge. (I shall, later, in this chapter and others, refer to the 
undoubted existence of giants in prehistoric South America.) 
Eupolemus, who wrote a long lost history on the Jews of Assyria, 
says the ancient Babylon was founded by giants saved from the 
Deluge. It was they, he says, who built the celebrated Tower of 
Babel which thunderbolts overthrew, and they were dispersed all 
over the earth. (This is a Near East version of the famous storming of 



OUR EARTH'S GREATEST DISASTER 29 

the gods in Heaven by the Greek Titans.) Euhemerism, which 
may be right or wrong, may suggest the story took its rise in the 
invasion of all Western Europe by the old Atlantean militarists; for 
the story of Eupolemus is that these giants were plunged into the 
central abyss at the time of the great catastrophe. But it is curious 
that Pedro de los Rios, Dominican missioner, in Nueva Espana, 
in 1566, sets down an Aztec tradition that, before the Great Catas- 
trophe and deluge, the land of Anahuac old Mexico was in- 
habited by giants, one of whom escaped to build a great pyramid at 
Cholula, made of bricks, passed from hand to hand by a file of men. 
The gods in wrath at these Titans scaling the skies by the stair- 
case circling their tower, sent down fire on it. As this tower-pyramid 
of Babel was subsequently dedicated to Quetzalcoatl, if my theory 
be correct, the giants must have invaded the land of Anahuac, 
after that gentle man in black had returned to his eastern homeland 
Atlantis, motherland, or imperial Atlantean Hy-Brazil from 
which he said he would one day return. 

Fragments of other astounding memories of the Great Cataclysm 
are crystallised in Genesis, such as the Deluge story derived from lost 
and very ancient books, older by far than the Babylonian legend of 
Gilgamesh on brick cuneiform tablets. It is found, too, in the old 
Aztec codices of Mexico. The Indians of the high savanas of Colombia, 
South America, say the Great Catastrophe befell the Earth before 
the Moon shone in the skies \ And this part about the Moon is no 
childish myth of a primitive race. The old Arcadians, a Pelasgian 
race of the Mediterranean, also said a great Deluge overwhelmed 
their ancient land the Deluge of Ogyges before the Moon accom- 
panied the Earth ! Their ancestors were thus called, by the Greeks, 
pre-Selenites, which means what it says arid is not a corruption of pre- 
Syllani, or pre-Hellenes, as a too ingenious nineteenth-century com- 
mentator made out. It is curious that the ancient Mexicans spoke 
of the planet Venus as lighting the eastern skies, and not the Moon. 
May it be that these stories, so widely sundered by the oceans, 
commemorate the strange fact that 12,000 years ago our present 
Moon wandered into the Earth's gravitational field and was made 
captive? 

Beyond much doubt, the Moon played an immense, but not 
the only part in causing die Great Catastrophe. 

But what is even more remarkable is the insistence in the 
Genesis story of the Bible, the Babylonian legend on the Gilgamesh 
tablets from Nineveh, and in the traditions of very ancient date, 
current in Peni of the Incas, that, after the Great Catastrophe, 
something was seen in earth's skies that was not there before: the 
Rainbow \ 

If rainbows were not seen in the ancient Earth it is obvious that 
rain must have fallen in the night hours, when the sun's light was 



30 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERI C A 

not there to give the prismatic effect of rays in water-drops. If you 
had a planet as near the Sun as Venus is, you would fold, as in 
Venus, that rain, in torrents, falls only in the night. When our 
Earth was hit by a wandering comet, or other cosmic body, 12,000 
years ago and one admits the heavy mathematical odds against 
such a collision there was, probably, a terrific force exerted that 
tore it from its old orbit, far nearer the Sun, and drove it outwards 
into space ! If that happened, the year would be lengthened from, 
say, 250 days to the present 365 days, and this may account for the 
incredible years of the patriarch Methuselah which make a modern 
compiler of mortality tables smile in his beard or those of the 
Kings of ancient Sumeria, which so puzzled the late Sir E. Wallis 
Budge, of the British Museum. (He was an Egyptologist and 
Assyriologist.) 

Fantastic as the theory sounds, in the ears of the more crusted 
sort of astronomers, it is very curious that both the ancient Mexicans 
and the old Roman writer, Varro, between whom there can have 
been no contact, say that, at the time of the Great Catastrophe, 
an amazing sign appeared in the skies : 

". . . the star of Venus . . . changed in colour, size, form, shape 
and course, and never before or after was the like seen." 

What had really changed was not the shape or course of Venus, 
but the orbit of the Earth reeling backwards into space, as the axis 
at the poles tilted and lurched with extreme violence. It would have 
driven survivors mad, and might have been responsible for the 
horrible cults of human sacrifice, and propitiation of harvest-gods, 
found in ancient races after the Catastrophe, and reaching a degree 
of aberration that approached paranoia among the Aztecs and 
Mayans of Central America. 

The ancient Chinese annalists record startlingly similar pheno- 
mena of this same cataclysm. A learned late seventeenth-century 
Jesuit missioner, Padre Martin Martinius, in a very rare volume of 
his History of China in black letter Latin and not in the great library 
of the British Museum says that the ancient Chinese say that, 
before the Great Catastrophe to the Earth, there was a golden age : 

"Four seasons succeeded each other regularly and without 
confusion. There were no impetuous winds, nor excessive rains. 
The sun and moon, without ever being clouded, furnished a 
light purer and brighter than now. The five planets kept on their 
course without any inequality. Nothing harmed man, nor did 
he harm anything. There was universal concord and amity 
reigned all over the earth. . . . Then the second heaven be- 
gan * . ." 



OUR EARTH'S GREATEST DISASTER 31 

The word "heaven" seems to be the equivalent to the "sun" of 
the Mexican codices . . . 

4 

"... The pillars of heaven were broken. The earth shook to 
its foundations. The sky sank lower towards the north. The sun, moon 
and stars changed their motions. The earth fell to pieces, and the 
waters in its bosom uprushed with violence and overflowed. . . . 
The system of the universe was totally disordered. Man had re- 
belled against the high gods. The sun went into eclipse, the 
plawts altered their courses, and the grand harmony of nature was 
disturbed." (Hist. Sin. lib. L, p. 12.) 

Another Chinese myth says that at the Great Catastrophe the 
whole Earth tilted violently and sank into the sea off the China coast. 
It adds, what sounds like eye-witnesses 5 testimony, or ancestral 
memories, that the waters of the Great Deluge streamed off south- 
eastwards \ 

The Jews, too, a race of world- wide wandering, have a curious, 
and in this cosmic connection, significant myth that the Great 
Deluge was "caused by the Lord God changing the places of two 
stars in a constellation," (Vide Josippa Micha ben Gorion: Sagen 
Juden.} 

North American Indians have rites, celebrated today, which 
show that their ancestors, ages ago, knew of a time when rainbows in 
Earth's skies were not. The Acoma-Pueblo Indians of New Mexico 
yearly perform a play in which they climb a ladder to reach the 
rainbow. It is a play created round a Deluge myth. Again, in the 
highlands of modern Colombia, South America, there existed in the 
time of the Spanish conquistadores a native myth of the Chibcha 
race I shall refer to this again, later in this book according to 
which Bochicha, the pioneer from Atlantean Brazil, as I call him 
infra, suddenly appeared on the plateau of Cundina-Marca when 
there was no moon in the sky, and mountain walls hemmed in the 
tableland. He was tall, white-skinned and bearded, and bore a 
golden sceptre. After his time, Chia the Moon-goddess rode in 
skies of earth. A variant of the same myth says that another evil 
god caused a Flood, and that Bochicha, appearing in a rainbow, 
ended the Flood. 

The ancient Mexicans had a feast, celebrated as late as the day 
of Cortes, the Spanish conquistador, commemorating changes in 
the condition of several of the constellations including the planet 
Venus after the time of the Great Catastrophe. . . . 



(Venus) caused death to the world, and is one of the six 
constellations that fell from the sky at the time of the Great 
Deluge." 



33 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

These "six stars" that fell from the sky may have been disrupted 
parts of some large asteroid or giant aerolite (meteor). They had, 
perhaps, been broken up by the pull of the earth's gravitational 
field. On the other hand, Mr. H. S. Bellamy, an authority on Myths 
of the Moon in the ancient world, supposes that the book of the 
Revelation of St. John the Divine is really a history of the Great 
Cataclysm, and enshrines, in mystic and cryptic language, some 
ancient story of an earlier, pre-Lunar satellite of the earth ap- 
proaching close to the earth and being destroyed by it. He cites the 
theory of an Austrian engineer, Hans Horbiger, of Vienna, about 
the ultimate destruction of satellites by the parent planet. When 
the satellite drew near the earth, it shone with a brilliant light re- 
flected from the sun, falling on a thick coating of ice the glacio- 
sphere. This split and fell on the earth, exposing a layer of red earth, 
which, in turn, fell on the earth in a rain like blood. Then the 
metallic core stood bared. It split into tremendous slabs, crashed on 
the earth, in the Pacific and Atlantic and submerged two great 
island-continents. The slabs shivered the earth's crust and penetrated 
to the magma under it. This appalling impact of these cosmic 
"bolts" knocked out the supports from the continents, and so 
Atlantis and the Pacific continent of Mu-Rutas-Gondwanaland 
were engulfed in a terrible abyss into and over which the maddened 
ocean poured its water, mountains high! 

In the ancient world, the priests and prophets had a saying: 
"As above so below. What has been shall be again." Gensorinus, the 
Roman chronologist of the third century A.D., said that, at the end 
of every great year of six Babylonian sars (a period of 21,600 years), 
our planet undergoes a complete revolution. Polar and equatorial 
regions gradually change place, the tropical vegetation and swarm- 
ing animal life moving towards the forbidding wastes of the icy 
poles. . . . 

"Catastrophes attend the change, with great earthquakes 
and cosmical throes." 

The old Greeks had a saying that every world was a transcript 
of a* former world, and the same persons reappeared and played 
once more the same part they had played in each successive cycle. 

The ancient Greeks also said that, at the end of every 12,000 
years, the beds of the oceans are displaced, and a semi-universal 
deluge takes place. Their priests of the sanctuaries kept in strict 
secrecy any notions of how long such a catastrophe might last, and 
all about its details. They called the period the Great or Heliacal 
Year, the "winter" of which was called the Cataclysm or Great 
Deluge, and the summer, the Ecpyrosis. So, by turns, the world was 
to be drowned and burnt ! 




Reputed tomb of last Aztec Prince-Emperor Guatemotzin, where great 
treasure is said to have been cached, on frontier of Ghiappas Province, Mexico. 



OUR EARTH'S GREATEST DISASTER 33 

These traditions seem to have come from the sky-towers of the 
ancient Babylonians who said that ancient Babylon was founded by 
giants who escaped the Deluge. These giants were great astrologers 
who had received from their ancestors secret learning, which they 
imparted to the high priests of Babylon, along with all records that 
dated before the Great Catastrophe. And before dismissing these 
stories of giants as moonshine and fairy stories of the childhood of 
our race, be it remembered that ancient Peril was invaded by 
giants who built cities and sank wells, that their skeletons have been 
found in a cave near the railroad at Manta, Ecuador, and that 
skeletons with headbones of monstrous size and a lower jaw twice 
the size of civilised man were found in conical mounds on bluffs in 
Western Missouri (by Judge West), as long ago as 1875. Indeed, 
ancient Mexican records, reversing the story, in Genesis, of the Tower 
of Babel, says that Giants escaped the cataclysm and built a Tower 
of Babel, whose site was to be seen in Cortes' day. (One of the South 
Sea islands has also a cyclopean tower built by "giants who were 
curious to peep into the moon".) 

These ancient predictions, by the way, are no more fantastic 
than the statement made by Dr. H. Norris Russell, director of Prince- 
ton University Observatory, in February 1939. He says our earth 
will grow hotter as the sun grows colder. Earth is warmed up by 
one degree each 100,000,000 years. Eventually, he says, the climate 
and temperature at the equator of the earth will be like a blast from 
an open furnace door, and a mass migration of humanity will 
start out for the poles. 

Since it is now round 12,000 years after the last Great Catas- 
trophe, what may be the fate of the earth at the end of this cycle? 
Are we on the eve of another Giant Disaster? 

No longer ago then October 25-30, 1937, our Earth was in 
grave danger of collison with a small planet astray in the solar 
system. In that month, we were very near a Great Disaster : 

"There was great excitement . . . the planet was rushing 
towards the Earth almost in a straight line. Had it hit us, the 
international system might have been altered. . . . The planet 
missed us by only five and a half hours. It is the narrowest 
escape the world has ever had in the period of astronomical 
observations.' ' (Dr. H. E. Wood, astronomer at Cape Town Obser- 
vatory.) 

Meantime, it may be recalled that the late Sir Arthur Conan 
Doyle, who died in 1930, sent round to friends in England (in 1928) 
a remarkable letter based on certain mystic revelations 'received by 
his wife, Lady Conan Doyle, at a family stance, in 1923. These 
automatic writings, it is said, foretold the rise of the Nazis in Ger- 

c 



34 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

many, the coming of raging fires by night over Britain, and an 
attempted invasion, but they were but the prelude to tremendous 
happenings no man may control. Gonan Doyle said that the pre- 
dictions "from beyond" foretold that "soon" a great disaster would 
come on the earth, following on Armageddon. It would happen 
very suddenly, without warning, and the general upheaval of 
civilised life would be of appalling character. The catastrophes a 
series would last three years, during which a number of countries 
(five) in the Mediterranean basin would be swallowed up in the 
convulsions of the earth and sea. The bed of the Atlantic would rise 
and tremendous tidal waves would surge on to the American, the 
British, and the Irish low-lying shores, causing great disasters to 
people living near the shores. Apparently, the disaster would be 
brought about by some cosmic body in collision with our polar axis 
and causing it to tilt violently. 

Of course, it has been said you may refuse to argue with a prophet 
but may disbelieve him. 

"But when is the next cataclysm due?" the shuddering or 
scoffing reader may ask me. I can but return the famous answer of 
the late Premier Asquith, on another occasion, my own prophetic 
soul exercising its vaticinatory powers on occasions of which my 
conscious mind is unaware. 

The answer, indeed, is one that would be more congenial to 
"Woe, Woe", Signor Ansaldo, the mouthpiece of Mussolini's radio, 
than to any of us. It has even been predicted, in other mystic 
quarters, that the final Armageddon will be followed by the emer- 
gence from the bed of the South Atlantic of the drowned continent 
and cities of Atlantis. 

Be that as it may, never has a more graphic forecast of the 
end of the solar system not merely of the earth been made than 
by the ancient Brahmans of the temples of Hindostan, thousands of 
years ago : 

"Strange noises are heard proceeding from every point. 
They are die forerunners of the Night of Brahma. Dusk rises at 
the horizon and the Sun passes away behind the thirtieth degree 
of the Zodiacal sign of Macara and will no more reach the sign 
of Pisces (Minas). The gurus (watcher-disciples) of the gopa- 
rams (pagodas) appointed to watch the ras-chakr (Zodiac) may 
now break their circles and instruments, for they will need them 
no more. . . . Gradually the light shall diminish and pale. Heat 
shall get less, and uninhabitable spots multiply in the earth. 
Air become more rarefied. Springs of water dry up. Great rivers 
see their waves exhaust themselves, the ocean now shows her 
sandy bottom and plants die. Daily, men and animal decrease 
in size. Life and motion lose their force. Planets hardly can 



DEAD CITIES OF ANCIENT BRAZIL 35 

gravitate round the Sun in space. One by one they go out as a 
lamp which the hand of the chokra (servant) has not replenished 
with oil. Sourya (the Sun) flickers and goes out. Matter falls into 
dissolution. Brahma, the demiourgos, merges back into Dyaus 
(Deus, the unrevealed God), and, his task accomplished, falls 
asleep. Another day of 4,320,000,000 human years is past. 
Night sets in and lasts till the next dawn. All germs (souls) are 
re-absorbed into the Infinite which sleeps till dawn." 

My reader has thus a sketch of the final act in one of our old 
Earth's most appalling dramas, which formed my mental back- 
ground when I stepped off the liner in Rio de Janeiro's wonderful 
harbour. I started in that city of colour, warmth and beauty to try 
to recreate the earlier scenes of this ancient civilisation of Atlantean 
South America. For, in this, reconstruction of a prehistoric world, 
it is useless to bury one's self in European, or even American libraries 
and university schools or museums, wherein South American life 
and proto-history are subjects as remote as if they were happening 
in the planet Mars, away beyond the ken of radio and airships. 
The dogmatic arrogance of so many modern archaeologists is due 
for a severe shaking; for they, like some of our modern medical 
scientists, are apt to forget what real scientists and inventors well 
know : that the bounds of knowledge are often advanced not by 
professionals or savants in learned societies and associations, but by 
the less dogmatic and generally undistinguished amateur and lay 
and modest or humble investigator. Nous verrons ce gue nous verrons 
perhaps, before this chequered twentieth century ends, in the 
revolution of world history which will come from discoveries in the 
now buried jungle cities of dangerous South America. 



CHAPTER II 

DEAD CITIES OF ANCIENT BRAZIL 

"And the land shall become burning pitch. They shall call the nobles thereof, 
but none shall be there, and all her princes shall be nothing. From generation 
to generation it shall be waste. None shall pass through for ever and ever. A 
possession for the bittern and pools of water . . . swept up in the besom of destruc- 
tion . . . and thorns shall come up in her palaces ... a habitation of wild dogs 
and bats. ... He hath utterly destroyed them." 

IN modern Brazil, I did not find any great enthusiasm about the 
mysteries of the remote past in a great land which some American 



36 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

observers believe is destined to outshadow Western Europe, at the 
close of the Second World War. 

"There are no ancient ruins in the serras and sertdo of Brazil, 
senhor. No vestiges of ancient culture, no ruins such as you have in 
Mayan Yucatan, or the jungles of Honduras and Guatemala. All 
that was here, when Dom Pedro Gabral sighted what is now Rio de 
Janeiro, in the year A.D. 1 500, all that we have here now are primitive 
Indians at the fishing and hunting stage. They live in huts and 
clearings in the jungle and matas, on the banks of the rivers, in 
Amazonas and the Matto Grosso. In our sertdo are scrub, heath, 
wilderness, but no monuments like those of Perti." 

That was the reply to me, when I asked about the ancient 
Brazilian ruins, of a professor of economics and geography who 
holds a chair in a famous Brazilian university. 

I met another charming gentleman whose father had been one 
of ihefazendeiros, or patriarchal landowners of the older Southern 
type of the colourful days of the Brazilian Empire. He sat in a cane 
chair, on his verandah, bathed in the light of the bright moon, while 
fireflies flashed across the velvety darkness cast by tall trees under a 
brilliantly starry sky. Waving his beringed, white hands towards the 
gently plashing waters of Rio Bay, he deprecated the foolish waste of 
energy by restless, inquisitive people who will not take the gifts of 
the gods as they find them. He smiled at the freaks of estrangeiros 
Englishmen or Americans who must needs push their noses into 
the mata and sertdo of interior Brazil, with their sabre-toothed in- 
sects, horrible ticks, malignant fevers, clicking mandibles of hideous 
tarantulas, pathogenic-germed probes of os barbeiros (the barber- 
surgeon beetles of wooden shacks in the Goyaz), the fierce oncas, 
the snakes, and the unpacifiable Indians sometimes anthropo- 
phagous, often head-hunters who resent and visit with sudden 
death, if the intruder persist, any penetration of their jungles. 

I found the same lack of interest in the south. It has gone so 
far that men who concern themselves in recreating the ancient world 
of Brazil are, with slight contempt, styled Indianistas. True, they are 
often of Indian descent. There was, for example, Senhor Bernardo 
da Silva Ramos, native of Amazonas, with traits of Tapuyo origin. 
He sold a collection of rare and ancient coins in order to raise funds 
to embark on travels all over North and South America, and to 
Africa, Europe and the Middle East. He became keenly interested 
in the ancient mysteries of Brazil in prehistoria, which has a litera- 
ture of its own in Brazil. Comparing die ancient inscriptions in the 
lands of the "Old World" with those he found in Central and South 
America, Senhor Ramos filled large folio volumes. The central 
authorities of Brazil have examined those works, and expressed 
polite appreciation and interest. In 1928, they voted public ^ 
money to have one volume published. B.oth he and Senhor Frot 



DEAD CITIES OF ANCIENT BRAZIL 37 

have found in the Matto Grosso many inscriptions in the Phoenician, 
Egyptian, and even Sumerian scripts and hieroglyphics. Senhor 
Ramos points out that his Indian forefathers had many traditions 
of ancient date about a very ancient culture and advanced civilisa- 
tion, flourishing thousands of years ago, to the north and west of the 
Central Highlands of Brazil.* 

Now, in the archives of the great public library of Rio, which 
embodies the large and valuable libraries of the old Kings of 
Portugal and the emperors of Brazil, and also the records of genera- 
tions of Lusitanian viceroys, I have found a strange MS. written in 
Portuguese, and scarcely 200 years old, but bitten by the copim 
and badly mutilated in some most fascinating and enthralling 
passages, which holds a secret that, in some day not far distant, 
will revolutionise the fixed and settled theories of college professors 
of ethnology and archaeology, and the field museum workers of 
New York, Chicago, London, Paris, Rome and Berlin. Especially 
will it make hay of their cherished theory that writing was unknown 
in pre-Columbian South America. For, if the story of strange 
adventures of hardy and uncultured men which it tells, be true 
and I think it is what we call the old world of Asia and Europe 
is a mere parvenu by the side of this New World of South America. 
Our professors and archaeological historians are one day going to be 
forced to call in this New World to redress the balance of the 
Old! 

I stress the lack of culture of these men who were the well-known 
bandeiristas land-pirates of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century 
Brazil because they could and would not have invented the story 
they tell. Their one object was the hunt for gold and virgin mines of 
silver. Under the banner of a leader called the bandeirante, they 
started out from the province of Sao Paulo, in Southern Brazil, 
abandoning the trading-channels of the rivers and the most outlying 
settlements, and heading straight into the forbidden territories of 
the bad Indians (Indids malos) of the mata (dense forest) and chapada 
(wilderness). The leader of these bandeiristas was usually a man of 
that older Portuguese stock which had made Lisboa (Lisbon) and 
the Motherland in Lusitanian Portugal a fine sea-power, from Goa, 
in India, and the Moluccas and Spice Islands, off the waters of far 
Cathay, across the unknown seas to Rio de Janeiro and Bahia. 

Far north and west wandered these hardy bandeiristas, pushing 
the frontier ever forward into the unknown. They reached places 
in the Brazilian sertao, 400 years ago, that white men, even today, 
have not penetrated and returned alive to tell the tale. Age 

In August 1944, by courtesy of the British Foreign Office, I received a letter from 
H.M. Ambassador in Rio de Janeiro informing me that Senhor Bernardo da Silva Ramos 
had died. It it to be hoped that learned circles in Rio or Sao Paulo will see to it that his 
workt and records of strange researches into the pre-history of Brazil and South America 
do not perish utterly, either by the teeth of the copim insects, or neglect. AUTHOR. 



38 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

after age went by, and the bandeiristas made themselves a power 
dreaded by the colonial governors in Rio, Sao Paulo and old Bahia. 

Came the year 1591, and a galleon from Lisboa crossed the bar 
of the roadstead of Bahia, then called sonorously and most religiously : 
Bahia de Sao Salvador de todos os Santos (Bahia of our Holy Saviour 
of all the Saints). The galleon from Portugal brought the new 
governor and captain-general, Dom Francisco de Souza, who 
carried with him, in his trunks, a title, conferred by the court in 
Lisboa (Lisbon), of Marques das Minos (Marquis of the Mines). It 
was to be conferred if certain very rich mines of silver were dis- 
covered to the Portuguese colonial authorities, as promised by one 
Roberio Bias, one of the oldest and richest inhabitants of Bahia. 
A bauble for a billion ! 

Rumour ran in Bahia that this Roberio Bias had silver plate for 
his own tables, and that the vessels on the altar of his private family 
chapel were of the same metal of the very finest and purest quality. 
Folk in the province of Bahia said that this silver came from secret 
mines located in lands, held in the interior, or sertdo of Brazil, by this 
same Roberio Bias, a grim and determined man. Now, Roberio was 
rich ; but not satisfied. He was a commoner. He wanted the titles of 
nobility and an emblazoned shield with quarterings that he could 
affix to the stone walls of his mans do in the countryside of Bahia. 
Some time before, folk whispered, Roberio Bias had actually taken 
ship and crossed the Atlantic to Cadiz, in old Spain. There, he had 
journeyed to the Escurial palace of the King of Spain, in old 
Madrid, who then governed both Spain and Portugal. 

Said Bias to our Lord, el Rey Bon Felipe : "I offer your Majesty 
all the riches of splendid, but secret mines. There is more silver in 
those mines I know of than you have of iron in the mines of Bilbao in 
your Spanish province of Biscaya. All I want, in return, from your 
Majesty, is the title of Marquis of the Mines." 

But, now here, newly arrived from Lisboa, in old Portugal, was 
this governor and court popinjay, Bom Francisco. He, this governor, 
was to have this title of Marquis of the Mines, while the promised 
one, Roberio Bias, the finder of those mines, was merely to have the 
place and title and honour of administrador das minas (the superin- 
tendent of mines) his own mines ! with other promises, which 
meant precious little to a man who had been tricked with a promise 
of ennoblement. 

Bias was in the city of Bahia when the governor stepped ashore 
on the quays. The governor sent for him. Bom Francisco was 
haughty and arrogant in manner, and Bias, in a rage he had 
difficulty in dissembling, agreed to show the governor where these 
mines lay. However, what he did was to lead de Souza, a true 
exemplar of the Lusitanian viceroys, on a wild-goose chase into the 
interior. The mines always seemed to elude the hunters. At last, the 



DEAD CITIES OF ANCIENT BRAZIL 39 

suspicious de Souza put spies on the trail of the guileful Roberio 
Dias, who had led the hunters on every track except the one that 
led 'to the mines. The governor's spies were spied on by Dias's 
men, and still the mines lay lost ! Then governor Dom Francisco 
de Souza showed his teeth. He clapped Roberio Dias into a foul 
dungeon in the bowels of the old castello and fort on the bay of 
Bahia. He kept him there, two years, rotting among all the bugs and 
fleas and toads and lizards, and the worse, dripping damp; but 
Roberio Dias was of the bandeirista type. He might be broken ; bent, 
he would not be. He refused to say where were the rich silver mines. 
The governor complained home to old Spain, and the King, our 
Lord, Don Felipe, sent an order for the punishment by death of the 
contumacious and evasive commoner, Roberio Dias. The galleon 
duly arrived in the harbour of Bahia; but on the very day that the 
seneschal of the castello came to unbar the massive iron-bolt- 
studded door of the dungeon, and read out the royal cedula to 
Roberio Dias, he found him lying dead on the stone floor. A grim 
smile clenched the dead man's strong, white teeth. He had left the 
secret to his heirs, who would not speak, under pain of a dying 
father's powerful curse. 

These mines became known as the "Lost Silver Mines of the 
Moribeca". 

In the next 150 years, many hardy and unscrupulous Portuguese 
adventurers set out on dangerous trails with the avowed purpose 
of locating these lost mines of the Moribeca. These bandeiristas 
wandered through dense forests, camped in clearings on the banks 
of unknown rivers, with fierce Indians lurking in the shades to send 
forth showers of poisoned arrows. They defied every danger of man, 
fever and insects, the jungle devils, and the famine and demon 
ticks of the catinga\ but the mystery of the lost mines remained un- 
solved. 

Now, came the year 1743, and a native of Minas Geraes whose 
name has perished started with other bandeiristas (five of them 
Portuguese), two samboes (negro slaves), and 300 Indians on the 
trail of these lost mines of the Moribeca. What cared they if a 
buffoon and jogral in Rio, by name of P. Silverio da Paraopeba, 
had gibed at them, in a little poem about the adventures of crazy 
bandeirantes and bandeiristas, "bitten by gold bugs"? Anyhow, they 
never read poems, even if they could read at all. So, let him and his 
japing fellow-scribblers take a Brazilian cdbaga of yerba-mat^, 
and go to Hades ! 

This mid-eighteenth century expedition was well armed, and in- 
tended to live on the country. No pack animals, or even the toughest 
and most leathery-stomached of mules could be taken into the 
Brazilian sertao. It was, as it is today, land of snakes and cougars 
and of the snarling, prowling el tigre, with water for fever-stric 



4O MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

men only to be found in the depths of the sandstone gorges through 
which turbulent rivers, cluttered with fallen boulders, flowed to 
dash and foam over catadupas, or cataracts. 

This expedition was away for ten long years, enduring incredible 
hardships and braving great perils. Their very memory had been for- 
gotten by the most caustic- tongued of satirical scribblers in Rio and 
Bahia, when, one day, in the year 1753, an emaciated remnant of 
the band staggered in from the unknown and halted at a J "agenda 
in some little and obscure povoofao in the province of Bahia. They 
were almost dead with hunger, fatigue and misery. Reduced to 
rags and bones ! There, in the cool of the evening of a hot day, one 
of these bandeiristas, sitting under the eaves of the verandah, wrote 
an astonishing story of their travels and adventures. The implica- 
tions of his story were too amazing to have been realised or per- 
ceived by so unlettered a man, though he had a picturesque style 
of writing. Nor may one wonder at that ; for only in very recent 
years have they become known to historians or scholars, few or 
none of whom are native Brazilians, or even North Americans. 

When this soldier of fortune and man of action took up the quill 
pen in his stiffened fingers in the backwoods of old Bahia, he never 
dreamt that he was drawing aside a veil from a Lost World, drowned 
in the waters of the ocean, split, rocked and exploded by titanic 
earthquakes and tellurian and submarine convulsions, many thou- 
sands of years before the ancient Egyptians were building their 
very early and most ancient step pyramids, at Sakkarah, on the 
Nile, more than 6,800 miles over the South Atlantic Ocean, east- 
wards. 

This manuscript of an old bandeirista eventually reached the 
Portuguese viceroy in Rio de Janeiro. He clearly thought it held the 
secret of great riches, and some long-lost mines; for someone in the 
entourage hid it in the official archives and steadfastly denied that it 
had ever existed, or had been received. They hoped to make a great 
and exclusive discovery, aided by this derrotero, as the old Spanish 
treasure hunters called such documents in Quito (Ecuador) and other 
parts of the old Spanish South American Empire. The manuscript 
became lost to sight and memory, and all trace of it vanished, from 
the year 1760 until 1841, when a Brazilian historian and archivist, 
Senhor Lagos, found it hidden in the archives of the old royal public 
library in Rio de Janeiro, where I, myself, saw it in 1938-9. 

It is unfortunate that the insect called the copim has attacked the 
old parchment, so that many valuable leaves, significant words and 
parts of words are missing; but enough is left to indicate the startling 
nature of the discoveries and the fascinating and rather eerie adven- 
tures of these bandeiristas of 1743-1753. 

In the autumn of 1939 I obtained a transcript of the document, 
thanks to the courtesy of Mr. W. G. tiurdett, American Consul- 



DEAD CITIES OF ANCIENT BRAZIL 41 

General in Rio. Thereafter, I spent many weeks translating from the 
Portuguese and studying this amazing document, and also others, 
not Known to American archivists and historians, but found in 
official archives in the provinces of SSo Paulo or Rio, and concerned 
with these stories of abandoned cities of unknown date and history. 
Herewith, for the first time in the English language, I set down 
this remarkable story of men who, unknown to themselves, were 
peering into a dead world of the most ancient civilisation we know. 

"Rela$ao historica de huma occulta, e grande povoagoe 
antiguissima sem moradores, que se descubrio no anno de 



(Historical Relation of a hidden and great city of ancient date, 
without inhabitants, that was discovered in the year 1753). 

Em a America (in America) .............................. 

nos interiores (we inland) .................................... 

contiguous aos (next to the) ................................ 

Mestre de Can (Master of Can) .............................. 

and his band (commitiva), having for ten years journeyed in the wilds 
(sertoes) to see if we could locate the famous silver mines of the 
Great Moribeca (who, by the wickedness \culpa\ of a Governor, was 
not granted letters patent, because the Governor wanted to take the 
silver mines for himself and the glory thereof, and he, the Moribeca, 
was kept prisoner in Bahia, till he died, which was done to worm out 
of him the location of the silver mines. This account came to Rio 
de Janeiro, in the beginning of the year 1754 . . ." 

(The blanks in the introduction and the text, following, are, as 
I stated, caused by the gnawing of the copim insect. In both West 
Indies and South America, archives and old newspapers are anni- 
hilated by insects.) 

"After long and wearisome wanderings, incited by the insatiable 
lust for gold, and almost lost in the many years we wandered, in 
these wilds of Brazil, we discovered a cordillera of mountains, so 
high that they drew near the ethereal region (chegaoSo a regido 
etherea), and served as a throne of the winds, under the stars; their 
lustre, from afar, excited our wonder and admiration, principally 
when the sun shining on them turned to fires the crystals of which 
the rocks were composed. The view was so beautiful that none could 
take their eyes from the reflections. It began to rain before we came 
near enough to take note of these crystalline marvels, and we saw 
above. .The spectacle was bare and sterile rocks, the waters pre- 
cipitated themselves from the heights, foaming white, like snow, 
struck and turned to fire by the rays of the sun, like thunderbolts. 
Delighted by the pleasing vistas of that ........ blended ........ 

shone and glistered * ....... of the waters and the tranquillity ...... 



42 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

,' 

of the day or weather (do tempo), we determined to investigate 
these prodigious marvels of nature, spread out before us, at the foot 
of the mountains, without hindrance of forests or rivers that would 
make it difficult for us to cross them. But when we walked round 
the foot of the cordillera we found no open way or pass into the 
recesses of these Alps and Pyrenees of Brazil. So there resulted for 
us, from this disappointment, an inexplicable sadness. 

"We grew weary and intended to retrace our steps, the next day, 
when it came to pass that one of our negroes, gathering dried sticks, 
saw a white deer (hum veado branco), and, by that accident, as it 
fled away, he discovered a road between two sierras, that appeared 
to have been made by man and not the work of Nature. We were 
made joyful by this discovery and we started to ascend the road, but 
found a great boulder that had fallen and broken all to pieces at a 
spot where, we judged, a paved way (calfadd) had been violently 
upheaved in some far-off day. We spent a good three hours in the 
ascent of that ancient road, being fascinated by the crystals, at 
which we marvelled, as they blazed and scintillated in many flash- 
ing colours from the rocks. On the summit of the pass through the 
mountain, we came to a halt. 

"Thence, spread out before our eyes, we saw in the open plain 
(campo raso) greater spectacles (demonstrafdes) for our vision of 
admiration and wonder. At the distance of about a league, as we 
judged, we saw a great city (povoafdo grande), and we estimated, by 
the extent and sight of it, that it must be some city of the court of 
Brazil ; we at once descended the road towards the valley, but with 

great caution would be, in like case, ordered to explore 

by quality and if so well as they had noticed 

smokes (famines]?])^ that being one of the evident signs or 

vestiges of the place (povoafdo). 

"Two days we waited, wondering whether to send out scouts, 
for the end we longed for, and all alone, we waited till daybreak, 
in great doubt and confused perplexity of mind, trying to guess if 
the city had any people in it. But it became clear to us there were no 
inhabitants. An Indian of our bandeirantes determined, after two days 
of hesitation, to risk his life in scouting by way of precaution ; but 
he returned, amazing us by affirming he had met no one ; nor could 
discover footsteps or traces of any person whatever. This so con- 
founded us that we could not believe we saw dwellings or buildings, 
and so, all the scouts (os exploradores) in a body, followed in the steps 
of the Indian. . . ." 

"They now saw for themselves that it was true the great city was 
uninhabited. We, all, therefore* now decided to enter the place, 
our arms ready for instant use, at daybreak. At our entry we met 
none to bar our way, and we encountered no other road except 
the one which led to the dead city. This, we entered under three 



DEAD CITIES OF ANCIENT BRAZIL 4$ 

arches (arcos) of great height, the middle arch being the greatest, 
and the two of the sides being but small ; under the great and prin- 
cipal arch we made out letters, which we could not copy, owing to 
their great height above the ground. 

"Behind, was a street as wide as the three arches, with, here 
and there, houses of very large size, whose facades of sculptured 

stone, already blackened with age; alone inscriptions, 

all open to the day (todos abertas) decreases of 

observing, by the regularity and symmetry with which they were 
made, that they appeared to have one owner only, being, in reality, 
very numerous, so that [they stood] with their terraces open to the 
day, without one tile ; for the houses had, some of them, burnt 
floors; others, large flagstones. 

"We went, with fear and trembling, into some of the houses, 
and in none did we find vestiges of furniture, or moveable objects 
by which, or whose use, we might guess at the sort of people who had 
dwelt therein. The houses were all dark, in the interior, and hardly 
could the light of day penetrate, even at its dimmest, and, as the 
vaults gave back the echoes of our speech, the sound of our voices 
terrified us. We went on into the strange city and we came on a 
road (street : rua) of great length, and a well set-out plaza (urna 
praga regular) , besides, in it, and in the middle of the plaza a column 
of black stone of extraordinary grandeur, on whose summit was a 
statue of a man (homen ordinario : not a god, or demi-god) with a 
hand on the left hip and right arm out-stretched, pointing with the 
index finger to the north pole ; and each corner of the said plaza is 
an obelisk like those among the Romans, but now badly damaged, 
and cleft as by thunderbolts. 

"On the right side of the plaza is a superb building, as it were the 
principal town-house of some great lord of the land; there is a great 
hall (salao) at the entrance, but still being awed and afraid, not all 

of us entered in the hou being so many and the retre 

ed to form some ed we encounter a mass of extra- 

ordin it was difficult for him to lift it, ....... 

"The bats were so numerous that they fluttered in swarms 
round the faces of our people, and made so much noise that it was 
astonishing. Above the principal portico of the street is a figure in 
half-relief, cut out of the same stone, and naked from the waist 
upward, crowned with laurel, representing a person of youthful 
years, without beard, with a girdle (banda) around him, and an under- 
garment (urn fraldelim) open in front at the waist, underneath the 
shield (escudo) of this figure are certain characters, now badly 
defaced by time, but we made out the following : 





44 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

"On the left side of the plaza is another totally ruined building, 
and the vestiges remaining well show that it was a temple, because 
of the still standing side of its magnificent fagade, and certain naves 
of stone, standing entire. It covers much ground, and in the ruined 
halls are seen works of beauty, with other statues of portraits inlaid 
in the stone, with crosses of various shapes, curves (arches[?] corvos) 
and many other figures that would take too long to describe here. 

"Beyond this building a great part of the city lies completely 
in ruins, and buried under great masses of earth, and frightful 
crevasses in the ground, and in all this expanse of utter desolation 
there is seen no grass, herb, tree, or plant produced by nature, but 
only mountainous heaps of stone, some raw (that is, unworked), 

others worked and carved, whereby we understood they 

because again among of corpses that 

and part of this unhappy and overthrown, perhaps, by 

some earthquake. 

"Opposite this plaza, there runs very swiftly a most deep 
(cauddosd) and wide river, with spacious banks, that were very 
pleasing to the eye : it was eleven to twelve fathoms in width, with- 
out reckoning the windings, clear and bared at its banks of groves, 
as of trees and of the trunks that are often brought down in floods. 
We sounded its depths and found the deepest parts to be fifteen or 
sixteen fathoms. The country beyond consists wholly of very green 
and flourishing fields, and so blooming with a variety of flowers 
that it seemed as if Nature, more attentive to these parts, had laid 
herself out to create the most beautiful gardens of Flora : we gazed, 
too, in admiration and astonishment at certain lakes covered with 
wild rice plants from which we profited, and also at the innumerable 
flocks of geese that bred in these fertile plains (compos) ; but it would 
have been difficult to sound their depths with the hand, in the 
absence of a sounding-rod. 

"Three days we journeyed down the river, and we stumbled 
on a cataract (uma catadupa) of such roaring noise and commotion 
of foaming waters, that we supposed the mouths of the much talked 
of Nile could not have made more trouble or booming, or offered 
more resistance to our further progress. Afterwards, the river spreads 
out so much from this cascade that it appears to be a great Ocean 
(que parece o grande Oceano). It is all full of peninsulas, covered with 

green grass, with groves of trees, here and there, that make 

pleas Here, we find 

for want of it, we the 

variety of game many created brings without hunters 

to hunt and chase them. 

"On the eastern side of this cataract, we found various sub- 
terranean hollows (subcavoes] and frightful holes, and made trial of 
their depths with manv rot>es : but, after manv attempts we were 



DEAD CITIES OF ANCIENT BRAZIL 45 

never able to plumb their depths* We found, besides, certain broken 
stones,, and [lying] on the surface of the ground, thrown down, with 
bars of silver (crevadas de prata) that may have been extracted from 
the mines, abandoned at the time. 

" Among these caverns (fwnas) we saw some covered with a great 
flagstone, with the following figures cut into it, that suggest a great 
mystery. They are as follows: 




"Over the portico of the temple, we saw, besides, the following 
forms: 



f 




"Distant a cannon-shot from the abandoned city is a building 
like a country house (casa de campo), with a frontage of 250 feet. It 
is approached by a great portico, from which a stairway built with 
stones of various colours is seen to be leading into a great chamber 
(sala) y and from that there lead out fifteen small rooms, each with 
a door communicating with the said great chamber. Each room 
has its waterspout (or fountain : bica de agua) .................... 

the which water meets ...................... in the exterior 

courtyard .................................. colonnades in the 

sur .................................... squared and fashioned 

by hand, overhung with the characters following : 




"Thence, leaving that marvel, we went down to the banks of the 
river to see whether we could find gold, and without difficulty, we 
saw, on the surface of the soil, a fine trail promising great riches, 
as well of gold, as of silver : we marvelled that this place had been 
abandoned by those who had formerly inhabited it; for, with all 
our careful investigations and great diligence we had met no per- 
son, in this wilderness, who might tell us of this deplorable marvel 
of an abandoned city, whose ruins, statues and grandeur, attested its 
former populousness, wealth, and its flourishing in the centuries 
past; whereas, today, it is inhabited by swallows, bats, rats and 
foxes, that, fed on the innumerable swarms of hens and geese, have 
become bigger than a pointer dog. The rats have the tails so short 
that they leap like fleas and do not run or walk, as they do in other 
places. 



46 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

"At this place, the band separated, and one company, joined 
by others, journeyed forward, and, after nine days' long marchings, 
saw, at a distance, on the bank of a great bay (enseada) into which 
the river spreads, a canoe with some white persons, with long, flow- 
ing, black hair, dressed like Europeans 

a gunshot fired as a signal to 

for they escaped. They had 

shaggy and wild their 

hair is plaited and they wear clothes. 

"One of our company, named Joao Antonio, found in the ruins 
of a house a piece of gold money, of spherical shape, greater than 
our Brazilian coin of 6,400 reis : on one side was an image, or figure 
of a kneeling youth ; on the other, a bow, a crown, and an arrow 
(setta), of which coins we doubted not to have found many in the 
abandoned city; since it was overthrown by an eathquake, which 
gave no time, so sudden was its onset, to take away precious objects ; 
but it needs a very powerful arm to turn over the rubbish, accumu- 
lated in so many long years, as we saw. 

"This news is sent to your Honour from the interior of the 
province of Bahia and from the rivers Pard-oacu and Una, and 
assuring you that we shall give information to no person, whatso- 
ever; for we judge the villages are empty of people and boat owners. 
But I have given to your Honour the mine we have discovered, 
reminded of the great deal that is owed to you. 

"Supposing that from our band, one of our company went 
forth, at this time, with a different pretence .... he may, with great 
harm to your Honour, abandon his poverty and come to use these 
great things for his own benefit, taking great care to bribe that 
Indian [therefore], so as to spoil his purpose and lead your Honour 
to these great treasures, etc 



would find, in the entrances . 

flagstones 



Here are found, in the Portuguese MS., the strange, unknown 
characters following. They appear to have been engraved on the 
great stones, sealing the vault of treasure, or the mausolea (?), 
whose apertures and fastenings the bandeiristas, using all their 
strength, could not force wider, or open : 




DEAD CITIES OF ANCIENT BRAZIL 47 

So ends the strange story of the bandeiristas of Minas Geraes. 

It ipay strike the reader, as it did myself, when I saw this docu- 
ment, that, out of these forty-one characters, no fewer than twenty 
are almost identical in form with the letters of the Greek alphabet ; 
kappa, upsilon, zeta, phi, iota, gamma, beta, omicron, sigma> 
omega, lambda, chi, epsilon, psi (?), theta, nu, while two of the 
signs are remarkably like Arabic numerals. The startling signifi- 
cances of these amazing identities are, I propose to show, not 
accidental in their relationship to the Phoenician-Greek alphabet. 
These strange inscriptions on the flagstones of the vaults (?), 
found so far apart as Ceylon and the Brazilian highlands (as 
will be seen, infra), must be the oldest existing in the whole 
world. 

Thirty years later on March 23, 1773 the archives of the 
governor of the Southern Brazilian province of Sao Paulo record 
another accidental discovery of a dead Brazilian city of unknown 
age. It was found in the sertao, or unknown wilds, of the Rio Pequery. 
The commandant of the fort of Iguatemy reported to the governor 
in Sao Paulo that a fisherman, jumping ashore on a sandbank in 
the Rio Pequ&y, in order to plunder a grove of wild limes and sweet 
oranges, found a curiously shaped stone of large diameter. He said 
it was like a mos de moinhos (grindstone of a mill-wheel). Near by 
were the ruins of a house and an ancient stone wall. The com- 
mandant of the fort sent out from the garrison a canoa y manned by 
a sergeant and two ensigns, or soldiers, who penetrated the thick 
and unexplored forest and found vestiges of a city of unknown date. 



"This ancient city is regularly laid out, and is of large size. 
It had a street that is half a league long. The city stood on the 
banks of two rivers and had a walled suburb. Moats stood 
between the city and the suburb ... we unearthed two more 
of the strange mill-wheels, while we were making a stockade. 
All round are dense forests . . . die old men of the countryside 
have traditions that a city stood on this spot which was called 
Guayra." (Moats are said to be a feature of cities of Atlaritian 
origin. Author.} 

This report will be found filed in the archives of the governor of 
Sao Paulo. The soldiers tried to break a way through the dense 
forests in order to find if any descendants of the people, who once 
lived in the dead city, survived. What luck they had does not 
transpire ; but it may be said that btarded white Indians of the sort 
testified to in the above story of the year 1753 not albinoes were 
seen, as recently as 1932, by a German missionary who was wander- 
ing along the edge of the unexplored forests in Eastern Peru. 



48 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

More than once, Jesuit missioners, as Father Juan Lucero, reported 
meeting white Indians on the banks of the Rio Huallagua, a head- 
waters' tributary of the mighty Rio Marafion, or Amazon. The 
German missionary, in 1932, found he could not approach the 
strange "white Indians". They were shy, timid and furtive and met 
the forest Indians at the edge of a lake deep in the forests, where 
they bartered. Fray Juan Lucero, who heard of them in 1681, 
called them die Gurveros, and said they had for King a descendant 
of the Inca Tupac Amaru, who, with 40,000 Inca Peruvians, fled 
far away, eastwards of Cuzco, through the unexplored woods, away 
from the cruel Spanish conquistadores. He the friar seems to 
identify them with the other mysterious white race of El Gran 
Paytiti, who were ruled by a "Tiger-King" (Paytiti meaning jaguar), 
in a "white house" by a great lake. This is a very moot point, and 
I shall say more of this Paytiti mystery, in a following book. Tupac 
took with him a rich treasure which two rival bands of GastiUan 
banditti, in Peni, got wind of and decided to pursue Tupac and his 
Inca Indians. The bands met and fought to the death in the forests, 
the survivors being finished off by die savage Ghuncho Indians. 
Father Lucero says he had himself seen plates, half-moons and ear- 
rings of gold brought from this mysterious nation. 

It is curious and may be a more than accidental coincidence, 
that this sign of a half-moon figures among the inscriptions on the 
monuments in the abandoned Brazilian prehistoric city. 

A colony of these white and bearded Indians, long before the 
time of the Inca empire, fortified an island in Lake Titicaca, where 
they were exterminated by the pre-Inca chief Gari of the Golloas, 
which had migrated to Peril from old Mexico. 

Another of these old Adantean cities was visited by Fray Pedro 
Gieza de Leon, Spanish soldier-monk, who died in A.D. 1560. It 
was called Guamanaga, and is and was located on the great cordillera 
in lat. 12 59' S., long. 73 59' W. Gieza was tremendously im- 
pressed by the great edifices he saw there, all in ruins. 

"Who built them?" he asked the natives. 

"A bearded, white people, like you Spaniards/' said a cacique. 

"They came to these parts many ages before the Incas began 
to reign and formed a setdement here. . . . They do not seem to 
, me Inca buildings ; for they are square, not long and narrow. It 
is also reported that certain letters were found on a tile in these 
buildings. . . . The Indians also speak of bearded white men in 
the island of Titicaca.'' (Cicza de Leon.) 

As travellers know, the native and aboriginal races of South 
America are a beardless race! It is remarkable that one of die 

in th mvsterious dead citv of Tiahuanacu 







78 
- 8 



*-H 
CJ Tf 



O 




DEAD CITIES OF ANCIENT BRAZIL 4$ 

wore a beard always the mark of a very ancient race in South 
America, until the coming of the Spanish conquistadores. 
Says Cieza de Leon : 

"in the greater island that was swampy (palude), in Lake 
Titicaca, the Colloa chieftain came across ^rtiite people with 
beards (or whiskers), whom he fought in such a manner that 
he killed them all." 

That extermination of a South American, pre-Columbian, 
white race occurred many centuries before the first Inca emperor 
of the Sun held sway in old Quito and Guzco. It is probable that 
descendants of this white empire exist, today > in more than one part 
of unexplored Brazil, and among the Andean outliers, in regions 
ridh with gold, on the confines of the Amazon's headwaters. A chance 
encounter if it be chance that guides, seekers towards a solution of 
ancient mysteries! made in what used to be the "yellow-jack" 
port of Ecuador, threw (for the author of this book) the first light 
on this riddle of a very old world of America. 

In 1932 I was waiting for a steamer of the Grace Line, calling 
at the port of Guayaquil, Ecuador, when I met a Colombian, 
native of Medellin, who told me a very strange story about a lost 
world of this kind. He shook with malaria, and his body was badly 
emaciated, but what most impressed me about this sallow man was 
the fixed gaze from his dark bloodshot eyes the stare of one who 
had seen a vision of the unknown and was mastered by the awe and 
mystery of what he had seen. According to my informant he had 
been a member of an expedition led by a mysterious German doctor 
of science or philosophy, who hailed from Hamburg. In the year 
1926, or 1927, this expedition had quitted Obidos, in Brazil, bound 
for an unknown country in the Brazilian sertao. After many days, 
they found themselves in canoes well up a tributary of the Rio Negro, 
on the way to an Amazon tributary's headwaters territory. I gathered 
that this expedition was somewhere on the unknown borders of 
North- Western Brazil and Southern Venezuela, or the upper Orinoco 
country. 

The man of Medellin was purposely vague in his topo- 
graphy, and for a good reason : gold had been found, and a lot of 
gold) too! He mentioned various tribes of Indids bravos (wild and 
unpacifiable Indians) whose territories they touched. Tribes such 
as the Uapes, Guaipunyos, Metas, the Cirecois, the Eperemenos, 
and the redoubtable Garibs whom not even the early conquistadores 
were able to subdue; and my own knowledge of certain dark by* 
ways of South American history made me suspect that he had 
somehow got into a mysterious country once traversed by an Inca 
Way, leading through territories of pygmies and "white Indians'* 



5O MYSTERIES OP ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

towards Quito. (It may be still used, today, and by the same 
mysterious, white "Indians'* mentioned in this book*) It was in this 
very region that the far from mythical women warriors of South 
America the white and beautiful Amazons, women of the oldest 
race of European and Mediterranean navigators, the Carians 
had one of their colonial empires, as late as Sir Walter Raleigh's day. 
But the Colombian said nothing of them. 

"After we quitted the rivers, seflor Inglese, the landscape 
changed. No more green hells of verdure and lofty forest aisles 
where gloom and death lie waiting at the feet of giant trees. 
We left that inferno verde behind, and the country began to 
ascend. In a land of dry scrub, with few brooks or springs, we 
left far behind us, too, the booming drums of the wild Indians 
we never saw, who were signalling our passing through their 
territories. I noticed, one day, that all deer and wild animals 
we met fled from us at sight. It looked as if they feared some- 
thing in this mysterious country something unknown. This was 
many days after the last vestiges of the forest had faded into the 
dim, blue distance far back towards the Amazon. Then, 
one day, we came on a strange, stone object shrouded in 
bush and creepers. It was a stone monument, looking like 
this, senor . . ." 

The Colombian dipped his finger in his glass of aguardiente and 
drew a diagram on the dirty table in the wharf bodega. The shape 
was like a cut through the shorter axis of an ellipse. 

"Our leader, the German doctor, said it was an ancient 
pyramid, and began to look around for inscriptions, ancient 
writing, or what he called hieroglificos. . . . Some weeks later, 
I remember, we stood in a deep gorge through which raced a 
tumultuous current of deep, crystal waters, pure as though 
newly born from the snows of the giant Andes. Looking up, 
our leader, glancing through his Zeiss binoculars, pointed out 
to us, where, far up on the farther wall of the cafion, an ancient 
paved road ran. It cleft a wall of the upper cliff, from which it 
issued, and then it came to an abrupt end on the shelf of a pre- 
cipice, as if, in a far day, some giant earthquake had toppled 
the rest of the road into boulders of the stream bed we stood 
gazing at. 

"We camped in the gorge and spent some days explor- 
ing, A week later, we built a bridge across the gorge, by felling 
a tree growing on our side, and passed over to explore the 
ancient road. It was well paved with finely masoned and 
squared blocks of a stone, hard as granite. We followed the road 



DEAD CITIES OF ANCIENT BRAZIL 5! 

into a long tunnel cut through the cliff-walls, and, once in the 
sunlight, found ourselves on the hither side of a tremendous 
gulf, on the dim floor of which, far below, we faintly discerned 
some strange objects like queer buildings of no sort we had ever 
seen before. The paved way went ever climbing up the side of 
the precipices and, at last, brought us to where we could look 
down into another tremendous gorge or ravine. What we saw 
here took our breath away. ... A dead city of towering palaces, 
splendid ruins, temples, with more of the carved pillars and 
strange pyramids, mostly covered up with ages of trees and 
jungle. There were magnificent gardens where stood broken 
and agid fountains which once must have spouted with cool 
waters. Below us was an ancient wall, so high up, that trees of 
the forests below barely reached its summit. We walked further 
along the ancient way and came to where two queer thin 

towers, one shaped like the " (he meant the virile member) 

"the other .had a top like a pear very rounded at the base. 
Close by, at the foot of two other walls were many small stone 
houses. . . . 

"Here we ambushed and caught a dwarfish man, about 
four feet tall, with very red eyes. He had a thick bushy 
beard that reached below his waist, but his arm muscles were 
fat and big. Round his waist was a queer leather belt with gold 
* pure gold buckles of some sort. Otherwise, he was nearly nude. 
We met others of these pygmy men, and all had a most sickly 
sort of white skin. . . . Yes, seKor, white as yours, and not like an 
Indian's or a greaser's ! It was the white of old yellowed ivory. 
. . . We found they had women and they with beautiful faces, 
long hair, and either red or bluish eyes. They, too, were nude 
and their hair reached almost to their feet. The German said 
they were Greek in type ancient Greek. They wore gold brace- 
lets on their arms, and gold necklets. But their strange red 
eyes shone like a jaguar's in the firelight. What scared them 
were the reports of our guns. They'd never seen such things 
before." 

The man of Medellin and you may believe his story, or not 
told me that he and the others explored a great pyramid-temple 
whose interior fairly blazed with gold. It sheathed the pillars, the 
roofs and the walls. Strange letters were engraved on the gold plates. 
Some parts of the dead city were inaccessible. In fact, it would seem 
that only the suburbs of the dead city were entered by the roamers. 
The white men with the red eyes had become degenerate like 
Mr. H. G. Wells' Morlocks in the Time Machine. If they were not 
merely degenerate descendants of some very ancient and civilised 
South American race, then may be, said the German leader to my 



52 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

Colombian informant, they were the remains of a helot class of 
the same race. They lived on goat's flesh, cheese and milk. Qy,ien 
sabe? said my informant.* 

"In some of the pyramid-temples we entered, we saw deep, 
blue-veined marble altars (?) stained with ancient blood, or 
rust (?). Perhaps of ancient sacrifices, or, may be, of some 
horrible cult of the decayed remnants of this very ancient civilisa- 
tion. . . . But the gold, seHor, not even the Incas had so much to 
hide when Don Francisco Pizarro killed the Emperor Atahu- 
alpha. High overhead, there were alcoves or galleries actually 
stuffed with splendid gold objects, vessels, chains, chalices, in- 
signia, and shields and plates engraved with the strange hiero- 
glifoos. Some of these plates were three or four inches thick all 
solid gold, tons kilogrammes of it, sefior. I took one of the 
gold knives in one of the temples. Eight or ten of them had been 
attached to one of the pillars. The hilts and the blades were 
marvellously chased and engraved, as by the finest goldsmiths 
ever known. Looking up, in another splendid ruined stone 
building, which cut into the side of a hill, I staggered with 
amazement to see eight glorious suns, of pure, shining, blazing 
gold from which rays were made to shine out like stars. Groups 
of handsome men, beautiful women, naked youths and maidens 
were carved on the walls of this mausoleum, and over their 
heads and shoulders, like the halo or nimbus round the head of the 
Virgin, and the Saints or God, shone stars or moons of pure, 
shining gold. Chains hung down from the alcoves and pillars, 
and friezes were inscribed with the strange signs in rows. . . . 
Did I tell you, senor, that each of the dwarfs in the outskirts of 
this dead city, living either in tunnels, or rooms in the rock, or 
the little stone houses we saw, carried a long curved knife of 
pure gold? It was not valued here. I could tell you a lot more 
. . . especially about a queer sort of lock, like a stick with 9 rings, 
each ring forming one of the queer letters or hieroglificos, which 
we found on a gold chain in one of the queer pyramids. Appar- 
ently, you turned it to form a combination to open or lock the 

fetters " 

s 

* A little-known race of white "Indians'*, styled los Paria, live in a village significantly 
called Atlan, somewhere in the virgin forests between the Rio Apure and the Orinoco. They 
have traditions about a cataclysm which destroyed their ancient Fatherland, in Brazil, and 
also of a large island in the eastern ocean where dwelt a rich and civilised race (Atlantis?). 
They have never mingled with the Venezuelan Indians, but their women being white and 
beautiful, were often seized by surrounding caciques and taken into harems ! The Spanish 
chroniclers of old Santa Fe* de Bogota, where was located the audicncia governing these 
vast territories, say that these women were kept in a strict purdah of half -darkness, all 
their lives, and, like Welsh pit ponies, became blind. Sefior H. B. Nunez, the well-known 
archaeologist of Caracas, says great monoliths, incised with hieroglyphics, and carved 
pillars of ruins, are found in the forests of the little-known Orinoco headwaters of Venezuela. 
One day, I may repeat, these ruins wiB be explored and startling and revolutionary facts 
about the great white race of ancient niters of South America will coma to light. 



DEAD CITIES OF ANCIENT BRAZIL 53 

I gathered that the members of the expedition took as much 
gold as they could when they quitted the Lost World city ; and that, 
on their way out this heavy burden led to the death, at the hands of 
hostile, North Brazilian Indids, of more than three-quarters of the 
members. 

So much for the stories of the existence of strange white people, 
today handsome bearded men and beautiful white, nude women 
with symmetrical Greek features in the unknown sertSo of the 
central Matto Grosso and the Brazilian highlands, and northwards 
and north-westwards in the mountains beyond the headwaters of 
the Amazon and its tributaries. 

One must now return to the strange story told by the A.D. 1743- 
1753 bandeiristas of Minas Geraes and Bahia. 

A few months after the remarkable Manuscript of their Relatorio 
had again come to light, in 1841, in the former royal archives in 
Rio de Janeiro, a certain Senhor Conego Benigno Jos6 de Garvalho 
e Cunha, a canon and professor of a theological college in Bahia, 
conceived the idea of using his three months' annual vacation to 
seek this abandoned city of the bandeiristas of A.D. 1750. Whether or 
not the canon's motives were purely archaeological does not really 
matter. He was destined to experience the hardships that have 
usually attended the exertions of men seeking to advance the bounds 
of knowledge and receiving little more than tepid encouragement 
and fine, florid words from governmental and administrative 
authorities. 

Benigno carefully studied the bandeiristas Relatorio, and about 
this time he met a seventy-three-year-old man, in a village in a 
remote part of the province of Minas Geraes, who had journeyed 
into the wild and unknown region of the Brazilian sertdo. 

Scoffers abounded in the canon's day, as they do now. Says he, 
with justice: 

"There have not been wanting people who have ridiculed 
my diligence in this affair. They say the Relatorio of 1753 is fabul- 
ous; but I find it impossible to discover any reason of self-glori- 
fication and self-interest that could stimulate the invention of 
such a piece of fiction. The story has been written by rude, 
unlettered men, without order or sequence, just as it came back 
to their memory.'* 

Benigno comments on the caracteres gregos ou runnos (Greek 
letters, or "runes", copied, about A.D. 1750, by these bandeiristas, 
from the stone walls and vaults of the dead city. I shall state my 
conclusions about these remarkable inscriptions later in this book.) 
But what puzzled the canon is the mystery which has led to the 
loss of many lives including, perhaps, three well-known Eaglisfc 



54 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

explorers in the year 1926. . . . Just where does this abandoned city 
of gold and mystery lie? It is the Brazilian Golden Manoa of 1944! 
Says the canon : 

"I note that the 1753 adventurers descended a river that 
runs in front of the abandoned city, and, in nine days of hard 
marching, reached a cataract. They wrote their story immedi- 
ately after their coming down the rios Paraguassti and Unna, 
in the province of Bahia." 

He arrived at the conclusion that the dead city of gold and 
mystery lay behind the unknown Serra do Cincord in the sertdo 
of the province of Bahia. . . . 

"That is the highest and most inaccessible range in the 
interior of the province of Bahia. It burns with crystals set in. 
great rocks of the cliffs. Always, a thick mist covers it until noont 
On the northern side, a zigzag tromba (a paved way of ancien. 
date) climbs to the summit, and one can reach it in three hours 
That way has been hewn by force of human arms, and not by 
Nature. Today (the year 1841), the people of this village of 
Cincora have neither resolution nor vigour enough to explore 
the unknown country of this serra. On the left bank of a river, 
called the Brago da* X, a league and a half from the tromba, 
must be located desta antiga cidade (this ancient city of the dead). 
I need money to hire men and mules, for a forced march of 
io~ii leagues, from a little village to the road of the tromba, 
at whose summit I hope to sight the walls of the abandoned 
city." 

The rains, however, came on, and made all tracks impassable. 
So the canon had to content himself with interviewing the people 
in a little village, called Valena, located on the edge of die unknown 
Serra do Cincord. A cattle-dealer told the canon that he had once 
penetrated to the cataract called the Bra$o da X:* 

"but according to this statement I knew that, to the east 
the dead city was hidden in woods, and that he did not dare 
to penetrate the wilds. When he climbed above the waterfalls, 

* AUTHOR'S NOTE : I have made a slight elision in place-names in this narrative for 
reasons that I deem sufficient. The bandeirista of 2743-53 does not mention the name of 
the cataract in this connection. In his Rdatorio, he says his comrades reached the catadupa, ' 
or cataract, in three days' journey down the river. Toe nine days' journey seems to have 
taken place on a different occasion; when the baiukiristas split up and made an overland 
trip, till they reached the wide lagoon, where they saw the ''white Indians" in a canoe. A 
Hp, like this, would cause an appreciable error in replotting the ba*d*4n*tas' probable 
course and distance from a known river. 



DEAD CITIES OF ANCIENT BRAZIL 55 

* 

to the Brago da X river, he found that the Brago da X water- 
fall dashes tumultuously down from that high cataract by 
different channels (boccas), with great roaring of waters, and 
spreads out into various peninsulas, which are covered with 
verdure ; and that, on its eastern bank are many and very deep 
mines, some with gaping openings in the rocks of the mountains 
(abtrtas em penhas), that formed an arched vault (or arched 
roofs : abobada) underneath which he travelled to the beginning 
of the plain (piano) ; and then came to a stop, at an unfathom- 
able cavern (furna) or pit. He told me of a phenomenon he saw 
in those workings (socavoes) : a horrible noise is emitted from its 
mouths. He attributed it to the presence of a great quantity of 
gold and silver that it contains. And the reason for this pheno- 
menon is very clear : these gold mines stretch under the bed of 
the river, and have been broken down and caused to subside, in 
the lapse of time, weight and the movement of the waters. The 
water enters by the cavernous holes that the river forms in all 
that extensive basin, after its tranquil flowing, and suddenly 
impels the air with violence. It shoots out from these caves by 
the mouths of the mine- workings, roaring like a tremendous 
cannon-shot." 

The canon adds that he has been told that, through the un- 
explored forests, hiding the city of the dead from the summit of the 
mountains, there have been cut ancient lanes (picadas antigas), 
"opposite to the paved road found by the bandeiristas, and which 
led them to the ancient city of the dead". The cattle-dealer said 
he estimated it would take the canon fifty days to go arid fifty to 
return, with pack-mules. "If I hire mules and a guide, the cattle- 
dealer is ready to accompany me, about November I, 1841." 

Old men, in villages of this part of the sertdo of Bahia, had told 
the canon of traditions about an ancient city, under a mountain, 
that had been overwhelmed by an earthquake, and a flood. "He 
who went there never returned ... a long and perilous journey, 
beset with serpents and jaguars (oncas) . . ." 

"And there are savages, not wild (mansos), who went with 
me, two days above the rapids of the river which runs in front 
of the city of the dead, and they told me of all this. I resolved to 
raise a troop of armed Indians, in the village of San Fidelis, 
who will remain with me on that road." 

But money was wanted to finance the canon's search, and, at 
that day, money flowed to, not from the Royal and Imperial Govern- 
ment in BJo ! A scientific institute in Rio de Janeiro appealed to the 
General Assembly to provide the canon with a subvention, but all 



56 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

they seat him were the most charming good wishes and promises 
to operate matlana. 

Nevertheless, the canon was a man of courage and energy. In 
his veins, ecclesiastic as he might be by social accident, ran the blood 
of the older Lusitanian stock of the great age of Henry the Navi- 
gator, and not a spirit engendered by canna. His ancestors had not 
mixed their European blood with the rather timid or docile strain of 
Tupi, or Guarani. 

On December 23, 1841, after the rains had ended, the worthy 
canon, on his vacation, started out from Bahia city, on the trail for 
the dead city of the bandeirantes of 1753. A month later, he hitched 
the bridle-rein of his horse to a post of afaztnda whose owner knew 
the region of forest, scrub and chapada and serra for which the canon 
was bound. The fa&ndeiro, it was true, owned that he had never 
heard of this abandoned city of the dead ; but somebody else told 
the canon about a colony of runaway blacks escaped slaves or 
samboes in that region, who might be reckoned on to bar any gold 
seekers' way to the dead city. But something else now arose to bar 
the canon's way to riches and renown. 

The procrastinating Government sent no funds for the canon's 
exploration trip, and the local governor refused his aid . . . 

"I hired a horse to ascend to the barra of the rio Parassusinho. 
I had them burn the scrub and the catingas (undergrowth) so as 
to kill off the horrible ticks who plague travellers in these wilds. 
I hired a guide and was about to ride towards the catadupa 
(cataract), and, thence, go on to the coquUombo (log hut) of the 
fugitive blacks, when a malignant fever seized me and brought 
me to death's door." 

The luckless canon lay ill for five months. Fevers developed into 
pleurisies. As soon as he could sit up in his room, at the/0#wfo, or 
manor-house of the farm, he sent out two negroes with orders to 
explore the wilderness; and, in fifteen days, they returned with a 
story about an abyss (sumidouro) from which the river gushed forth. 
But they had seen no cataract such as the cattle-dealer had found. 
(This cataract was one of the landmarks of the banddristas of 1743- 

1753)- 

All round was dense forest. The blacks went on to a place called 
Timbo, on the Rio Grande, where they met travellers who told an 
odd story about the sert&o (interior) of the Cincor country. 

"These men, bound for a wedding, had opened a new horse, 
or mule track by which they came to Cincord. Last March 1841, 
they had reached the Geraes, where there is an old highway from 
the interior, and they lodged on the slopes of the hills (nwros), 



DEAD CITIES OF ANCIENT BRAZIL 57 

leaving their baggage, horses and mules, below, and saw a good 
road by which they might ascend the hills, noting the crystals 
* on the face of the rocks. They went on foot to the top, and 
observed that the road was furnished with snares for wild beasts 
(murdtos). Arrived at the summit, they saw, in the distance, about 
a league away, a great city, in which a drum beat, and in the 
hour of the Ave Maria, they saw ascend from it many fireworks 
(or rockets \foguetes) ; they withdrew, and when they arrived at 
the rancho, alone, they met the packhorses, and the negroes 
had burnt all their clothes and provisions. They again took the 
road and did not come near any game when they reached the 
Gincord; so that, in truth, they had died of hunger if they had 
not reached that place." 

The canon gathered, from what these men told him, that the 
fugitive blacks had made themselves "lords of the abandoned city", 
behind the mountain-tops, and kept all others away from it. He made 
one more appeal for financial help from a learned society in Rio de 
Janeiro. There were good Samaritans who had helped him when he 
lay sick in the remote fa&nda. He wanted to pay them back. "I 
plan/ 5 he added, "to set off, again, on September 15, 1842," but 
feared that the blacks in the coquilombo would prevent his own 
negroes from penetrating beyond the serra, and would prevent him 
from examining the ancient monuments in the abandoned city. . . . 
He ends with a piteous plea. The aura of misfortune, blasting the 
bodies and withering the hopes of seekers long before and long after 
the canon's day, had emanated from the dead city of mystery and 
gold. It had lighted on the canon of Bahia, even as it had descended 
and would descend on many others long before and after that day, 
August 20, 1842: 

"I beg the authorities for a loan to satisfy my worthy creditors, 
seeing that, out of my slender income, I have already spent over 
200,000 reis. I want only to bring the affair to an end. I used the 
money of the Institute in Rio almost entirely for the purchase of 
saddle and pack-horses, two of which were of no use to me ; for 
the horse died of plague and the mule broke its back. God keep 
you for many years !" 

However, the worthy canon was not to reach the dead city. The 
old gods of the land had spoken. The fevers and the pleurisies wasted 
him away to a skeleton, and for many weeks he lay at death's 
door in the room at \htfazenda on the edge of the trackless forests. 
When he recovered, he was overwhelmed by financial difficulties, 
and to his appeal for help the authorities in Rio, as before, returned 
only promises. 



58 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

Yet was the canon luckier than many others in this adventure. 
For they lost life as well as treasure. 

And that is the last one hears of the canon of Bahia and his un- 
lucky attempt to locate and penetrate to the lost city of the ban- 
deiristas. Today, in 1945, the Serra do Sincord, wherein the canon 
believed the dead city, which might have been 60,000 years old, 
was located, is surrounded by dense forests through which picadas, 
or tracks, lead to open glades. Sincord, which may be reached on a 
branch of the Bahia South- Western Railway, is a place of weeds, 
dirt and decay. Like one of the ghost towns of Nevada and Cali- 
fornia, it once hummed with wickedness and colourful black- 
guardism and activities which was when it was the centre of 
diamond diggings. 

It does not seem ever to have struck the canon that it was a pro- 
blem like unto the riddle of the Children of Israel wandering for 
forty years in a peninsula the size of New Jersey, to account for the 
fact that the bandeiristas, starting out in 1743, contrived to end up, 
ten years later, in a place so comparatively near their starting-point 
as the interior of Bahia province. Might not the bandeirantes have 
struck the dead city at a place farther to the west, or south-west, 
in the unknown sertdo of Brazil? 

That was certainly the opinion of expeditions in the more 
scientific nineteenth and twentieth centuries. There was the famous 
Krupps of Essen German armament makers for example. They 
supposed that it was in the western province of the Matto Grosso 
that tfce dead city lay. In the igoos, they organised a large expedi- 
tion of armed men, guides, Indians, pack-animals, transport 
financed to the tune of 100,000. It was one of the finest expedi- 
tions ever started into the unknown of Brazil ; but, at its approach, 
the wild Indians vanished into thin air, reappearing only at night, 
and revealing their dangerous presence by showers of poisoned 
arrows, discharged from the dense bush. By day, the distant drums 
of the "bush telegraph" beat, smoke signals announced afar the 
presence of white strangers. Many of these Indi6s bravos of the Matto 
Grosso arc cannibals and head-hunters, some of whom see better in 
the dark than a prowling feline. Bleak foothills of the chapada and 
the barren scrub of the catinga, and miles of marsh and swamp bar 
the way to the "White Mountains", where, say the Indians, live a 
race of superior white beings. The geologist Troussart says this wild 
region was one of the first to emerge from the primaeval floods of the 
Miocene Age, of the Tertiary epoch. It is about the oldest land on 
the globe. 

However, what beat the Krupp expedition was not the Indians, 
or the bush dangers ; but the fact that their men and animals could 
not live on the country. Commissariat beat them ! 

My friend, Admiral Bertram Chambers, C.B., who spent many 



DEAD CITIES OF ANCIENT BRAZIL 59 

years on the South American station, in the British Navy, and has 
travelled extensively in South America, raises a point that I had 
better deal with here. He writes me that, when he was in Perii, 
he was shown, by a physician, photographs of Indians of that state, 
and of the Andean regions, who were white albinoes. May not these 
elusive white Indians of Brazil and the Amazon headwaters' territory 
be albinoes, he asks? 

The answer is JVO ! 

The old British buccaneers of Sawkins' and Barty Sharp's day 
knew of white Indians with blue eyes and auburn hair. They said 
they were "moon-eyed" and could see in the dark. I here cite a 
curious passage from an unpublished MS. except in a book of 
mine, here quoted of the late seventeenth century, which MS. is 
in my possession. It was written in 1683 by an unknown buccaneer : 

"They have among them (the Panama Indians) them they 
call Doctors, that can raise the Divill at their Pleasure; they 
knew of our comeing, and att what time we should be their". 
(Extract from the MS. of an unnamed lower-deck man aboard 
the buccaneering ship of Captain Coxon, in the Spanish Main, 
and off the coast of "Castillo del Oro," in the years 1680-2. 
It is cited from a MS. published in my book : Panorama of (South 
and Central American) Treasure Hunting, published by E. P. Duttoii 
and Co., Inc., of New York City, in 1940. It is the earliest 
reported case of the existence of the "bush telegraph" in unknown 
Panama. Author.) 

Short, in his North Americans of Antiquity, says that among the 
Menominee, Dakota, Mandan, and Zuni (North American Indians) 
were many with auburn hair and blue eyes, and with a prevailing 
white tint of skin. The queer, Lancandones Indids, on the borders of 
Western Guatemala and the bush of Chiappas, Mexico's frontier 
state, are also white, though degenerate and dwarfish. May be, they, 
too, are survivors of a once ruling white race of South and Central 
America. I here subjoin a passage from a monograph of mine on 
American "white Indiaas" : 

Theories are various about these "white Indians" of unknown 
Darien. The buccaneers of Wafer's day spoke of their milk-white 
skins covered with short down. They said they saw best in the 
moonlight, and ran skipping round like wild bucks. Among the 
Cunos Indians live Indians with reddish hair and grey eyes . . . 
"Entre ellos los albinos no son raros, y algunos hombres de piel 
casi blanca y cabello rojo dan testimonio del paso frecuente y 
larga permanencia de los piratas por aquellos lugeres". (So, 
Ramon M. Valdes). ("And among them albinoes are not rare, 



60 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

arid some men of skin nearly white and red hair give testimony 
to the frequent passage and long sojourn of pirates in those 
places".) 

But suppose these degenerate white men are the survivors of 
a lost colony of old Atlantean Hy-Brazil? A colony established 
near Palenque, by the wise man Quetzalcoatl of Hy-Brazil, 
whom a catastrophe of nature may have prevented returning 
from Brazil? Qyien sabe, senores? 



CHAPTER III 

JUNGLK LIGHT THAT SHINES BY ITSELF 

"The dead also look on and help." 

D. H. LAWRENCE. 

Now, as we peer into this mysterious ancient world of South America, 
let us once more consider the strange "runic" set of inscriptions 
as the worthy conego (canon) of Bahia would have called them, quite 
erroneously which the bandeiristas of A.D. 1750 found engraved on 
the great sealed flagstone, sealed with the cement of immemorial 
time and weathering. As we see, they could not, using all their 
strength and the tools and weapons at their command, lever up one 
inch even of the end of the flagstones sealing vaults of what they 
believed to be either strange talismans, or treasures. Here, again, 
are these bizarre and incredibly ancient signs, at least 30,000 and 
probably even 60,000 years old, so incredibly ancient is South 
American civilisation and so far are men, posing as authorities 
thereon, from realising the truth, instead of maintaining hoary 
fallacies :* 






Signs in the dead city of Brazil. 
I have been able to find only two ancient Asiatic letters in any 

* See Chapter V for comparative study of the unknown, South American Atlantean 
inscriptions. 



JUNGLE LIGHT THAT SHINES BY ITSELF 6l 

way corresponding to two, only, of these strange signs. They 
arc: 

KANHBRI INSCRIPTIO 
TIBETAN (India, c. 877 B.C.) 



Value : ta. Value : da. Value : tt. 

What is the origin of these queer signs? What is their meaning? 
Let us see how far we can cast a ray of light into the dark mystery 
of thousands of years. (Why I say Asiatic will soon appear.) The 
light will come from a youthful experience in the life of a famous 
Englishman who has recently himself become a mystery of Brazil's 
unknown wilds. 



One morning, in the year 1893, a young British officer a 
gunner-lieutenant stationed at Trincomalee, Ceylon, was taking 
his annual leave, starting out, accompanied only by a jungle- wallah, 
on a trip into a wild and little-known part of this mysterious and 
romantic island of strange secrets. Its jungles and mountains are as 
mysterious, today, as in the time of M. Annaeus Seneca, the Roman 
rhetor, father of the more famous Seneca, the philosopher, who 
wrote: "Beyond India is the island of Taprobane, the end of the 
world; after which begins eternal night." 

The young officer was keenly interested in archaeology, and 
accustomed to long tramps and solitary journeys into places remote 
even from native jungle tracks. Two days later, while he was en- 
gaged in researches of an ethnological and botanical character, he 
was overtaken, deep in the forest, by a storm of such violence and 
tropical downpour, that he soon saw that he and the wallah would 
have to spend the whole night under the trees. The terrific intensity 
of the lightning flashes, searing the black darkness in which not 
even a bird rustled or monkey chattered, served merely to show that 
he had completely lost his way. All night, he and the scared jungle- 
wallah cowered in the shelter of trees and bushes, drenched to the 
skin, while the incessant thunder rolled in crashing reverberations 
which made the silence of the forest even more eerie. Towards dawn, 
the tempest began to let up, and the tattered clouds wisped across 
the sky; but a hot, white and clammy ground mist hid the sur- 
roundings. Slowly it cleared away, and then the officer started in 
astonishment and some awe. Here, deep in the old home of the 
mysterious gods of ancient Seleidiva, the unknown was unveiling 



62 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

itself* He found himself confronting an immense rock, covered with 
parasites and lianas. A tendril of one of the creepers had fallen aside 
and disclosed what looked to be some very ancient inscriptions of 
quite unknown character and meaning. The wallah started to cut 
away the clinging vines and then the young officer saw that the 
ancient rock was indeed covered with unknown inscriptions, in 
very large characters, which seemed to be letters of an alphabet, 
or a syllabary, or glyphs, more than half as old as Time himself. 

He took a copy of the inscriptions, and when he got back to 
civilisation, again, eagerly questioned a learned Sinhalese priest, 
who said that the writing was a form of Asoka, of the old Asoka- 
Buddhists, and in a cypher which only those ancient priests under- 
stood. This assertion, ten years and more later, was repeated by a 
Sinhalese scholar in the Oriental Institute at Oxford, who added the 
not very comprehensible statement, that he, the scholar, was the 
only man living who could read the strange inscriptions, but that 
even so, he would need to visit the rock himself, and take a careful 
rubbing, because "the meaning of the characters would be changed 
in accord with the incidence of the sun's rays, at certain times of the 
day". Even after reading, die cypher would need to be decoded, 
said the palaeographer. 

(In actual fact, or what the Sinhalese palaeographer averred 
was the case, the bizarre inscriptions record the cacheing, in a time 
of great dearth, or famine, of an immense treasure laid under the 
great, mossy, time-worn boulder. The cache must be thousands of 
years old.) 

Twenty-two years passed by, and the young gunner-officer had 
become a distinguished colonel and D.S.O. Colonel P. H. Fawcett 
well known all over South America for his services in the cause 
of science and his expert work in the very difficult task of delimiting 
frontiers in the wilds of Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Brazil. In 1925 
Colonel Fawcett, accompanied by his son Jack, and a young camera- 
man, Raleigh Rimell, the son of a retired British naval officer, set 
out from Guyaba, the frontier town in the province of Rondonia, 
of the Matto Grosso (Great Woods) of Brazil, on the trail of a dead " 
city, of unknown age, in the mountains of Brazil, on whose walls 
and pillars and porticoes had been found inscriptions, fourteen out of 
twenty-four characters of which are identical with those he had 
accidentally discovered, more than thirty years before, in the jungle- 
forest of Ceylon. 

From that time, in April and May 1925, there have come out of 
these unexplored jungles and chapadas of Brazil little more than ru- 
mours and legends about the unknown fate of the Fawcett expedition. 
True, they are rumours that rustle among the leaves of the Brazilian 
forests like ghostly whispers heard beneath and among the trees of a 
"haunted wood'' on All Hallowe'en, but now and again, at rare 



JUNGLE LIGHT THAT SHINES BY ITSELF 63 

intervals, the careful listener hears an authentic echo of the sound of 
o a living voice. 

The Sinhalese priests and the Orientalist at Oxford spoke of 
a "secret Asoka cypher" ; but this chapter tries to prove that those 
strange writings syllabary rather than hieroglyphs, and assuredly 
not Amero-Indian pictographs are something far more remarkable 
than even hieratic cypher-script if it be that of an esoteric, 
Hindu cult. 

The next person known to have reached the dead city of the old 
bandeiristas if we except the ubiquitous and often courageous and 
devoted mission priests and monks of the Jesuit order was a 
British officer, former British Consul-General in Rio. He was Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel O'Sullivan (referred to infra),, and had acquired old 
Portuguese documents, either from the Biblioteca Nacional, the 
repository of the former Lusitanian viceroys' archives, or from Faw- 
cett direct. O'Sullivan,* accompanied by a Brazilian-Indian guide, 
set out for the unknown serra, but in order to put inquisitive trackers 
off his trail, gave out that he was merely a garimpeiro, or diamond- 
digger bound for some old diamond- workings. That was in 1913, 
and O'Sullivan had been given, by Colonel Fawcett, a nearly blank 
map in which he was to fill in his route through this part of the 
Bahian sertdo, where our worthy canon came to grief, in 1840. In 
1921 Fawcett used his route map and it was so accurate that, alone 
without even a guide, he penetrated to this dead city. He subse- 
quently wrote to a friend in Rio : 

"I went alone; for I knew I should have much less need to 
fear the Indians, who will not attack a man alone who meets 
them fairly. I reached the catinga in the serra, northwards of 
Bahia . . . and in the midst of primaeval woods, stood before a 
mass of jumbled ruins. The city had been a walled one of 
ancient date. Here, wreathed in jungle and bush there stood a 
giant monolith crowned by a weather-worn figure, carved in 
stone . . ." 

Colonel Fawcett, however, never indicated its location, as I 
have done here, and said very little about what he saw. It would 
also appear that Fawcett did not identify this dead city with the one 
he was seeking when, in 1925, he set out into the unknown wilds of 
the Matto Grosso, and was lost about the region between the Rios 
Xingu and Tapajos. He makes some very interesting remarks about 
these dead cities which must indicate their tremendous age. He 
says: ! 

* O'Sullivan died in hospital at Belem, of cancer. He was a healthy man. Others who 
have gone on the trail of these dead cities have died of mysterious diseases, or been stricken 
with inexplicable blindness, or met dire misfortune. May be, it would be a case of post hoc 
ergo propUr hoc to suggest anything more. 



64 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

"There was no jungle against which the walls of these ancient 
cities served as defence. Those walls must have acted as break- 
waters in a far-off day when the sea reached far inland. The 
openings in their walls are arched, filled in with masonry 
and have no doors. So they feared no attack from any jungle, 
but from encroachments of the sea. Each city was destroyed 
by an earthquake. . . . All the Indian tribes in South America 
have traditions of their ancestors being ruled by men of a 
white race, very far advanced in the arts of civilisation." 

The amazing, possible age of these dead cities of the Brazilian 
highlands is suggested in what the German geologist, Friedrich 
Katzer, says: 

"The old highlands of Brazil must once have extended east- 
wards into the Atlantic, and were largely built of materials 
derived from the destruction of a drowned Atlantic land. ..." 

Professor J. W. Gregory, the distinguished geographer who 
was drowned in the rapids of the Upper Urubamba river, in 1932, 
when he was putting the seal to his life-long work : the discovery of 
the age at which the Andes uprose from the bed of the Pacific, said, 
years ago, though he was not referring to these lost- world theories : 

"The wide, lowland plains, in S. America, were doubtless 
once occupied by the sea, which then divided this continent into 
two distinct parts, or lands. These lowland plains hold the basins 
of the Amazon, the Orinoco, and the La Plata." (Vide: Geo- 
graphy : Structure, Physical and Comparative.) 

I have mentioned above the two attempts of the Germans to 
find these dead cities of Hy-Brazil. The first, sponsored by Krupps 
of Essen, lost many animals and much transport at the hands of the 
wild Indians of die Matto Grosso ; but it was, as I said, commissariat, 
in a land where white men and mules, or tough burros in a large 
expedition cannot live on the country, that really beat them and 
their characteristically thorough organisation. Doktor Eckener also 
proposed to by-pass the difficulties by flying over the appalling 
territory in his Graf %eppelin previously used, it is now admitted, 
to photograph military details of London's defences. 

Colonel Fawcett believed he might succeed where a highly 
organised expedition would fail. He had good reasons for thinking 
so ; for no man knew and had greater personal experiences of the 
dangerous tribes who bar the road to these dead cities of Brazil. 
Fawcett had also pioneering visions of a new Kenya colony type of 
pastoral state being set up on these highlands of the Matto Grosso. 



JUNGLE LIGHT THAT SHINES BY ITSELF 65 

He had a remarkable knowledge of the arcana of South American 
, pre-bistory. Books of wonderfully executed hieroglyphic paintings, 
he said ^quoting von Humboldt's story of Narcissus Gilbar, the 
white friar), were found among naked savages in the Peruvian 
montana, at Ucayle, near the Amazon headwaters. The ancient 
Peruvians, as Jesuit missioners discovered, used both painting and 
characters ; and all over South and Central America are traditions 
of white-bearded men who, in the persons of Quetzalcoatl and 
Bochicha, taught laws, agriculture and religion to primitive races, 
who said these men came from the east.* The dresses pictured on 
bas-reliefs in the dead cities in Brazil were, he said, found on totem- 
poles in British Columbia, and in unknown parts of Amazonas 
there were tribes actually worshipping Wodan, or Odin, god of 
magic and war and no archaeologist can explain why this is so ! 
(I have offered a solution of these enigmas, in a chapter following.) 
But as Colonel Fawcett more than once pointed out, in his lecture 
given, in 1911, before the Royal Geographical Society in London, 
nothing will ever be found out by pottering about among debased 
savages (contaminated by white men's vices) in the known rivers. 
To solve these riddles and effect a revolution in our ideas of whence 
arose civilisation perhaps, in the so-called New World, in the 
highlands of Brazil, thousands of years ago, rather than in the Old 
World, so-called, of Europe and Asia the explorer must follow the 
hard path of the pioneer, live on the country, eschew luxuries, 
emulate the hardy Portuguese bandeiristas. He believed that English- 
men, "perhaps the race most respected of any in South America", 
would lead the way in this new advance of the human spirit. (The 
late Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, present at this lecture, gained from it 
the inspiration for his entertaining novel: The Lost World: the 
Adventures of Professor Challenger.} 

It is pointed out in Brazil that an aura of evil fate today, as in 
that of the conego of Bahia, in 1841 ( Vide pages 57, 63 supra] , or much 
earlier, has seemed to hang over all expeditions, whether organised 
by scientists or explorers, or the missionary journeys of Jesuit or 
Franciscan monks from the sixteenth century to our own day, which 
have made personal contact with these dead cities in old Brazil. 
So many of those who have returned and more have perished 
without trace have died untimely, or of lingering and painful 
diseases. It was in 1926, when Colonel P. H. Fawcett, D.S.O., 

* AUTHOR'S NOTE: Quetzalcoatl, the civiliser of pre-Mayan Yucatan, Mexico, and Central 
America, was not a god. He was, as my researches show, one of the race of Hy-Brazil, some 
30,000, or fewer, years ago, before the time of the great cataclysm that upheaved the Andes 
and sank Atlantis, When portents threatened the existence of Hy^Brazilian civilisation in 
South America, Quetzalcoatl was one of the band of wise men in black, including Viracocha 
and Bochicha, who went out to find lands not so menaced by vulcanisrn and quakes. How 
far Quetzalcoatl's own missioners went, some 30,000 or 20,000 years ago, is shown by my 
own curious discovery that the Thompson Indians of British Columbia have a story of the 
Great Deluge-Cataclysm in which Quetzalcoatl actually figures, under the name of 
as a "man who, with two others, worked miracles and transformed things", 



66 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

and his son Jack, and their friend, Raleigh Rimell, of English descent, 
left the frontier township of Guyabd, in the Western Matto Grosso, 
to try to penetrate to the lost world of these Atlantean dead cities* 
Fawcett was sponsored by British and American learned societies 
and museums, including the Royal Geographical Society of London. 
He took a radio instrument, and at one time planned to use a hydro- 
plane to help him descend from the headwaters of one of the rivers 
flowing to the mighty Amazon from this land of the unknown. 
Indians had told him of dead cities in the Brazilian mountains, 
behind ramparts of forest and marsh, and of a strange fixed light, 
burning night and day, on ancient pillars. "It never goes out," said 
the Indians. 

Just before he went aboard the liner for Rio, Fawcett had a 
talk with Dr. Clark Wissler of the New York Historical Museum. 
The Colonel seems to have told Dr. Wissler that he (Fawcett) had 
been told by a dying man of the location of one dead city in the 
"White Mountains". No one else knew anything about it. 

Says Wissler : 

"Nobody can say what may, or may not be found in the Matto 
Grosso. Colonel Fawcett was convinced that he knew what was 
there, and where to look for it ; but he told us no more than he 
has told the public." 

Coming from a scientist of the calibre of Dr. Clark Wissler of 
New York, this warning about the mysteries of the Matto Grosso 
deserves marked attention. About the last persons on earth to know, 
or even care about these mysteries are, with rare exceptions, the 
Brazilian professors and scientists in Rio, Bahia and Sao Paulo. 

Fawcett's friends speak of other strange tales brought to the 
Colonel by wandering Indians, whose tribal lore he had so thoroughly 
studied in the Matto Grosso and on the borders of Brazil and Bolivia, 
Perii and Ecuador. Few people knew more than he of the ways of 
the untamed Indians. There were cities in the Brazilian wilds and 
Amazonian headwaters, he said, dating back to 50,000 and 60,000 
B.C.! White Indians with beards and blue eyes; a light burning 
without smoke or fire in jungle cities; words akin to Sanscrit; 
legends of the worship of the old Norse god Odin, in Brazilian wilds ; 
of the existence, today, of the famous woman soldiers called the 
Amazons who fought against the Spanish conquistadores, under 
Don Francisco de Orellana, in 1542 ; and of a "tremendous hoard of 
gold and jewels" made "by Qjietzalcoatl (?)" the Mexican god- 
man of the Aztecs and Toltecs.* (Quetzalcoatl, say old Mayan 

* Quetzalcoatl, the ancient Central American missionary from Atlantean Brazil, would 
hardly have relished these (our) days of the 20th century! He stoppsd his ears with cotton* 
wool, when there was talk of war and warriors. His imagss show him enhalosd with th 
disc, or half-disc, of the sun. 



JUNGLE LIGHT THAT SHINES BY ITSELF 67 

traditions and Mexican legends, was a white man with a flowing 
beard, who came from the east across the ocean originated letters, 
taught arts of civilisation, and sailed away again, to the east, in a 
canoe of serpent skins!) (Vide: also Author's note, page 65 supra.) 

No one knows what happened to the Fawcetts father and son 
and young Mr. Rimell. In fact, the Matto Grosso swamps and 
jungles are such queer places, with records of white men detained 
by Indian tribes for twenty-five or thirty years and then returning 
to civilisation, that one would not deem it impossible, if improbable, 
that Colonel Fawcett himself is still alive, perhaps in the recesses of 
the mystic White Mountains, or the hinterland of the Serra do 
Roncador, even, today, 1945. 

No doubt some English or American folk will say that it is a 
thousand pities that the British Government, or some authoritative 
body, or learned society has made no effort to send out a special 
expedition, ad hoc, to solve this mystery of the vanishing of the 
Fawcett party into the unknown, especially as they are, or were, all 
of British origin. These people may say that it is regrettable that such 
a task was left to private enterprise where, necessarily, the questions 
of finance and recoupment have had to be made subsidiary to the 
main task one difficult enough in all conscience ! the acting of 
the H. M. Stanley to this Brazilian Livingstone. 

However, that would not have been the view of Colonel Fawcett 
himself, for, on the authority of one close to him, I am informed he 
said, just before leaving for the unknown : 

"If there is any attempt to send an expedition after us, to 
discover our fate or fortune and we expect to be right away 
from civilisation for two or more years for God's sake, stop 
them ! England has nothing to do with this quest. It is a matter 
for Brazil, entirely." 

I have said that out of all the dark clouds of rumours 
that have, in the last fifteen and more years, drifted out of the 
unknown wilds into the frontier settlement town of Cuyabd, in 
Rondonia, at the other end of the Brazilian overland telegraph line, 
very rarely has one heard come the echo of an authentic living voice. 
Most of these stories are not worthy of credence or examination, but, 
in April 1933, the silence of the dead was broken. A missioner of the 
Dominican friars told the Italian embassy in Rio that an Indian 
woman had said : 

"The Fawcett party are held prisoners in a camp between 
the Rios Kuluesene, Kuluene, and Das Mortes. Colonel Fawcett 
has been forced to marry a daughter of an Indian chief (so said 
the Indian woman)." 



68 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

About this time a curious story reached the Royal Geographical 
Society, in London, from Monsignor Coutouran of the Salesian 
Mission Fathers of Lageado, in Matto Grosso. The ecclesiastic en- 
closed a statement from Signor Virginio Pessione, who said that on 
July 30, 1933 he had visited an estate on the Rio Sao Manoel, 
north of the Rio Paranatinga, which lay many miles to the north- 
west of Dead Horse Camp, Fawcett's last camp on the edge of the 
unknown. Here, the owners said : 

"An Indian woman of the Nafucua tribe of the Cuycuni 
captaincy had been living for a year. She had learnt a few words 
of Portuguese and conveyed the news of white men living for 
several years with the Aruvudus. Helped by a Bakairi Indian, 
who spoke Portuguese, Pessione got a statement from the 
Indian woman, made partly in sign language. She said : 'When 
my son was still at the breast, there arrived in my village three 
white men and Indians, descending the Kuluene in a large canoe. 
One white man was tall, old, and blue-eyed, also bearded and 
bald. Another was a youth, said to be the son of the first ; the 
third was of greater age. The elder wore a felt hat and colonial 
helmet. . . . About a year ago, I saw them last. They were well 
and spoke the Aruvudu tongue. The man with the long, white 
beard was now chief of the tribe; his son had married the 
daughter of the chief, Jeruata. They had a plot of land, but 
moved from village to village, continually watched by the Indians, 
who would have killed them had they tried to escape. The white 
men had no bullets to their guns and were very near to such wild 
tribes as the Suyas and Cayapos,' " 

Pessione said the Indian woman's son must now be 9-10 years, 
the white men having arrived in 1925-26. 

However, it must be pointed out that there is no proof that these 
detained whites were the Fawcett party > despite the story of the American 
missionary, Paul W. Guiley, of the Inland South American Mission, 
who says that, in September 1934, in a village of the Kuikuris 
(or Cuycurus) he was shown a young boy with a white and not 
brown skin, blue eyes and close-cropped hair, whom an old chief 
said was a son of one of the Fawcett party and an Indian girl, a 
daughter having died. The Kuikuru Indians told the missionary 
that Colonel Fawcett stayed with them a year, and left in the direc- 
tion of the Rio das Mortes.* 

* A similar story is told by Miss Marthe L. Moennich, an American woman missionary 
She, in a book published at Grand Rapids, Mich., in 1942 (?), says she is convinced that 
"Providence has enabled her to solve the mystery of Colonel Fawcett's 'vanished party*. 
The half-caste boy (who she thinks is Jack Fawcett's son by an Indian woman) is named 
Dulipe. The Indians 'killed the Fawcett party, out of pity', shooting great arrows at them 
to save them from the worse fate of pushing into a country of the unknown where lingering 
death inevitably awaited them/' However, here again, one is forced to bring in a verdict 



JUNGLE LIGHT THAT SHINES BY ITSELF 69 

It is known that Colonel Fawcett took great care to destroy all 
traces of camp-fires in the woods of the catinga, so as to leave no 
trail to be followed up by adventurers and reckless garimpeiros 
(diamond-diggers). He also, I was told in Rio de Janeiro, took 
with him an old Jesuit chart and a written account of one of the 
missioners who penetrated to a dead city in the central Brazilian 
highlands. 

Then came a remarkable discovery. The Brazilian deputy of the 
state of Matto Grosso, Colonel Aniceto Botelho, found in the jungle 
of the Matto Grosso, near the camp of the Bacaari Indians about 
the region where the Fawcett party disappeared into the unknown 
Colonel Fawcett's theodolite compass, in perfect condition, 
with no sign of mildew on the glass. The Colonel might almost have 
laid it down in the bush on the day when it was found in April 
1933! At this stage, I cannot refrain from quoting from a remark- 
able letter written to me in February 1940 by the Colonel's devoted 
wife, Mrs. Nina Fawcett his constant assistant in his scientific 
undertakings. Mrs. Fawcett, then in her seventieth year, is (or was 
recently) living in Peru where she had gone, partly in order to be 
within aeroplane flight of Brazil when and who knows how soon 
that may be? authentic tidings of Colonel Fawcett comes out of 
the unknown jungle of the Matto Grosso: 

"To me that (the discovery of the theodolite-compass) is 
reason to believe that Colonel Fawcett was alive and working with his 
surveying instruments in the Matto Grosso jungle as recently 
as April 1933. My husband was then alive and working, and 
probably had a certain amount of freedom, though under con- 
stant surveillance of the Indian tribe which, I believe, captured 
them about 1926 or 1927, and with whose people they were 
obliged to remain. This tallies with information received by a 
party of Italian surveyors, working for the government. That 
information came from native Indian sources and was sent to the 
president of the Royal Geographical Society in London, with a 
letter from the head of the Salesian Mission, who had good 
reason to believe the story as I do also!" 

Mrs. Fawcett told me (in 1940) that she was ready at any 
moment to fly to Brazil by air, in order to investigate what she 
would deem to be authentic tidings of the Fawcett party : 

"I came to Peni two years ago, to spend the rest of my life 
... I firmly believe that, at any time, someone may find one or 

of non-proven, as to the identity of this party. Things may perhaps have happened, as the 
Indian told Miss Moennich; but the mystery is still unsolved; albeit Miss Moennich's story 
has been given a picturesque and pathetic **twist" by some Indian in a Xingu jungle. N.B. 
I quote merely from a review of Miss M.'s book, in the London Timts Literary Supplement, 
August i, 1942. AUTHOR. 



7O MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

other of the watertight aluminium cases containing Colonel Fawcett' s 
diaries, or the watertight metal tubes containing his maps. The 
diary cases would be about six by four inches, and the region 
where I believe all three men, the two Fawcetts and Raleigh 
Rimell, spent many years, was on the Kuluene river, between or 
near the points where several affluents meet and join the Rio 
Xingu. According to an Indian story, which sounds true to me, 
the tribe with whom they stayed during many years are known 
as the Aruvudus, and the woman who gave the story to the 
Italian surveyors in the interior belonged to the Cuicurus, the 
tribe nearest in locality to the Aruvudus. I tell you this in case 
you might be making another journey into the interior of the 
Matto Grosso, when it would be well worth while your making 
inquiries and keeping eyes and ears open for traces of the lost 
diaries or maps in metal cases to say nothing of traces of the 
lost men themselves. Of course, I should be anxious to hear any 
news ... or, if I am no longer alive, you could communicate 
with my son . . ." 

The last message sent to London by Colonel Fawcett contained 
the warning that he might not be heard of for two or more years. 
The approaches to the dead city in the mountains, were, he said, 
guarded by a strange race of troglodytes small, squat negroes of 
ferocious disposition who were cannibals. They lived in holes and 
caves in the swamp country on the edge of the unknown land, some 
100 miles' distant from the dead city. This race of aborigines were 
contemporary, perhaps, with the mysterious white people who 
built the dead cities of Brazil. May be they were the autochthones of the 
old Brazilian island. Though armed only with clubs, they were 
extremely dangerous, said Colonel Fawcett, and contact with them 
might prove out of the question. 

This race of troglo4ytic aboriginals may be identical with, or 
akin to, the short, squat, hairy and negroid people who live in holes 
in cliffs and caves in the still unexplored and unknown region of the 
Rio Uapes, on the north-western frontiers of Brazil and the south- 
eastern borders of Colombia. Jesuit missioners are said to have en- 
countered them in the 19205 in this very region. That they arc 
dangerous and savage is certainly true, and very little, indeed, seems 
known about them among savants in Rio and Sao Paulo. Mr, Lewis 
Spence cites a letter he had from Colonel Fawcett, in 1924, when 
Fawcett says these cave-men intermarried with the Tupis and 
Caribs, their progeny being the negroid Botocudos of Brazil and the 
Aymara Indians of Bolivia. 

Fawcett seems to have told no one where he located the dead 
city for which he was making. I have met people in Brazil who 
assert that the location was the Sena do Roncador (Snorer's or 



JUNGLE LIGHT THAT SHINES BY ITSELF 71 

Blusterer's range), which is marked, on some, but not all, maps as 
running in a northerly direction from the Rio Kuluesene towards 
' the country of the Gorotird and Tapirape Indians an unknown 
and dangerous territory inhabited by savage tribes. The Serra 
do Roncador which maybe the snowy, or "White Cordillera" of the 
tradition of the Indians, would certainly have Iain along the 
route taken by the Fawcett party, in April and May 1925; but the 
serra's actual location is very uncertain. No one, I have been told, in 
Cuyabd "ever returns alive from these serras. The approaches are 
guarded by Indids malos, who beat drums and use the bush telegraph 
to signal the coming of intruders." 

Few white men knew more than Fawcett about the habits and 
ways of strange Indian tribes living in unexplored forests and on the 
edge of primaeval marshes, months away from the remotest outpost. 
These tribes, he said, are not "the debased types of savages, found 
on the Andean slopes, contaminated with the white man's vices". 
He told the Royal Geographical Society, in a lecture, in London, in 
May 1910, about the Morcegos, or "bats", who sleep in great hollows 
in the ground, closed by wickerwork lids. All day they sleep, and 
emerge to hunt by night; but they can scent the stranger from afar. 
All bush through which he has passed will be burnt to the ground. 

"Fire they know," he said on another occasion, talking to a 
friend in Paris (the late Dr. Arthur Lynch, soldier for freedom and 
Philosopher), "and they are armed with enormous bludgeons. 
Their keenness of vision is intense, but they cannot endure the rays 
of the sun. As for their powers of scent, the finest bloodhound falls 
below them." From another source in South America, the writer of 
this book heard of a remarkable adventure which Fawcett had with 
these "bats", who, resembling the curious troglodytes mentioned 
above, are about the lowest of the human race, and live in the wild 
country of forests, bush, scrub and marsh guarding the approaches to 
the strange White Mountains, where, perhaps, he had been told the 
dead city lay : 

"One day, we suddenly and unexpectedly found ourselves 
right in the middle of one of the bush villages of the bats. There 
were about two hundred of them sleeping in their holes, closed 
in by the basket lids ; but our sudden approach had been made 
known. Our situation was extremely perilous. I kept as calm 
as possible, my face and bearing appearing as unmoved as I could 
make them. Tearing branches from trees in the forest, I soaked 
them in a spirit made from certain other trees. Then I set a 
light to the torch and danced towards the bats, shouting, at the 
top of my voice, a chorus from a famous music-hall song of the 
late 1890$: Ta-ra-ra boom-de-qy! The effect was almost magical. 
The Indians came out of their holes in the ground, and, regarding 



72 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

me as a strange white god, bowed low to the ground. That hap- 
pened in the morning. Before the fall of night, and the coming 
of the time when the bats hunt under thick boughs of the virgin 
forest, we had put the greatest distance we could between them 
and us ... I had, not long before, met a man who had fallen 
among a Matto Grosso tribe a little less degenerate than the 
bats. This Brazilian was hunting for nuggets and gold dust. 
One day, on the bank of a forest river, he was rushed by a horde 
of these Indians, who had laid an ambush in the jungle. They 
trussed him up and tied him to poles laid across men's shoulders. 
His fate had no element of doubt in it. The Indians smacked 
their mouths and rubbed their naked stomachs, as they eyed him 
gloatingly. Arrived at the forest village, a woman of the tribe, 
who had lost her husband and whose charms had become a little 
faded, so that she could not secure another matrimonial partner, 
took a fancy to the whiter-skinned man. He was adopted as her 
paramour and taken into her hut ; but he was so keenly watched 
he could not escape into the forest. His captors hunted at night, 
and slept in the day. They, too, had a sense of smell keener than 
a bloodhound, and could track men and animals by it. Months 
passed, and the shades of the tribal cooking pot loomed peri- 
lously near. His dulcinea had grown tired of him. What could 
he do? If he fled on foot, through the forest, unless he kept it 
up night and day, with no halt for food or sleep, these night- 
hunters would surely recapture him. A plan came into his 
mind. 

"In the middle of the morning, when the Indians were fast 
asleep, the captive stole out of his hut, unseen and unnoticed by 
the bored fair one, and slung himself into the branches of a tree 
on the edge of the forests which stretched endlessly into the far 
distance. From tree to tree he went, like a monkey, until he had 
put about a mile between him and the camp. That was all he 
could manage in a day's strenuous work. Came night, and he 
lodged himself in the fork of a tall tree in the forest. The howlings 
of the monkeys and shrill noises of the insects, could not drown 
out another sinister sound below him : the Indians were on his 
trail. Next day, he resumed his flight through the tree tops, 
living on what fruit and nuts he could gather on the way. When 
darkness fell, he ensconced himself again in a tree top, and once 
more heard the Indians in full pursuit after him. For ten days he 
stayed in the tree tops, till he could safely put foot to the ground. 
Yet he spent two months wandering in the virgin forests before 
he met our party.** 

On his projected expedition to locate the dead city of the 
bandeiristas, Fawcett well knew that mules, carrying maize, would not 



JUNGLE LIGHT THAT SHINES BY ITSELF 73 

N 

get far into the chapada and the catinga of the Matto Grosso. There 
was little fodder in the forests around, and soon the men of the ex- 
pedition would have to carry their own baggage, and jettison all that 
was not absolutely needed. (That jettisoning probably accounts for 
the instruments, gear and odd objects in the hands of Indians on the 
trail followed by Fawcett into the sertdo of the Matto Grosso.) 
About food Fawcett was not too fastidious : 

"There are plenty of snakes, and when your backbone hits 
against your ribs, a plate of snake-meat, under your famishing 
jaws, is not to be despised. Three miles a day are all we can 
cover in this wild country, until we reach more open landscape 
in the highlands of Brazil. After that, I hope we may find a 
stream which will take us to the Amazon. I find I can't take a 
radio transmitter, so shall have to be content with a receiver. 
It will help us establish our longitude in the unknown. Next 
time we come here, I'll take a hydroplane with me to travel the 
streams." 

The Colonel and his son and friend, Rimell, passed away like a 
leaf on a stream, and concerning their fate, only rumours from the 
whispering gallery of one of the world's strangest lands have since 
been borne on the winds and waters of this unknown and dangerous 
wilderness. 

The American explorer, Commander George Dyott, attempted to 
solve the mystery of the fate of the Fawcett party; but apart from the 
fact that Dyott's main purpose had necessarily to be concerned with 
securing literary and cinematographic material to pay for the cost 
of his trip, he could not play the part of H. M. Stanley to this Living- 
stone. For one thing, there was no Gordon Bennett, of the New Tofk 
Herald, to finance him, and, for another, disgracefully little support 
and no financial aid has come from the British Government, in an 
affair of real exploration which a British national, Fawcett, had 
undertaken. Perhaps Fawcett was right, when he told the British 
Royal Geographical Society, in London, in March 1910: 

"Exploration is a matter of fashion, and South America is 
not in fashion. Here, however, in these days of luxurious equip- 
ment and perfection of organisation, the explorer of unmapped 
corners must return to pioneer methods and be content with his 
hammock and his rifle and what a kindly Providence will send 
him for food. I hope it will be Englishmen . . . who will follow 
the traditions and show the way." 

Dyott, too, was gravely handicapped by entire lack of knowledge 
of Indian tongues in the Matto Grosso; so that he was not in a good 



74 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

position to check the stories told by chiefs of tribes through whose 
lands the Fawcett party may have passed on their way to the un- 
known. 

After Dyott's expedition, other stories filtered through to the 
station of the Brazilian telegraph line crossing the Great Divide, 
south of the Matto Grosso. 

For some reason, the British Foreign Office made a great mys- 
tery of the report of the Fawcett party's detention by the Aruvudu 
tribes on the Rio Kulusene, and hushed it up. In March 1934, a 
native Brazilian dog taken by Fawcett into the wilds to give warning 
of the nocturnal approach of wild animals, or prowling Indians, 
returned to the fazendeiro who owned him. The dog carried no 
message, but was emaciated and worn out, indicating lengthy 
travels. (But is it necessary to say that other reasons than the death 
of Colonel Fawcett might have caused the dog's return?) 

About this time, a film actor, Albert de Winton, who had spent 
nine months in the Matto Grosso, trying to trail Colonel Fawcett, 
came back to Los Angeles, Cal., with only vague Indian stories 
about the Englishman. "But my belief is that he is still alive," said 
de Winton. Next, some fantaisiste in Moscow, who, perhaps, had 
grown tired of the Italian fable about the late Colonel Lawrence of 
Arabia accused of doing secret service work for the British Govern- 
ment in Arabia, Afghanistan, and Abyssinia, made an absurd state- 
ment about Colonel Fawcett : 

"He is a British secret agent in Brazil, and regularly sends 
radio reports to the Foreign Office, in London." (Moscow Radio.} 

Later, reports were cabled and radioed to London and New 
York about a Spanish expedition with machine-guns, bombs, aero- 
planes and dynamite, all set to solve the famous Brazilian mystery; 
but the Brazilian Government nervously demanded "safeguards" 
from that expedition. That year (1934) closed with newspaper 
stories about the well-known German, Doktor Eckener, planning to 
fly the Graf %eppelin airship over the Matto Grosso from a base in 
Rio. He meant to survey the Rios Xingu and Tapajos, a colonel of 
the Brazilian General Staff accompanying him in the gondola. 
Unfortunately, that piece of romantic Jules Verne did not "come 
off" for, as contemporary history records, lightning fired the 
hydrogen in her hull and destroyed her on U.S. territory. 

Then General Rondon, the well-known champion of the Indians 
of the Matto Grosso he is a Brazilian of pure Indian blood told 
the press of Rio, in April 1939, that a chief of the Bacairy Indians 
told him that Colonel Fawcett had been killed in 1926 by the Anaqua 
Indians who had ambushed him in the region of the jungle of Rio 
Kulusene. 



JUNGLE LIGHT THAT SHINES BY ITSELF 75 

Were the mysterious mountains, called the Sena do Roncador 
* which, as I have said, above, I was told in Cuyubd, were the 
hidden objective of Colonel Fawcett also the grave of his hopes 
and his party? 

At this time, none can say. 

The brothers Ulyatt, however, tell a curious story which pur- 
ports that Colonel Fawcett's quest lay not on a hill-top, or bleak 
plateau, but in a valley. The story seems to be based on authority, 
and whether accurate or not, must mean that there are more than 
one of these dead Atlantean city ruins in unknown Brazil. These two 
brothers came in from the north-west, in the direction of the mys- 
terious Rio Roosevelt. They avoided the other, western route into 
the Matto Grosso, which strikes over the Cordillera de Parecis, 
from Bolivia. Deep in the forest round the headwaters of the Rio 
Roosevelt and the Rio Branco, the brothers were one day startled 
by the growling of a dog they had with them. When they looked 
out of their tent, they found they were hemmed in by powerfully 
built Indians, armed with long bows and arrows. There was no 
mistaking the mien of these Indians. It was unfriendly. The chief 
clearly meant that the brothers Ulyatt were not to stand on the 
order of their going, but to make themselves scarce at once. By signs, 
it was indicated to them that if they were found to have returned, 
the Indians would kill them at sight in the dense forests. Everything 
they had was taken by the Indians, and the Ulyatts at once broke 
camp and got out of the region. 

Said one of them (at a house in Rio de Janeiro) : "The legend of 
this long-lost city of an Atlantean white race is that it lies on top of 
a hill ; but really it is under water in the bed of a turbulent river, 
strewn with boulders that have fallen into it from towering cliffs. 
Mrs. Fawcett very kindly helped us with details of the Colonel's 
plans. I am sure the only practicable way of reaching the territory, 
where I believe Colonel Fawcett and his party still are, and where is 
the lost city, is by the route we came : from the north-west. We met 
Brazilian bushmen in the forests who are not in good odour with the 
Brazilian authorities. These bushmen are rubber-gatherers, but they 
never quit the rubber camps. They know about the missing Colonel ; 
but not who he is." 

With the Ulyatt story may be contrasted that of Signor Vialine. 
It is one more singular token of what a whispering gallery of rumours, 
seeming fantasy, strange romance, or myth is in the great South 
American cathedral of mystery. (Vialine's story was told in summer 
1938) : 

"Signor Vialine, an Italian explorer, trying to locate the 
Serra do Roncador, which some folk say is the site of a dead 
city sought for in the Brazilian Highlands, by el Coronel Fawcett, 



76 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

says he saw skeletons of three white men, whom he supposes 

to be the Fawcett party Mua Indians, says a 

Dominican missioner, at a station on the Rio Araguaya, killed 
Coronel Fawcett." 

Mrs. Nina Fawcett, the Colonel's wife, is, I think, not only in- 
tuitively, but factually justified in holding that this seventeen-year- 
old mystery is still unsolved. As late as 1934, it was said that she had 
received telepathic messages from her husband, who, she thinks, 
was then still alive, but in captivity. The fate of the son of Colonel 
Fawcett and the young Raleigh Rimell has not been indicated in 
these messages, so far as one knows. 

What was Fawcett's main purpose in taking this dangerous trip 
into the unknown? 

Nothing less, as this narrative should have shown, than the dis- 
covery of an outpost of the drowned continent of Atlantis, in the 
wilds of unknown Brazil ! 

"Atlantis?" queries the scoffing and orthodox historian or 
archaeologist, with a sceptical lift of his eyebrows. 

"It sounds like a fantasy by Mr. H. G. Wells, set in Brazil." 

Well, let us see what is the evidence. 

The reader may have noted that about half of the amazing 
inscriptions copied by the bandeiristas from ruins in the abandoned 
city of the Brazilian highlands, are identical with letters in the 
Greco-Phoenician alphabet. Nor can that resemblance, or identity, 
be merely accidental, or a coincidence. Unless the robust sceptic be 
prepared to take the hazardous step of suggesting that the Brazilian 
bandeiristas of 1753 who, after all, were rough, hardy, scarcely 
scholarly men whose object was the finding of gold and silver 
were liars and forgers, for no conceivable purpose connected with 
self or any other interest, he will find it difficult to explain away 
these strange inscriptions. (The evidence rules out that the dead 
cities were Phoenician.) He has done his best to ignore them, ever 
since they were re-discovered by a Brazilian historian, burrowing 
in the royal archives at Rio de Janeiro, in 1841 ; but the time for 
tacit contempt or a conspiracy of silence has gone by, or will be, by 
the time this narrative appears in print. It will, and I ask my reader 
to pardon me for repeating this, make hay of his cherished illusion 
that writing was unknown in South America, before the arrival of 
the Spanish conquistadores and the Portuguese navigators, in the 
early sixteenth century. 

The writer of this book has found some very curious links between 
the so-called "Old World" of Europe and Africa and the "New 
World" of Brazil. Some of these links may have been known to 
Colonel Fawcett, but at least one of them surprised so well known 
an authority on the "pre-history" of South and Central America as 



JUNGLE LIGHT THAT SHINES BY ITSELF JJ 

Miles Poindexter, the Virginian senator and one-time American 
^mbassador in Lima, to whom I showed it and them in the autumn 
of 1939- 

The first link occurs in one of the books of the Sicilian geographer 
and historian, Diodorus Siculus, who flourished about 44 B.C. 
Diodorus, who is known to have visited Egypt, Carthage and the 
Near East, with which lands his histories deal, tells us how, thou- 
sands of years ago, Phoenician traders of the Mediterranean found 
a large island in the Atlantic Ocean, several days' sail beyond the 
Pillars of Hercules (neighbourhood of Jebel Musa (Abyla), North 
Morocco, and (Calpe) modern Gibraltar, Spain), and the western 
country of Africa. It was/rom this continental island that the Phoenicians 
obtained the elements of their phonetic alphabet, used, later, by the Greeks 
of Athens. Some thousands of years earlier still, and long before 
the Nilotic dynasties were recorded by the priests of Egyptian Helio- 
polis, Manetho the Mendesian (about 261 B.C.) said the Egyptians 
derived, from this now drowned continent, the elements of their 
hieratic hieroglyphics. May be, survivors had travelled overland to 
the Nile from North Africa, or the ancient Egyptians had had direct 
contact with the Atlanteans, said to have been a white, black and 
red-skinned people. It is more than likely that the lost books of 
Manetho, written largely from records and journals preserved in the 
temples of Egypt, would have thrown some light on the nature of 
this contact. (Since Manetho asserts that all the gods of Egypt had 
once been mortals and lived on earth, one may guess that the loss 
of his great and rationalist history is irreparable. And the like 
applies to the twenty-five lost books of Diodorus, which took him 
forty years to write and were partly based on vanished records of the 
priests of old Carthage and Egypt.) Diodorus says that he heard, in 
old Carthage (?), that the Phoenician traders founded a trading city 
at Gadeira* (modern Agadir, at the coastal end of the Great Atlas 
range in French Morocco), and while they were explor/ 
outside the pillars of Hercules, they were driven " 
great distance over the ocean, "and, after many 
on the island (of Atlantis?)". 

Diodorus adds (Lib. V., p. 74) : 

"Men tell us ... that the Phoenicians vRE*iot wfenrsi 10 
make the discovery of letters; but that theyAdmW frOGe lAftn 
change the forms of the letters ; whereupon twkm&j&rity of man^ 
kind made use of the way of writing them astahrLfeteeniciaffs 
devised. 9 ' 

* The place-names Cadiz, Agadir, and Gadeira are probably eponymous. Some colony 
from Atlantis to the mainland of old Europe and Africa therein commemorated the name 
of an old king of Atlantis a man. not a god whose name was Gades. (Vide: Diodorus 
Siculut.) . 




78 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

Since the walls and monuments of one of the dead cities, of un- 
known age, in the Brazilian highlands, bear letters, many, but not 
all 9 of which are so strikingly Greco-Phoenician in form, it is, per- 
haps, permissible to ask whether it was by the ocean-route that these 
same forms were carried, on the one side, to Brazil ; on the other (by 
Phoenician traders) to the Mediterranean? 

Diodorus, speaking of Atlantis, says: 

". . . it is an island of considerable size, a number of days' 
voyage to the west . . . the dwelling-place of a race of gods, not 
men. In ancient times this island remained undiscovered, be- 
cause of its distance from the other inhabitants of the world. . . ." 

Then, Ammianus Marcellinus, a Greek geographer contemporary 
with the Roman emperors Julian and Valens (fourth century A.D.), 
while enumerating the different sorts of vulcanism, says : 

"It was by a chasmaties (in which the force of the commotion 
opens gulfs in the earth and swallows a whole country) that 
there was engulfed, in the profound night of Erebus, an isle in 
the Atlantic sea that was more spacious than all Europe. ..." 

Elian, the Roman sophist and compiler (died A.D. 140), quotes 
from Theopompus, a Greek historian of Chios, of the fourth cen- 
tury B.C. who, says Elian, 

"speaks of a continent, infinite and immeasurable, which 
the ocean circumscribes. The men who dwell there have more 
than twice our stature and days. . . . Two cities are there, one 
peaceful, the other warlike. The warlike city sent ten million 
men to invade Europe." 

Both the pious city and the warlike had plenty of gold, which 
"is of less value than among us". 

Theopompus was a contemporary of Plato and may have drawn 
on some lost source wherein legend and folk-lore is intermixed with 
some vanished truth of pre-history : the fly caught in sea-amber. 

But something saved from what has been lost about the history 
of Atlantis, as well as the ancient continents of South and North 
America, is found in what the Greek Plato tells of the travels of 
Solon, the legislator of Athens, and of whose family Plato was a 
member. (Solon wrote a poem about Atlantis, which was preserved 
for many years in Plato's family papers, but has long been lost.) 
Solon visited Egypt about 548 years before the Christian era. In the 
dialogues of Plato (especially in Timaeus), it is said that the island- 
continent of Atlantis was greater than both Libya and all the Near 



JUNGLE LIGHT THAT SHINES BY ITSELF 79 

East "It was easy to pass from Atlantis to those islands, and thence 
, to all the countries bordering on the Atlantic Ocean." The dialogue 
tells how Sonchis, an ag&d Egyptian priest of Sais, or Thais, in the 
Nile delta, deplores to Solon that when the Greeks and other 
nations began to have letters and the elements of civilisation, 

"after the usual interval the stream from Heaven like a 
pestilence comes down and leaves only those of you who are 
destitute of letters and education and know nothing of what 
happened in past times." 

The old priest went on to say that the sacred registers in Egypt 
had been founded 8,000 years before, and the early Athenians', 
9,000 years before Solon. The Egyptian sacred registers, perhaps 
kept by the priest Psenophis, at Heliopolis, told of a great navy 
sailing out from Atlantis, transporting an immense army of Atlan- 
teans on an expedition which was planned to achieve a world-em- 
pire. This militarist expedition from the Atlantic ocean continent 
reached as far east as Egypt, and as far north-east as the coast of 
ancient Italy, in Etruria. One nation alone finally opposed these 
ambitions of world-domination : the "ancestors of the Athenians". 
. . . Then there occurred "violent earthquakes and floods, and in a 
single day and night of misfortune, all your warlike men, in a body, 
sank into the earth, and the island of Atlantis in like manner dis- 
appeared into the depths of the sea". 

The old priest of Sais, or Thais, referred to those sun-stone 
people of heliolithic culture which the late Professor Sir Grafton 
Eliott-Smith speaks of as existing about 15,000 B.C., in regions of the 
Mediterranean valley, long since submerged. The ancient Egyptian 
priest adds these remarkable words, which must point to the exist- 
ence of South and North America as recorded in the sacred registers 
of the old priests of Egypt : 

"That other sea beyond what you call the straits of Heracles 
is the real ocean, and the surrounding land may truly be called 
the boundless continent." 

Remember that these words were spoken by an old priest of 
Pharaoh's Egypt, some 2,530 years ago ; and that the catastrophic 
events he describes had happened about 9,000-10,000 years before 
that ! All this, as one hopes to show, has its bearing on what these 
bandeiristas of the year A.D. 1 753 found in the sertao of modern Brazil. 
It has, also, one hazards, some connection with the traditions of 
the Toltecs (Anato/ians), the ancestors of the Aztecs, that they came 
from Atlan, or Aztlan. The great storehouse of Mayan and Central 
American legend and mythical history, the Popul Vuh, tells of a 



80 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

happy land of the golden age where ancestors lived in great peace 
and happiness, speaking the same tongue, till they migrated east 
and west. The Popul Vuh also tells of three sons of the King of the 
Quiches, of old Yucatan-Guatemala, who visited 

"a land in the east, on the shores of the sea whence their 
fathers had come, and whence they brought back, among other 
things, a system of writing. . . ." 

One of the South American colonies of Atlantis may, probably, 
have been the land called Brazil, and Brazil, indeed, was actually 
the ancient name of the land and one borne thousands of years 
before the arrival at Rio de Janeiro of old Pedro Gabral, the 
Portuguese navigator. That occurred in A.D. 1500 and has given rise 
to the sheer legend that King Emanuel of Portugal named the land 
Brazil, because the dye-wood, brazil-wood (Biancaea sappan) was 
found there. As a matter of very curious fact, the name Brazil was 
known to the old Irish Kelts,* and an Irish saint, of the year A.D. 
780, told Pope Zacharius who demanded his excommunication for 
the "impious" statement that the old Irish (the oldest split-off 
from the original Keltic race-stock) habitually communicated with 
a transatlantic world! Brazil, also spelt Bracie, Berzil, or Brasil, 
appears in maps of the Middle Ages as an island west of Corvo, 
in the Azores. The famous Medicean/>0rfa0/aw0 of A.D. 1351, and the 
charts of Picignano (A.D. 1367) and Andrea Bianco and Fra Mauro 
record it. There is, too, a Brazil rock, some degrees west of the 
southern extremity of Ireland, and this brings us to an experience 
of the author of this book. 

A few years before the World War No. 2, I was in a southern 
county of Eire, of Ireland of the former Irish Free State, when I 
heard the story of the old Irish myth of Breasal, or Hy-Brazil the 
paradise of the Gael, the land far in the direction of the sunset, over 
the Western Ocean from the Arran Isles. That legend dates back 
to the days of the roamings of the old Irish, who, I repeat, are the 

* It is an amazing fact, one not known to archaeologists or the conventional South 
American historians of British or American, or European nationality, that, in a remote 
mountain valley lying in the Southern Andean cordiueras, somewhere west of Miraflores 
and San Rosario, in North- Western Argentina, is a tribe of "Indians" speaking pure Gaelic 
or Erse! They are emphatically not emigrants from modern Ireland or Scotland, for their 
ancestors were in that region ages before the arrival of Spanish conquistadores. I met 
a colleague in a Civil Defence wardens' post, in 1943, whose Irish uncle, while on the pampas 
of Argentina, in 1910, met and talked with these Indians who are called Patanian Indians 
(Indios Patanios), or Patanian Irish, The uncle spoke Erse well, and for some time lived 
and worked on the Pampas Enthral, near Miraflores. Some members of this tribe of Patanian 
Indians have the blue eyes and reddish hair of the Irish Kelt. Others are nigrescent. It 
is known that Indians in the region of modern Maryland had traditions of a strange people, 
living in their territories, who spoke the old Irish tongue, and worked metalsTrity tnat 
the Irish cleriche was Fergil, or Ferghil, or Vergile, Bishop of Salzburg did not indicate 
the source of his information about the far voyages of the old Irish, or sketch in the details 
of a 'picture which must now remain forever a rare and fascinating glimpse of a world of 
very ancient date from which a small corner of the veil has thus been lifted and dropped. 
AUTHOR 



JUNGLE LIGHT THAT SHINES BY ITSELF 8l 

earliest branch to separate from the Keltic root stock, in Europe. 
On a forbidding mountain called Callan noted for its "hideous 
moory height" used to stand what is known as the Ogham stones, 
cut with old Irish, or ancient British letters. The peasants in the 
cabins and bogs, round about Callan mountain, have a legend 
about a tomb, in the mountain, containing the bones of an Irish 
king, Gonane. Find the tomb, say the bog-trotters, and you will 
discover in it a key which will cause to rise out of the Atlantic 
Ocean a great city, sunken there. The city was named Hy-Brazil, or 
the Royal Island. I found, too, that the Arranmore islanders, off the 
coast of Galway Bay, have a legend that, on a clear day, this island 
Paradise of the ancient Irish can be seen afar on the horizon, glitter- 
ing on the Atlantic waters. . . . Says one of the Irish bards : 

"it is the meadow of the Dead, the land of happiness and 
peace which you must pass the sea to reach ... a beautiful land 
where a happy race, free from care and sickness and death, 
bask in eternal sunshine". 

About 1,500 years ago, the old Irish Saint Brendan set out from 
the Abbey of Clonfert to find Hy-Brazil, in a ship with fifty monks, 
sailing over the western ocean. They found it, after a seven-years' 
voyage, 

"the fairest country a man might see, clear and bright, neither 
hot by day, nor cold by night, the trees laden with fruit, the 
herbage glorious with blooms and gay flowers. ..." 

And still the search went on for this happy land of Hy-Brazil, 
which figured on the early English charts. Even as late as A.D. 1650, 
General Ludlow, one of the regicides of Charles I., and Cromwell's 
general in Ireland, heard about this paradise of Hy-Brazil, and 
actually chartered a ship to look for it ! The ship was chartered at 
Limerick, not far from the very place where the legendary vision 
was seen. Columbus had heard of it, under the name of the Isles of 
the Blessed, and it started him off on his voyage to the West Indies. 

Who knows whether the old Irish Kelts came into contact with 
the people of Brazil, in South America, at a time when the jungle 
city found by the bandeiristas was in its prime or far gone in old age 
and decline? 

Colonel Fawcett's theory seems to have been that old Brazil 
was probably the cradle of our world's culture and civilisation; but 
it must remain, for the present, a moot point whether the torch was 
not, indeed, taken from the drowned island-continent of old Atlantis 
to her continental colony of Brazil. (On the basis of our present dim 
knowledge, the truth cannot yet be known.) Assuredly, the name 

F 



82 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

Brazil is far older than Cabral and the finding of the dye-wood, 
called brasileiro. 

The naturalist Buffon believed that Ireland, the Azores and 
America were once part of the great lost island-continent of 
Plato, a belief, as to America, shared by the famous Brasseur-de- 
Bourbourg, and it is curious that the old Irish myth of fly-Brazil the 
royal land, or island enshrines a story of a Paradise of the Gael, far 
across the western ocean. 

How came it, too, that Fawcett found the mysterious writing 
incised in a rock in Ceylon's jungles? 

Had some vanished race in that strange and beautiful island a 
contact with old Brazil or Atlantis, or some other drowned or 
vanished continent, and is this stone, in the Sinhalese jungle, a 
record of lost history, and not a mere cypher-script of a vanished 
Oriental priesthood? It may be so; for the ancient Egyptian 
priests can hardly have been alone in inscribing pillars, or rocks, 
with records of lost history. There is, indeed, an ancient tradition 
that Ceylon, or the Taprobane of Ptolemy, the geographer, is a 
fragment of a drowned continent. Pliny said that ancient Taprobane 
"is considered as the commencement of another world". There is 
also a forgotten Byzantine historian who said : 

"Taprobane is the island nearest located to the continent 
where was the former terrestrial paradise." 

Possibly, these strange Brazilian ancients had carried the torch 
of civilisation and culture westwards across the Pacific, when there 
may have existed a land-bridge* with Ceylon. However the 
orthodox archaeologist may frown or smile at these theories, I should 
ask him or her to explain how such forms, obviously similar to 
Greco-Phoenician letters, could have been found by these rude 
Brazilian bandeiristas of A.D, 1750. They were hardly classic scholars. 
Indeed, as the old canon of Bahia noted, they did not seem to have 
had the ghost of an idea of the significance of these strange letters. 

Ben Jowett, with his mid- Victorian dogmatism and positiveness, 
slandered Plato by talking of the "noble lie of Plato", about this lost 
world; but the more scientific attitude one nearer the modern 
spirit, which, in our day, does not scoff at old traditions and deride 
them as total and childish legends is that of Alexander von Hum- 
boldt, who wrote, more than a century ago : 

* Was that long-lost land-bridge the Rutas of the Brahminical traditions of old Hindo* 
stan? This goparam tradition says that, hundreds of thousands of years ago, an immense 
continent in the Pacific was destroyed by volcanic upheaval, and that the displacement of 
the ocean-waters converted the then great islands of Hindostan adjacent to a central Asian 
divide, into the modern peninsular, sub-continent of India, Rutas, the lost continent, was 
the home of a highly civilised race who gave their alphabet to the old Hindus. Rutas to 
distinguished, in this very ancient tradition, from Atlantis, existing, as the tradition says, 
in the northern portion of the tropics in the Atlantic. 



JUNGLE LIGHT THAT SHINES BY ITSELF 83 

"Des mythes de Pancienne limite occidentale du monde 
connu peuvent, done, avoir eu quelque fondement historique. 
Une migration de peuples de 1'ouest a Test, dont le souvenir, 
conserv6 en Egypte, & etc report^ & Ath^nes, et celebre par des 
fStes religieuses, peut appartenir a des temps bien ant&ieur & 
1'invasion des Perses en Mauritanie, dont Salluste a reconnu les 
traces . . . et que, galement pour nous, est envelopp6e des tenfc- 
bres." 

("Some of the myths of the ancient bounds of the known 
world of the west may, then, have had some foundation in 
history. A migration of peoples from the west to the east, 
whose memory, preserved in Egypt, has been transmitted to 
Athens, and celebrated there by religious festivals, may belong 
to a time much anterior to the invasion by the Persians of 
Mauritania (Morocco), of which Sallust recognised the traces . . . 
and which, also for us, is shrouded in darkness." Translation.) 

In 1839, when these words were written, the world knew nothing 
about this lost MS. in the royal and imperial archives of Portuguese 
Rio de Janeiro! 

I have left to the last my comments on one very eerie feature 
about these dead jungle cities in the highlands of Brazil. Just before 
Colonel Fawcett left Cuyaba, the frontier town of the Matto Grosso, 
an Indian approached him, and told him that the churches in that 
town were nothing in comparison with the far bigger and better 
buildings he, the Indian, had seen, with his own eyes, in the dead 
cities of his remote forest-home. 

Said he : 

"These buildings in my forests are of great age, Seftor. They 
are loftier by far than these" (nodding at the town), "and they 
have doors and windows of stone. Their interior is lit up by a 
great square crystal on a pillar. So brightly does it shine, Seftor 
Fawcett, that it makes the eyes blink and dazzle. It is a light 
that never goes out. My forefathers knew it of old. Always it has 
burnt undimmed." 

Fawcett proposed to turn a little off his trail in order to 
visit such a light-pillar: "It is a tower-like building, says the Indian, 
which has partly fallen down, from the doors and windows of 
which always shines a light." 

Now, light-pillars, as in the famous Pillars of Heracles, at the 
ancient bounds of the known sea- world, are a mark of sun- worship- 
ping race. I have seen such a pillar, inscribed with Phoenician and 
other more mysterious characters, standing on a bleak down in the 
Ootswold Hills, dose to Bisley, Glosterslure, where, .down below, 



84 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

in a lovely wooded combe, anciently stood a sun-temple, known to 
the Romans, but built by the Silurian-Basques. One Brutus, the 
Pauch, or Phoenician Pauch, being the Hindu for Phoenician, the 
latter being not a Semitic, but an Aryan race came there and 
stamped out devil-worshipping which had sway in the Stroud 
Valley around 2000 B.C.* Of course, the ancient pillar bore no light 
when I saw it; nor is anything left of the sun-temple save a red 
finial, I have handled, and ruins built into a farmhouse wall. But 
that it did bear such a light, night and day, thousands of years back 
on those Glostershire uplands, there can be little doubt. Similar 
lights, guides to wayfarers by day, and sea marks for mariners at 
night, anciently burnt on the lofty Furetana pillars of the Macares 
(Garians, with Melcarth for a god of the sun and fire), which stood, 
some thousand or more years ago, in the Colombia Highlands of 
South America. This ancient Brazilian white race of sun-wor- 
shippers may have known some way of eternalising a "cold" form 
of light. Whatever it is, or was, the method is unknown to modern 
science. It is believed by some people that the ancient Egyptians 
knew of such a form of physical energy and applied it to light their 
pyramid interiors. Whether or not Ezekiel had this in mind when he 
spoke of that "terrible crystal" of the Nile and old Egypt, who shall 
say? 

Occult testimony, derived both from psychometric means and 
from traditions still current among certain mysterious brotherhoods 
in the East and in Egypt, is that the great central temple-cathedral 
of the capital of Atlantis called, by some, Sardegon which was 
engirdled by seven great mountain ranges, was built of a white, 
shining stone common in Atlantis. We may, therefore, surmise that 
the same stone was used by her imperial pioneers, or that its repute 
had so impressed men in her colonial outposts that the ancestors of 
the old Quiches, who may have had personal contact with the 
Atlantean pioneer-civiliser, Quetzalcoatl, the man in black, in Central 
America, associated the motherland, and, perhaps, her great im- 
perial colony, Hy- (or Royal) Brazil, known to the old Irish Kelts, 
with great cities and imperial palaces and majestic temples shining 
in the sun, as its rays poured down on the glistening fagades and 
colonnades. May be, or may be not quien sabe? we may have a 
chance to verify the truth of these traditions of extreme and shadowy 
antiquity, when, or if, as certain mystics say, Atlantis will emerge 
from the bed of the Atlantic, after 10-12,000 years of submersion, 
in the coming one hundred years, an event which, it is forecast, will 

* This statement is, in part, based on the curious fact that the site of this ancient temple 
of the sun-worshippers of ancient Britain Silurian and perhaps pre-Silurian is close to a 
very pretty hamlet called Customs Scrubs. Now, the word Customs has nothing to do with 
manorial affairs of Anglo-Saxon or Norman times; for, some miles away, is a place called 
Customs Mede, near Standish, Glos. In each case, the first element in the name relates to an 
ancient custom, or rite, related to burning fire on sun-pillars, or the ancient bealtiru. 
AUTXOE. 



JUNGLE LIGHT THAT SHINES BY ITSELF 85 

coincide with the final war named Armageddon. Certainly, if the 
Second World War be not this Armageddon, it is a very close 
approach to its horrors ! 

It is significant that Quetzalcoatl a man in black, not a god nor 
a nephilem, exactly as was the man Osiris deified later as an ancient 
Egyptian saviour-god who came from the east, the land of Hy- 
Brazil, or perhaps Atlantis, the motherland, to give laws and the 
elements of civilisation to the savages and barbarians of pre-cataclys- 
mic Central South America, is said, in a very ancient Quich6 MS. 
and in the Popul Vuh the Mayan bible to have come from the 
other side of the sea from the place called "Camuhibal". Camuhibal, 
says the ancient MS., is the place of the white or shining lights or life. 
(Quichf : zak gazlem: zak = a white thing). It was also the place 
of the shadow of colonnades, or, in Low Latin, the obumbraculum, or a 
colonnade, or covered stone way with adjacent buildings, suitable 
for a promenade in the heat of the day. 

There is no need to smile at Colonel Fawcett and call this story 
a mystical fantasy of his. The Brazilian forest Indians are not really 
accustomed to flights of imagination of this sort. If one of them told 
Fawcett he had seen such a fixed, strange light burning in a ruined 
building in the deep jungle, why, he probably did\ Besides, if we are 
to believe St. Augustine and Cedrenus, the old Byzantine chronicler, 
"perpetual lamps", or lights, were by no means unknown to the 
ancient Egyptians, Romans and Greeks. St. Augustine says that 
such a lamp was in a fane of Venus in Africa. Old Memphis had 
many of these perpetual lamps, burning in the mausolea of the 
mighty dead. It was a symbol of the immortal soul, and ancient 
Egyptians are said to have believed that the astral soul of a mummy, 
hovering round a sepulchre for 2-3,000 years, might, at the sight of 
such a lamp, be induced to break the magnetic chain binding it to 
the dead body, and unite with the spirit. Plutarch says he saw a 
lamp of the sort in a temple of Jupiter Ammon, where, said the 
priests, it burnt, in all winds and rain, for years and could not be 
extinguished. In the time of Pope Paul III, of Rome, it was said that 
a tomb, opened in the Appian Way, was found to have in it the 
body of a beautiful girl swimming in a bright 

"liquor that preserved the lovely limbs and face, life-like. As 
the tomb opened, there was seen a lamp, which at once ex- 
tinguished itself. It was said to be the body of Tulliola, daughter 
of Cicero/' 

I leave modern physicists to make their own comments about 
the theory of the old alchemists that such lamps could be created by 
reducing gold to an oily fluid, whereon in a properly made lamp, the 
gold re-absorbed its oily fluid and gave it out again. Of course, the 



86 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

word "perpetual" must not be taken too literally, and interpreted as 
conflicting with the law of conservation of energy. Allah and the 
prophet forbid that any scientific gentleman, whose eyes should 
scan these lines, perchance, should charge me with such scientific 
impiety! Yet, in a day when radio has become a commonplace, 
and the ends of the earth speak war and blood and foolishness, 
B.B.C. "humour", bawdiness and propaganda to each other, would 
a shining light, like this in the Brazilian jungle, be more wonderful 
than the unknown life-ray, which, in 1930, I saw functioning in a 
lonely house close to Doom, Holland, and whereby meat, eggs, cut 
flowers, milk could be kept fresh and the bacteria of putrefaction 
eradicated, for months on end so long as the ray was emitted from 
the transformer? 

God is great. The world hath in it many wonders, which are not 
all known to scientists or even the archaeologists. The day may 
come, sooner than one may now suppose, when some English-speak- 
ing explorer will come across one of these strange, fixed lights in an 
ancient Brazilian dead city of the jungle, and doubtless be re- 
minded, for his pains when he reports home, of the life and trials of 
Baron von Munchausen and poor Louis de Rougemont. 

It seems clear that the catastrophe that overtook these dead but 
once shining cities of ancient Brazil was of such an appalling nature 
that it drove everyone forth from them. Everything was left behind. 
Bars of silver and gold were thrown to the ground, in panic haste, 
by men thinking only of how to save their lives. It may be that the 
catastrophe was accompanied by terrific tidal waves, and vulcanism 
of a frightful character, general not local, such as might be caused 
by the approach to the earth of a body from outer space. Indeed, a 
lost book of Varro (referred to in Chapter I) confirms the strange 
tradition of the Aztecan "legends" that the planet Venus was seen 
to be changing her colour, shape and course hourly. This really 
indicates that some violent change in the orbit of the earth had taken 
place such a change that, whereas, before, all rain fell in the night, 
and so rainbows were never seen, after it, the rainbow was taken as a 
new symbol of the intervention of gods and goddesses appalled by the 
horrors that had been brought on the earth, by their master, the 
Demi-ourgos. (Of course, as I have already said, were the men, 
before the Deluge, saints or devils, and the ancient myths hint that 
they had become degenerate, that would not have halted the 
catastrophe of natural forces by an ell or an inch. What would be 
would be !) 

Was this cosmic body, adrift in space, our Moon? It may be; 
because a tribe of Indians met in Guiana, by Humboldt about 1820, 
said their ancestors existed before the Moon like the Arcadians 
and this may mean what it imported in ancient Arcadia, and not a 
too ingenious interpretation of an old Greek text alleged to confuse 



JUNGLE LIGHT THAT SHINES BY ITSELF 87 

Selene (the Moon) with the Greek word meaning pre-HeUenes. 
(Vide page 29, supra). It is also significant that Diodorus Siculus, 
the first-century B.C. historian who drew on archives in the old 
temples of Carthage, which probably recorded traditions and pre- 
history derived by the Phoenician and their close kinsmen the 
Carthaginian mariners voyaging the Atlantic, after the destruction 
of Atlantis, tells us of Basilea, sister of Atlas, one of the Atlantean 
kings a man not a god, as she was a woman and not a goddess 
who married her brother Hyperion, the sun or Lucifer, in the 
fashion of the later ancient Egyptian Pharoahs, and bore him Helio 
(the sun) and Selene (the moon). Basilea's brothers of Atlas slew 
Hyperion and drowned the child Helio (the sun), lest Hyperion 
might take the throne of Atlantis. Maddened by these murders, 
Selene cast herself from the top of a mountain and perished, while 
Basilea lost her reason, and when her Atlantean subjects tried to 
restrain her, a frightful hurricane, with lightning and thunder, arose 
and she vanished. 

If we euhemerise these myths, we might say that what they im- 
port is that some cosmic body, whether or no Selene, the Moon, 
approached our own planet, the Earth, after the Sun (Helio) had 
vanished behind vast clouds into a night of blackness, and brought 
on an appalling cataclysm the Great Deluge of the Old World 
myths and Genesis in which Queen Basilea, symbolising the great 
island-continent of Atlantis, was seen no more of men. 

In the imperial continental colony of Hy-Brazil, of the pre- 
cataclysmic Brazilian highlands, it is probable that many of the 
people of the dead cities were swallowed up in the frightful crevasses 
of the ground produced by violent quakes such as the bandeiristas 
of A.D. 1743 saw. May be, too, many were asphyxiated by poisonous 
gases arising from eruptions and smoking craters. Some of these 
ancient cities must now lie below the level of the Maranon- Amazon 
basin. If no or few artifacts have been found in the ancient houses, or 
palaces, Time may long ago have rotted them away. Who knows, 
too, what later roamers plundered these dead cities and left memories 
of what they saw in ancient petroglyphs and rock-pictures found in 
wild cattons and cliff-faces from Oregon to old Peru? 

In any case, these dead cities of old Brazil must be of incredible 
age, and destructive of theories that South America, in the era before 
the Christian, had no civilisation. Many of the riddles of their empti- 
ness and utter desolation cannot be solved until we know far more 
about them than the 1750 story tells. After all, the Relatorio deals 
with only one dead city, while there are known to exist others. 
Fawcett kept what he knew to himself; but Time, that reveals 
many things and destroys others, may yet roll up the veil from the 
mysteries of a wonderful civilisation that cannot have been far 
behind our own not that we have much to boast of when we have 



88 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

to record the glories of two World Wars in less than half a normal 
healthy man's or woman's lifetime ! And it is a disturbing coincidence 
that ancient "myths" stress that the catastrophes of thousands of 
years ago were preceded by gigantic wars, and that men wandered 
forth warning of the wrath to come, of which these wars were the 
premonitions. But for the World War No. 2 it is likely that far more 
attention would have been devoted by scientists, now obsessed with 
and pre-occupied by war work and research, to the world-wide 
quakes, year after year since 1939, stretching from the Mediterranean 
to Peru and Los Angeles. It is already suspected that German sub- 
marines, caught on the bed of the South Atlantic in one of these 
volcanic convulsions, failed to make any port in 1940-41 . Let us hope 
that the law of averages will fail to rule in this present year 1944-5. 

Mr. Lewis Spence tells us that Colonel Fawcett wrote him: 
"I have good reason to know that these original (white Atlantean) 
people still remain in a degenerate state. . . . They use script and 
also llamas, an animal associated with Andean heights above 10,000 
feet, but in origin a low country, hybrid animal. Their still existing 
remains show the use of different coloured stones in the steps leading 
to temple buildings and a great deal of sculpture in demi-relief." 

It is exceedingly curious, one may say in passing, that the Amazon 
white women of South America, of whom I shall speak at large in a 
subsequent book to be published by Messrs. Rider and Company, 
are, in unpublished sixteenth and seventeenth century Spanish MSS. 
I shall there cite, also associated with similar architectural remains, 
and with a mysterious animal, not found elsewhere, reminding us of 
the llama, which Colonel Fawcett says the degenerate descendants of 
this ancient white and highly civilised South American still use today !* 

Mr. Richard Oglesby Marsh, a distinguished engineer and 
scientist, former U.S. Secretary of Legation and charge d'affaires at 
Panama, who has made scientific explorations from Bolivia and over 
the Andes into the headwaters territory of the Brazilian Amazon, 
has arrived at conclusions similar to my own about this very ancient 
Matto Grosso civilisation. He thinks that it was from this ancient 
Atlantean type of Brazilian civilisation of bearded men and beauti- 
ful women that the Mayans, and, later, the Incas, derived their 
cultures. He has found that this ancient Hy-Brazilian race used the 
same names for the zodiacal constellations that are used today. There 
are South American geologists, too, who point out that the Roosevelt 
tableland, on which this ancient civilisation founded their dead cities, 
has been above sea-level probably long before the Glacial periods. 

Mr. Marsh believes that this ancient race, traditions of which 
and their mighty empire ranged from the Atlantic to the Pacific 

* We owe to this great race the cultivated banana, which has no seeds, but is propagated 
from suckers. It is alone found wild, with seeds, in Brazil, and is called the pacoba. The 
Atlantean Brazilians introduced it into old Atlantis and what are now the Canaries. 



JUNGLE LIGHT THAT SHINES BY ITSELF 89 

shores, are today crystallised in the folk-lore of Brazilian Indian 
tribes. When the cosmic convulsion rendered these great stone cities 
uninhabitable and its mephitic nature is clearly indicated by the 
bottomless crevasses found in the plazas and among the ruins of the 
shivered dead city found by the bandeiristas, in A.D. 1750 the 
climatic conditions were such that great reptiles, extinct elsewhere 
on the earth, moved in, making the places as Isaiah's home for the 
"hairy dragon". Before long, the green forest covered all of the old 
Brazilian highlands. 

In fact, if the modern Indians be believed, this great plateau, 
more than 1,500,000 square miles in area, one of the largest and most 
dangerous unexplored regions of the globe, has rivers and great 
swamps where dinosaur types still wallow and leap on their gar- 
gantuan prey, much as is depicted in the late Sir Arthur Conan 
Doyle's novel, Lost World referred to in a later chapter of this book. 
The same Indians, between the Rio Araguaya and the Rio Roose- 
velt, and Amazonas and the Goyaz plateau, an extension of the 
Roosevelt tableland, even assert that the forests of this unknown 
region are the home of other giant mammals, of monsters of fear- 
some character ! All of which, of course, suggests that in this very 
ancient Atlantean-BraziHan world giants and monsters of the slime 
wallowed on its tropical fringes ! 

It is certainly not without significance that the sertdo, or hinter- 
land of the Brazilian state of Bahia, wherein, as I have said, the 
bandeiristas of the year A.D. 1750 found one of these Atlantean dead 
cities is, in parts, covered with the remains of monstrous, extinct 
animals overtaken by some great catastrophe. And the duration, 
too, of the great civilisation represented and connoted by these 
extremely ancient and splendid ruins, which, as Fawcett himself 
said, are something very much more than merely megalithic struc- 
tures of some Pelasgian race of Ogyges, is suggested in the significant 
fact that in the same region will be found, either apart or in com- 
bination, both ideographic or hieroglyphic scripts and alphabetical 
signs. The history of ancient Egypt herself proves how long a span 
of years must bridge the gap between the hieroglyph or the ideo- 
graph and the alphabetical letter. Time's ever rolling stream bore 
much away ere this amazing race of Atlantis Brazil had created the 
first alphabet. Some of us may remember how the late Mr. Reid Moir 
was greeted with ridicule and scepticism when he said that man 
existed in the Pliocene Age tens of thousands of years earlier than 
science supposed. Yet, in 1936, the same Mr. Moir was elected a 
Fellow of that august and high and dry Olympian society, the 
Royal Society of England. It may seem that the like chronological 
correction may later have to be made in relation to the age of culture 
and civilisation. For, as the famous hymn says, so much, like the 
sons of Time, "flies forgotten as a dream dies at the opening day". 




10 



(i) High priest of Tiahuanacu with stairway, or "evolution** sign on sides of 
mitre. Note enlarged ear-lobe of Easter Island type. ( Vide also No, x 5, page 1 32 .) 
(2) Tiahuanacu warrior with Egyptian slant of eyes, on ancient metamorphic 
slate under palace ruins. Note "Earth" sign on chest found (aa) today among 
Indians in Koaty and Sampaya Islands, Lago de Titicaca, Peru. (3) Native 
Peruvian ad&ratorio (wayside altar) at Carangas, the stairway evolution sign of 



JUNGLE LIGHT THAT SHINES BY ITSELF QI 

One might even wonder whether the walls of cyclopean cities 
of this ancient race were built as a protection against what mon- 
strous serpents or marine lizards might swim out of the deeps against 
them? Qyien sabe? Such negro autochthones as existed behind the 
ancient civilised regions would hardly have been regarded as 
serious adversaries, any more than a Zulu or Maori, in their tribal 
panoplies, would be a match for, say, a modern "tank-busting" 
gun, or low-diving bomber ! As their civilisation had been extended 
by Qjietzalcoatl to Central America, some significance may also 
attach to that queer clay dish which was dug up in San Salvador, 
a few years ago, and on which is a picture of men flying above a 
group of palms in curious machines, leaving a trail of smoke behind 
them, and which look remarkably like flying-machines I 

Monsieur Lecointe, former French consul-general at Para, has 
made independent discoveries of his own in the inferno verde of 
modern Brazilian Amazonas. They include enormous stone discs 
divided into sections and covered with hieroglyphs. He has photo- 
graphed some of these stones, which he calls "solar disks" of an 
ancient sun-worshipping race. Was it this ancient race that left the 
remarkable prehistoric obelisk, covered with drawings in many 
colours, found by Senor Julio Tello, near Trujillo, North Perii, in 
1 933? Was it they who left that simbolo escalonado (sign of the staircase), 
denoting evolution towards some sort of god-head, which is found in 
ancient, pre-Inca Peru, on remarkable ceramics in the island of 
Maraj6 (mouth of the lower Amazon), Brazil, and in Alaska and 
Patagonia, and is evidently of great age? The sign is also found, to- 
day, embodied in the wayside altars, or native adoratorios of the 
Quechua Indians, descendants of the old Incas, in the Peruvian 
Andes. Was it they who built the ancient forts and aqueducts in 
the Andes east of Cuzco, and left, with gold objects and ceramics, 
the small tubes of a material like glass, but not glass, and of unknown 
chemical composition, which have recently been found in ancient 
graves (huaeas) at ancient, ruined Intihuantan, about ninety 



Tiahuanacu. (4) Image of giraffe head found under Tiahuanacu ruins. (5) 
Image of fossilized human bone found under deluge-alluvium, Tiahuanacu. 
It bears on chest the Earth sign of the warrior and civilian castes of Tiahuanacu. 
(Vide also No. 14, p. 132.) (6) Volute of stairway-evolution sign of Arouwak Indians 
possible descendants of the Tiahuanacu ancients. ( Vide also Nos. 3 and 1 9 (latter 
on page 132.) (7) Unknown extinct animal (glyph) found in hidden catacomb,Easter 
Island, and on ancient pottery, Trujillo, Peru. (8) and (9) "Rayed" head-dress 
petroglyphs found, 1933, by Marshall Field Expedition, in the Sierra de Santa 
Marta, Colombia. (Vide also page 140.) (ip), (11), (12) Petroglyphs in Sierra 
de Santa Marta, Colombia. (10) Has affinity with signs of Maraj6ense (pre- 
historic Brazilian-Lower Amazon) symbols on funerary ceramics, and with 
Egyptian sign of the goddess Neith, mother of sun-god Ra, Rayrm (Peru), and Vi-Ra 
in Atlantean Brazil. ( 1 1 ) and ( 1 2) Stylized pctroglyph heads recalling the psenth* 
or royal coiffure of ancient Egypt, and the nimbi of Christian saints. 



93 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

miles from Cuzco? (The Incas and their predecessors knew not 
glass, or how to make it.) 

We do not yet know. It will be the task of future British and 
American scientific explorers to clear up these mysteries of ages so 
remote that they "crowd on the soul"., as visions of dead glories of 
incredibly ancient worlds that the modern evolutionist is reluctant, 
or refuses to suppose may have been antecedent to the glacial epochs. 

The reader may recall the remarkable statement of the old 
bandeirista that the statue of the colossus he saw in the dead city had 
his hand outstretched towards the north \ When this MS. first saw 
the light in the archives of a historical society in Rio de Janeiro, in 
1840, this reference to the north led a Copenhagen professor to 
suggest that the strange letters were runes, and that the Scandi- 
navians had reached ancient South America. So impressed was the 
King of Denmark that he even detailed a warship to go to Rio and 
land a lieutenant who had orders to go up-country and find these 
statues and the dead city of "Hyperborean" suggestion. 

Here, one may recall that the Jew prophets Ezekiel and Isaiah 
located the ancient Paradise and Garden of Eden in the north; 
but if the reader glances at a map he will see that north of Brazil 
corresponds to that very Amenti-land of the dead, paradise of the 
ancient Egyptian and the Kelt, under another name of Royal 
(or Hy-) Atlantean Brazil! which the people of the Pharaohs 
said lay to the west of the Nile. Moreover, there was a Men, who was 
twelfth king in the calendar of the Mayas, in whose country 
Guatemala was a Nile, who corresponds closely with the Menes 
of ancient Egypt who built the temple of Memphis and turned the 
course of the Nile of Egypt ! 

Brazil, the old and mysterious, seems to be the ancient land which 
was, perhaps, the cradle of the world's oldest civilisation, may be 
60,000 years ago, in a day when our own European ancestors were 
living in caves in the (then) far warmer regions of what is now 
Pyrenean France, Cantabrian Spain, or lacustrine Switzerland. 
It, too, is the Mecca of the treasure hunter, prepared to risk death 
in very unpleasant forms in order to trail the whereabouts of ancient 
gold Amines, or lost mines of platinum, which latter appear on 
cryptic charts and derroteros made by wandering Jesuit misioneros 
of the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and deposited in the 
old viceregal, Lusitanian archives, now found in the Biblioteca 
Nacional in Rio de Janeiro. Many of these lost mines, or caches, lie 
deep in the virgin forests of Brazil. Some of them were the quest of 
those hardy and valiant land-pirates, the bandeiristas of Sao Paulo, 
who waged war on Jesuit misiones and reducciones^ where mining was 
done by the Fathers, with Indian aid, in the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries. 

When I was in Rio, in 1938, I heard about a French engineer, 



JUNGLE LIGHT THAT SHINES BY ITSELF 93 

Apollinaire Frot, who had gone into the unknown region, west of 
the Goyaz plateau, to search for some very ancient gold mines. For 
half a century, Frot had hunted these ancient mines, and, in the 
course of his wanderings, had stumbled on ancient rock inscriptions 
in Amazonas and the Matto Grosso woods which, to his amazement, 
revealed the amazing fact that the ancestors of the ancient Egyptians 
were of South American origin, and had left these petroglyphs as 
portolanos to the location of the ancient gold mines they worked, and 
which are now shrouded in dense bush and lianas, haunted by 
poisonous snakes, loathsome insects whose bite is pathogenic, and 
dangerous animals. In some cases, swamps of vast size border the 
ancient mines, and, here again, if Indian stories are not entirely 
mythical, tracks, "huge and recognised", left in the slime of the 
marshy beaches by monsters of mesozoic type, leave no doubt as to 
what sort of lost world lies behind. (I shall refer to this aspect of 
mysterious South America in a subsequent book.) 

Other inscribed stones, almost obliterated after thousands of 
years, have been found in these unknown jungles of Brazil, and pur- 
port that Phoenicians and their kinsmen, the Carthaginians, also 
wandered this way, thousands of years ago, trading and hunting 
valuable mineral lodes. Before my reader scouts the idea of these 
revelations of antique civilisations in South America, he or she must 
remember that more than 2,000 photographs of these ancient 
petroglyphs have been made by Frot and native pre-historians 
in Brazilian wilds, and that the inscriptions range from hieroglyphic 
(demotic or hieratic forms) to cuneiform or proto-Phoenician 
forms, such as have been found cut in caves in the Canary Islands, 
or are codified in Gesenius's Scriplurae Linguaegue Phoeniciae 
monument a. ' 

Frot had been exploring these wild woods of Brazil since he was 
a youth. It was in the province of Amazonas that he came on an 
ancient carved rock hidden by dense jungle close to a river, which 
recorded the journey of a proto-Egyptian priest to what is now 
Bolivia. The ancient inscription went on to speak of Proto-Egyptian 
silver mines, located in what is now the basin of the Rio Madeira 
(south of the Madeira falls). These portolanos in stone must be the 
oldest treasure charts known. One of them reads as follows : 

"Look out with care for a high hill on whose summit are 
six palm trees. Close by the foot of this hill, thou wilt find yet 
another carved rock telling thee of what lies ahead on the road 
to the mines of gold we worked." 

Stage by stage, these portolanos in ancient stone ran across Central 
Brazil, from some very ancient, proto-Egyptian port which must 
have been located between Bahia and Rio de Janeiro. In the plateau 



94 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

of Goyaz, on the edge of the mysterious wilderness which has never 
at any time been under sea or ice, and which, today, is known as 
the Roosevelt tableland, Frot found one of these stones, while he 
was running down an old Carthaginian trail. The clue of the 
hieroglyphics led him to a very ancient gold mine, in the middle 
of a virgin forest too thick for him to penetrate. Indeed, many of 
these ancient Brazilian-Bolivian gold mines, today, are buried in the 
middle of ancient woods. Frot* says his inscriptions prove that the 
ancestors of the Egyptians, long before they passed to Africa and the 
Nile, had established an ancient South American empire, ranging 
from what is now Bolivia to Bahia. So, while the treasure hunter 
is deeply engaged in trailing down caches of proto-Egyptian gold 
bars and ingots in South America's jungles and foothills, he may, by 
chance, blunder on some enigmatical obelisk of unknown age, 
carved with hieroglyphs and covered with multi-coloured drawings 
in imperishable pigments, such as Sefior Julio Tello found near 
Trujillo, Peru, in 1933. Or, he may drop on a huaca (ancient treasure 
tomb) wherein he may find, as did Berliner archaeologists, eighty 
miles east of Cuzco, towards a Bolivian border and terra incognitaa y 
peculiar ceramics or tubes made of some material like glass, but not 
glass, being of unknown chemical composition. 

One of the native Indian races of Brazil are the people of the 
Tapuya. It is possible that these Tapuyos are the descendants 
of a white helot race, serving the ancient Hy-Brazilian master-race, 
and sharing with them the exodus following on the Great Catas- 
trophe, when Atlantis was engulfed. Southey in his History of Brazil 
tells of a Jesuit who, administering extreme unction to a very old 
Indian crone, asked if he could get her anything to eat. Said the old 
crone : "Father, my stomach rebels against food, but if you could 
only get me the tender hand of a little Tapuyo boy, I think I could 
pick the little bones ; but woe is me, there is nobody to go out and 
shoot one for me." 

Thus, while the descendants of the master-race of Hy-Brazilians 
lived to be exterminated (in Lake Titicaca, Peru), by savage 
Colloans of Carian descent, their helots became the food of cannibal 
Indians, and their children delicatessen for queasy old Brazilian 
Indian harridans sanctified for the Heaven of the Jesuits. Fawcett, 
as Mr. Lewis Spence says and I trust he will forgive me for again 
quoting from one of his excellent books on Atlantean pre-history 
spoke of these Tapuyos, in the east of Brazil, as refugees from an 
older civilisation that civilisation I here style Hy-Brazilian. He 
said: "These Tapuyos are fair as the English. They have small feet 

* It is to be feared that Monsieur Frot has left his bones in the unknown Matto Grosso 
where (I heard in Rio in 1938) he was on the trail of dead cities and ancient monuments. 
These lands are no substitutes for academicians' padded chairs in great libraries and 
museums, salons and offices. H.M. Ambassador in Rio de Janeiro informs me, June 1944, that 
Monsieur Frot is deceased. AUTHOR, 



JUNGLE LIGHT THAT SHINES BY ITSELF 95 

and hands, delicate features of great beauty, and white, golden and 
auburn hair. They were skilful workers in precious stones and wore 
diamonds and jade ornaments." 

Mr. Spence and other readers may, in this connection, compare 
Fawcett's story with what I myself relate about the remarkable 
adventure of the man of Medellin, among a similar white helot 
race, somewhere on the confines of unknown North-Eastern Brazil. 
(Vide pages 49-53 supra.} 

One last very curious fact shows that a corner of the mantle of 
the culture of these ancient and highly civilised Hy-Brazilians has 
fallen on a tribe of modern Indians who, today, dwell in a creek and 
peninsula of Lake Titicaca. These Indians are Golloan or Aymara 
Indians, whose ancestors as Cieza de Leon significantly recorded 
in the year A.D. 1535 exterminated some very old, bearded, white- 
skinned people who had taken refuge on an island in that lake, 
many centuries before the Spaniards irrupted their banditti-soldiers 
on old Incaic Peru. The old Spanish missioners found that these 
Indians of the borders and shores of Lake Titicaca possessed a very 
ancient form of ideographic writing inscribed with the juice of a 
plant, called Solanum aureifolium the native name of which is 
"Nuiiamayu" on animals' skins, and, later, on paper. The old 
missioners turned a breviary of the Catholic faith into this script, 
and, among the ideograms of these Koaty Island (Moon Island in 
Lake Titicaca) and Sampaya Indians, one notes the signs following : 



XT 



Meanings : 

"Stricken in years"; "Faith," "Heaven 

"God"; or Achacki. or belief. and Earth." 



1 t 



"Belief, or god" : lyasatha. "Birth, or reproduction." 

The reader can compare the above signs with those found on the 
walls and monuments of the dead city of the Portuguese bandeiristas. 
(See pages 43, 45, 46, supra.) He or she may also note the significant 
fact that others of these ideograms of the Aymara Indians of Lake 
Titicaca and borders exactly correspond to unknown and very 
ancient rock signs found at Ferro (Canaries) ; among the Touaregs 
in the North African Sahara; to letters in the Ethiopian alphabet; 
rupestrian inscriptions at Thugga, part of the old empire of Carthage, 
in North Africa ; and to one letter Aaph, in the Sidonian alphabet used 
in the cities of old Phoenicia of Tyre. In particular, the curious 
dots, above, also appear in rock inscriptions at Thugga, Sahara, in 



96 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

the deserts of the strange race of the veiled men of the Touaregs, 
and old Numidia. These forms have gone half-way round the 
world from the land of old Brazil, lively evidence of travels and un- 
known travellers of a very ancient world whose existence is hardly 
suspected even by our modern world and encyclopaedic historians. 



CHAPTER IV 

MISSIONARY MEN IN BLACK: FORERUNNERS OF THE 
GREAT CATASTROPHE 

TRADITIONS ranging right round the world, from China to Colombia 
and old Peru, from the jungle and forest lands of Central America 
to old Burma, speak of mysterious men in black, from some far-dis- 
tant highly civilised land, who suddenly appeared in the streets and 
highways warning the people of the eastern and western world of 
wrath to come, and the destruction of the rich, powerful and deca- 
dent cities of the plain. Both in Asia and old South America, they 
seem to have made their apocalyptic advent in a day when neither 
the mighty Himalayas nor the Andes had reached the cloud-topping 
heights at which they have been standing since the days of modern 
and written history. Chronology, even approximately correct, is, at 
this time, impossible to establish. All we can say is these men in 
black vanished, apparently as suddenly as they had appeared in 
America and Southern Asia, prior to 11,000 B.C., when Atlantis 
was submerged and the cities of Hy-Brazil, her royal and imperial 
colony, became, as the Hebrew poet said of other ages and peoples, 
annihilated in : 

"... The day of the Lord's vengeance . . . the streams shall 
be turned into pitch and the dust into brimstone, and the land 
shall become burning pitch. It shall not be quenched by night 
or day. The smoke shall go up for ever and ever. . . . The cor- 
morant and the bittern shall possess it ... and he shall stretch 
out upon it the line of confusion and the stones (or plummets) 
of emptiness. They shall call the nobles thereof to the kingdom, 
but none shall be there. Her princes shall be nothing. Thorns 
shall come up in her palaces, nettles and brambles in her for- 
tresses; and it shall be a habitation of dragons ..." 

Had such a poet and prophet a vision of men, of a far distant 
day, sounding with plummets some bottomless well in just such a 
stone city of the unknown dead, as did the old bandeiristas of Lusitanian 
Brazil in the year A,D. 1750? 



THE MISSIONARY MEN IN BLACK 97 

As other traditions, current in the mystic East, say of these lands 
^of the morning of our world : 

"These great centres and cities of the plain became so de- 
graded and corrupt, that it was impossible to purify them, and 
they were swept away by the besom of the wrath of the Great 
Central Sun of the Cosmos." 

But it seems probable that when the men in black were preaching 
and civilising in Central America, on the western side of America, 
and in South-Eastern Asia, the giant disaster that wrecked the cities 
of Atlantean Brazil and the motherland of Atlantis was still an age 
away. May be, the general feeling of insecurity after a minor, but 
still terrifying volcanic upheaval of the earth's crust in Hy-Brazil, 
and ranging along an earthquake belt to the motherland of Atlantis, 
had sent them forth on the orders of their rulers. One can hardly 
conceive that the lands had sunk to the decadence pictured in the 
old myths, unless these men in black were merely the missioners of a 
decent minority of Atlantean folk. None can yet say. We know 
not. 

Colonel P. H. Fawcett, who, with his son and son's friend, Mr. 
Rimell, may be presumed to have perished there is no definite 
information either way, but only what amounts to a legal presump- 
tion, in the lapse of nearly twenty years in the gallant effort to 
solve the mystery of the Atlantean Empire in old Brazil, points out 
an amazing fact about the tremendous age of this high civilisation of 
Hy-Brazil, Royal Brazil (or Imperial Atlantis), as the old Irish 
Keltic wanderers called it. He says that the ancient native Brazilian 
name for the Rio Amazonas, the Amazon, which is Marafton, was 
originally borne by the Mexican Gulf, in a day when an arm of that 
gulf must have extended to the Amazon. It is significant, too, that another 
old native name for the Mexican Gulf was Orinoco , the name borne 
by the great river of Guiana- Venezuela. The remote day when the 
Mexican Gulf reached to the Amazon was during the heyday of 
Atlantean Brazil, or Hy-Brazil, the royal colony of the great mother- 
land. 

The pioneer Quetzalcoatl, who, probably, came from Atlantean 
Brazil on a civilising mission to barbarian and savage Central 
America, was, it may be necessary to repeat, as the myths of ancient 
Mexico make clear, a man, not a god. One may call him a divine man, 
later deified as was Osiris, and the other gods and goddesses of the 
Egyptian Nile, who, as Manetho showed, were merely men and 
women who had achieved great pioneering and cultural works. The 
ancient Mexicans said Quetzalcoatl came to them from a land to the 
south-east^ and that his symbol was the feathered serpent. It will be 
remembered that the serpent was found carved in stone in some 

o 



98 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

parts of the dead Atlantean city in Bahia province. Slightly varying 
accounts are given of Quetzalcoatl. 

Father Bernardino Sahagun, the famous missioner and historian 
among the Mexicans, after the days of the conquistadores, was told : 

"Quetzalcoatl had a dark countenance, all his body was 
clothed in a shirt wrought like a surplice, that did not reach to the 
girdle of the waist. From the knee to the leg was covered with bus- 
kins of tiger-skin, ornamented with sea-shells. He wore sandals." 

Fray Juan Torquemada, the Franciscan missioner, who collected 
traditions about Qjuetzalcoatl from the natives of old Mexico, among 
whom he worked in the years after the Spanish conquest, says : 

"Quetzalcoatl, it is held for certain, was a man of upright 
character, elegant carriage and was white and blonde (bianco) , 
with a ruddy face (rubio) and bearded. His beard was long. He 
was of benevolent disposition and learned, and a great person- 
nage. His hair was long and black. . . ." 

Torquemada, however, in the same rare book, Monarquia 
Indiana, says : 

"Qjietzalcoatl had blonde hair, and wore a black robe sewn 
with little crosses of red colour." 

The Mexican Codex Chimalpopoca, written in the native Nahua 
tongue (and already mentioned in Chapter I), seems to suggest 
that there had been several (three) attempts from some land across 
the eastern sea to civilise the savages and barbarians of Central 
America; but that all had failed before Quetzalcoatl came on the 
scene. This seems to be borne out by the discovery, in A.D. 1927, 
by the American Indian Foundation Fund diggers, of remains of a 
great temple, beautifully coloured pottery, stone monuments and 
idols, or statues of men, all lying under many feet of volcanic ash, 
and far more ancient than Mayan or Aztec civilisations. These 
remains must be at least 12,000 years old. They were found in the 
Code province of Panama state. 

According to Torquemada, twenty chiefs, led by a great man, 
Qiietzalcoatl, arrived "out of the blue", one day, from the north-west. 
(?) They landed at Panuco, now a village about twenty-five miles 
south-west of Tampico, in Vera Cruz. . . . 

"They were men of good appearance, well-clothed, in long 
garments of black cloth like the cassocks of priests, open in front, 
but without the cowls, the neck cut in crescent shape, short 
sleeves, but wide, with nothing at the elbows. This dress the 



THE MISSIONARY MEN IN BLACK 99 

natives use, today (in seventeenth century), in their dances and 
ballets, in imitation of these ancient folk. These latter went for- 
ward from Panuco, showing good manners, giving no occasion for 
war or fighting, stage by stage, till they reached Tullan, where the 
natives of this province received and lodged and entertained them. 5 ' 

The country from which they came, according to the Popul Vuh, 
or Bible of the Quiches of Western Guatemala, was in the east, 
"where red and white men lived in joy : their aspect gentle and 
sweet, their language pleasant, and their minds very intelligent". 

Torquemada says the men were Toltecs, and that their leader, 
Quetzalcoatl, had come from a land not submerged, but one 
which the ruling class considered so unstable, owing to occasional 
cataclysms, that they looked out for a settlement elsewhere. On this 
point, it will be recalled that Colonel Fawcett pointed out that all the 
dead cities of Brazil had been overthrown by violent earthquakes. 

Clavigero, another colonial Spanish historian of Mexico, 
describes Quetzalcoatl as high priest of Tula, capital of Tulceca. . . * 

"He was white in complexion, tall and corpulent, broad in 
forehead, with large eyes, long, black hair, thick beard : a man 
of austere and exemplary life, clothed in long garments, gentle 
and prudent. He was expert in the art of melting metals and 
polishing precious stones which he taught the Tultecans." 

Quetzalcoatl established contact with the powerful Central 
American race of the Toltecs , or Nagualecas; and, says Torque- 
mada in a chapter headed, "De la Pobla$on de Tulla y su Senorio" : 

"They were men great in stature, excellent gold-and-silver 
snjiths. When they landed at Panuco, Quetzalcoatl was at their 
head and they marched inland, under his direction. They built 
the splendid city of Tullan, with fine and beautiful houses, 
temples and palaces, all of the greatest magnificence." 

The Toltecs intermarried with the natives of the country, and 
by command of Quetzalcoatl, colonised other parts of Central 
America. Tollan, says the native historian Ixtlilxochitl, was a place 
of fine palaces and temples. The kings of the country this might 
fit either the motherland of Atlantis, or the great colony of Hy- 
Brazil, and it is part of the Deluge Myth found all over the world 
grew licentious, and the provinces revolted. The gods were wroth 
with king and people, and great frosts, followed by heat, visited 
the city. The crops perished, rocks melted, and plagues finished the 
ruin. (Frosts are seldom experienced in Mexico.) 

Eight leagues north-east from Mexico City is the plain anciently 
called the "Path of the Dead" (Micoatl). In it are two lagoons 



IOO MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

dedicated to the sun (Tonatiuh), and the moon (Metzli). Hundreds 
of pyramids surround these lakes, forming streets in dead-straight 
Knes, running east- west, north-south. On top of the Mexican 
teocallis a truncated, or polled pyramid, with a temple atop 
stood two colossal statues, one to the sun, the other to the moon. 
Plates of gold sheathed the stone and the statues fairly dazzled the 
eyes. Naturally, the gold-hungry Castilian soldiers of Cortes stripped 
off the gold, and the statues were destroyed by a fanatical Spanish 
Franciscan priest, bishop Zumaraga, who broke up every "idolo" 
he could see. 

In Anahuac was found the great Teocallis of Choluhuan. It is 
described thus, in an unpublished Spanish MS., by Don Pedro de los 
Rios, written in A.D. 1556 : 

"In the interior was a square house, built of stone, pillared 
with beams of cypress. It contained in the beams two human 
skeletons, and there were idols of basalt, and curiously painted 
and varnished vases. There was no outlet, and the step- work 
was of bricks. An altar at the top was dedicated to the white- 
bearded man Quetzalcoatl ; but the Indians say the pyramid was 
not originally meant to serve for the adoration of Quetzalcoatl." 

This MS. has a curious story to the effect that the Teocallis was 
a Tower of Babel, and that a hymn was sung, there, by the Cholulans 
at their festivals, which began with the words : Tulanian hululaez. 
These two words are of no dialect known to Mexico, and are strangely 
like the Jewish Alleluia. Lescarbot heard a song, with the words 
Aylo or Alleluia, sung in Central America, which is singularly like 
the Ta-Lqylu of the modern Copts of Upper Egypt, and the Arabic 
hallal and Peruvian quillal (moon). Liniae, in Quichua, Peruvian 
dialect, means gods of lightning and thunder, so that some people 
have gone so far as to suggest that the ancestors of the Inca Peruvians 
came to America across the land-bridge from the African shores of 
the Atlantic. Altogether, it is hard to resist the conclusion that this 
Mexican Tower of Babel was built some time, probably long ages, 
after Quetzalcoatl went back to the south-eastern land from which 
he never returned.* 

* It is curious that in one ancient Mexican myth, Quetzalcoatl, like certain mahatmas 
and elusive sages of modern Tibet and the Himalaya recesses, is said to have periodically 
repaired to a Fountain of Youth, in the land of Tlalpallan, where he drank and recovered 
from the ravages of old age. American legends call this mystic land: "Place of the Shining 
Sands*'. It was variously cited as the Bahamas island of Bimini; Florida (where Juan Ponce 
de Leon sought it) ; and other American regions. The Red Indians of North America placed 
it somewhere to the East, which might fit either Atlantis, the motherland, or one of her 
Central or South American colonies. Prester John, the monk of Far Cathay, is alleged to 
have written a letter to the Byzantine emperor Manuel, locating the fountain as about 
three days' journey from the Paradise whence Adam was expelled. Saturn, whom Diodorus 
speaks of as a god-king (or man) of Atlantis, was turned from a white-haired man to a boy, 
or a man in the prime of life, by drinking of the waters of this mystic fountain. It would be 
curious if this same legend of the "Fontana de la Juventud" should be found, today, among 
Brazilian Indian tribes. In any event, the myth dated back to a pre-cataclysmic age. 



THE MISSIONARY MEN IN BLACK IOI 

Qjietzalcoatl, and other Atlanteans from cither Hy-Brazil or 
.the Atlantis motherland in the Atlantic Ocean, were in the ancient 
dead city of Palenque, Chiapas, the frontier state of modern Mexico, 
but that ancient town with its palaces, temples, waterways, bridges, 
and pyramids existed long ages before the Mayas came there. It is 
at the other famous Mayan town, or dead city of Chichen Itza, in 
Yucatan, well known to American archaeologists, that there is found 
a significant memorial to Quetzalcoatl : he is represented, in stone, 
as Atlas supporting the world. And, as is known, Atlas gave his 
name to the drowned Atlantean island-continent. Quetzalcoatl and 
the other men from Atlantean Hy-Brazil made the Central American 
country so rich and fertile that it was said, in an old Quich< chron- 
icle : "a head of maize was a burden for a strong man to carry." 

Then there came a change in the spirit of the scene. The time of 
the Great Catastrophe was drawing nearer. A deadly enemy of 
Quetzalcoatl, one Huemac, of the strong hand, landed at Panuco 
with a great army and marched on QuetzalcoatPs city of Tullan, or 
Tollan, not Cholullan, located on the shores of a great lake. Like 
a very modern totalitarian dictator in Europe, or like the grinning 
savages of modern Japan waging a war of pure aggression on peace- 
loving, civilised China, Huemac of the strong hand burnt and 
ravaged all before him and left the people with only their eyes to 
weep. 

Wherever he passed, great cruelties were done, and great tyran- 
nies set up, say the old Spanish chronicles, derived from the native 
traditions, which are, possibly, confused, or are have gone off the 
rails, with native traditionalists, in identifying the Toltecs, which 
were led by Huemac, with the men in black led by Quetzalcoatl. 
More likely, the men in black were Atlanteans, or "builders" from 
Hy-Brazil, or Atlantis, and not Toltecs, who are confused with 
them, as " builders", in the myths. Anyway, Huemac established 
the Toltec power in old Mexico, and it did not fade away till some 
465 years before Cortes landed in Aztecan Mexico, and ruined the 
succeeding Aztec civilisation whose last emperor was the ill-fated 
Montezuma. 

Fray Bernardino Sahagun takes up the story, at this point : 

"The day came when Quetzalcoatl persuaded the Toltecs 
(?) to go out from the city of Tullan. They left it at his order, 
although they had been there a long time, and had built fine 
and beautiful houses, temples and palaces, all with the greatest 
magnificence, and even possessed great riches in all the places 
where they had spread. Departing out, they took their leave, 
abandoning houses, lands, cities, riches ; for, not being able to 
take all away, they buried much riches and gold under the 
earth, whence one draws it out today, full of admiration for the 



IO2 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

excellence of their works. Obeying the orders of Qjietzalcoatl 
they went, pushing before them, with infinite difficulties, their 
wives, and sick and old, none making resistance to his com- 
mands. All went on the road, immediately Qjietzalcoatl came out 
of Tullan to go up to the region of Tlalpallan, whence he never 
returned. . . ." 

Torquemada was told that Huemac reigned in Tullan for 
seventy years after Qjietzalcoatl quitted it; but, he varies the story 
of Sahagun by saying that Qjietzalcoatl left Tullan in a rage be- 
cause of the evil end he foresaw to a place which had become 
licentious, and that it was from Cholullan, where he abode many 
years, that he finally went to the sea. From Gholullan, Qjietzalcoatl 
had sent out men who colonised Yucatan, Tabasco and Gampeache 
and Onohualco by the sea and, as bas-reliefs and totem-poles 
show, what is now British Columbia. There, these colonisers "built 
most splendid and great Roman edifices as at Mixtlan (Hell, in the 
Mexican tongue), which show that these men were of great in- 
tellect and powers who constructed these fine buildings". Qjietzal- 
coatl, as Torquemada suggests, may have become an old man 
weighed down by the burden of years and weary of exercising a 
wisdom and skill which seemed likely to become a vanity and 
vexation of spirit . . ."when he departed from Cholullan, he pretended 
that he was going to visit other provinces that he had sent men to 
settle 5 '. However that may be, Huemac of the strange land, in 
a rage that Quetzalcoatl had removed himself from his reach, 
slaughtered all he found, and such fear came on men that they . . , 

"worshipped Huemac as a god, endeavouring by that to darken 
and destroy the form of ritual that Qjietzalcoatl had already 
bequeathed to that city". 

There was also an ancient Mexican tradition handed down by the 
far later Aztecs* or Nahuatls, that the first settlers in ancient Mexico 
and Central America were white people. They were subsequently 
conquered by invaders of a dark-skinned race who drove them 
out from the land, forced them into ships and saw them sail 
away for a far-off land to the east, in the direction of the rising sun, 
where they settled. The natives of Guatemala, at the time of the 
Spanish conquest, also had this tradition : 

"When King Quetzalcoatl, of the very white race, was 
conquered by an invading race with dark skins, he refused to 

* There is reason to suppose that some of these Aztec tribes used polished mirrors of 
quartz or obsidian as heliographs to flash messages about Cortes and the men of his 
expedition! 



THE MISSIONARY MEN IN BLACK 103 

surrender. He said he could not live as a captive, nor submit to 
savagery. So, with as many of his white people as could crowd 
into his ships, he sailed to a far distant country towards the rising 
sun. He reached it, and with his people, settled down there. 
They prospered and became a great race. During the great 
battle (in old Central America) many escaped into the forests 
and were never again heard of; but the rest were taken prisoners, 
and enslaved by the dark-skinned men." 

To this there was a curious Aztecan tail-piece about the ultimate 
coming of a saviour from the land to which Quetzalcoatl and his 
white people had gone in their ships in the path of the sunrise : 

"In a time to come, this white people shall return and again 
master this land (of Central America and old Mexico)." 

An echo of a time of cataclysm is also found today in another 
region of Guatemala's forests. The late Dr. Thomas Gann noted 
how natives at the village of Pichek, near Rabinal, refuse to handle 
ancient figurines, jade statuettes and antique ornaments and the 
like, which, they say, "were made by an ancient people, allied with 
powers of evil at a time before the sun shone in the sky, when 
people could find their way about the dark earth only with torches". 
The natives of today say these antique figurines are endowed with 
life. Indeed, these idolos are used by the modern witch-doctors, or 
brujos. An Indian at Rabinal told Gann that there are great numbers 
of these figurines and relics in the ancient ruins, but that they appear 
only on Mondays and Thursdays, and even then run back into the 
ruins and hide, unless the proper incantations are said. 

It is possible, though it cannot be proved, at the moment, 
that this race, "allied with evil", may have been identical with 
the unknown people of extreme antiquity whose remains are found, 
today, up the Rio Grande in Southern British Honduras, and whom 
Dr. Gann believed had Mayan links. (I am inclined, myself, to fancy 
that this mysterious race possibly either emigrants from old 
Atlantis, belonging to the races outside the ruling aristocratic castes 
of that island-continent, or migrants from old Atlantean, colonial 
Hy-Brazil of Quetzalcoatl may have contacted the mysterious 
Mayans (who had Mongolian traits superimposed on a more Aryan 
or Caucasian ruling type), at a time when they (the Atlanteans) 
had lapsed into degeneracy. Dr. Gann calls them the "Columbia 
race".) 

He says these mysterious people never had any close connection 
with the Mayans of the old or later empire. They built citadels on 
hill-tops, left no burial mounds, but innumerable figurines of men, 
women and children of all classes, in their costumes. They flattened 



104 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

the hill-tops and erected these citadels on terraced mounds, faced 
with stone. There are rectangular sunk courts lined with blocks of 
cut stone, in these ruins, and approached by stairways of stone. 
Similar structures are found in ancient ruins in Ceylon and Angkor 
Wat (Cambodia), (Vide: Colonel Fawcett's discovery of the ancient 
inscribed stone in Ceylonese jungles, page 6 1 et seq. supra) . Many sub- 
terraneans exist in these Guatemalan ruins, of stone blocks dove- 
tailed each into other with no cement bonding. There is, in one 
ruin, a fine amphitheatre with tiers of stone seats for 6,000 people. 
The best seats were on a stone pyramid reserved for the king, nobles 
and high priests. Among the figurines are images of fishes, birds, 
beasts and dragons. The women wore tight skirts, ankle-long, and 
heavily embroidered bodices cut low and exposing the breasts. 
Their arms are bare or short-sleeved to the elbows. The men and 
women wore round ear-plugs with tassels, and the women also wore 
jewelled collarettes, beads and pendants. Both sexes are shown 
dancing together in quite modern style. One figurine is that of a 
woman holding a drum between her legs and beating it. Another is 
of a woman apparently suckling, at her breast, a little animal. There 
are on stelae dominant figures, as of rulers and conquerors. No 
one can read the writing they used. Rows of hieroglyphs are on the 
statuettes, and they are quite different, says Dr. Gann, from any in 
America, though some seem Mayan. Their land was about 3,000 
square miles in area. Their society ruled by caste, and their religion 
was as unique as their writing, and certainly not Mayan. Not even a 
tradition of their existence remains, and the land they once occupied 
is under dense forest. 

Are they, again, some of the people whom Quetzalcoatl tried to 
humanise, and in despair of whom he went back across the "Red 
Sea", to the land Hy-Brazil, or Atlantis of the ocean, from which 
he came? 

Much research will alone settle this point, if it can be established 
after all these ages. One gropes in the dark with only a fugitive ray 
occasionally penetrating the gloom. 

Then, again, what unknown and mysterious race built the very 
ancient Central American city of which my friend, Mr. William S, 
Taylor, retired constructional engineer, of Seattle, Washington, 
tells me? 

I believe the ruins of which he spoke to me are still to this day 
1945 unknown to modern Mexican archaeologists. 

Says Mr. Taylor : "About the year 1902, when I was manager of 
an engineering project in Georgia, I had a master mechanic working 
for me. To get relief from the arduous grind of the daily job, I used 
to have talks with this old roamer about a subject in which I grew 
mightily interested : the ancient things of old Mexico. He told me 
about a vast prehistoric city in ruins some way south-west of Mexico 



THE MISSIONARY MEN IN BLACK 105 

City. No one has ever been able to visit it, after repeated attempts, 
and I'll tell you why. It was destroyed by tremendous earthquakes 
ages ago, and all the people in it perished. The quakes threw up a 
circle round the ancient city, of some miles in circumference. This 
circle consists of high, precipitous mountains completely girdling 
the city. All the buildings therein have long ago been destroyed as 
by some cataclysm. But the landscape otherwise remains unchanged. 
It is extremely difficult to get near these ancient ruins ; for a man 
can pack in only enough grub to carry him half-way across the 
known area of the sierra. Several expeditions setting out from 
Mexico City to explore these ancient ruins have failed even to sight 
them. 

"My old roamer said to me : 

" 'I went there with an expedition which planned to reach 
the high cliffs of the mountains overlooking the place. I took a 
job as extra carrier. We managed to reach these cliffs, and from a 
height right over the ruins, looking down on the floor on which 
they lay, I watched, as I lay down and rested. In every direction 
I saw nothing but a jumble of cut stone building blocks. I quit 
the expedition, and never heard what luck they had, or any more 
about them.' " 

So many modern writers on the antiquities of Mexico have re- 
peated, parrot-fashion, the conflicting statements of these old Spanish 
and Mexican historians, that it is easy to see why even authorities, 
such as Lewis Spence, have confused Votan with Quetzalcoatl, 
called Huemac of the strong hand only another name for Quetzal- 
coatl, and have wrongly identified Tullan with Cholullan, a city 
which was a considerable distance from Tullan, the town to which 
Qjietzalcoatl came when he marched inland from Panuco on the 
Gulf of Mexico. 

The (Aztec) Codex Vaticanus makes Quetzalcoatl the son of a 
virgin, thus exactly paralleling the Mediterranean myths of the dark- 
white race of Southern Europe who invariably bestowed this 
"supernatural distinction" on great men whom they subsequently 
deified. 

"Proceeding on his journey (from Cholullan), Qiietzalcoatl 
came to the Red Sea, which is painted in this codex, and which 
they named Tlalpallan, and they say that, on entering it, they 
saw no more of him, nor knew what became of him. They 
say it was he who effected the reformation of the world by pen- 
ance : since, according to his account, his father had created the 
world, and men had given themselves up to vice, on which 
account it had been frequently destroyed. It was Citinatonali 



IO6 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

who sent his son into the world to reform it. ... They celebrated 
a great festival on this sign, as we shall see on the sign of the four 
earthquakes: because they feared that the world would be 
destroyed on that sign (or date), as he had foretold them when 
he disappeared in the Red Sea, which event occurred on the 
same sign (or date). 5 ' 

The Popul Vuh, the Bible of the Quiches of Central America, has 
also another Atlantean tradition, which may be cited here. This 
remarkable book is associated with Votan and the Votanes, who, I 
beg to repeat, must not be confused with Quetzalcoatl, with whom 
Lewis Spence and others have identified him. Votan, or, Odin, or 
Woden, a man deified as a god, probably hailed from the Old World 
of Mediterranean Europe, or Punic Africa, and he probably furnishes 
a clue to the fact that puzzled Colonel Fawcett and others: the 
existence of tribes in old Brazil who worship the Scandinavian god 
Odinl His cult had clearly travelled far south beyond the land- 
bridge of Darien and old Panama. 

In this tradition, the Popul Vuh tells of three "god-men", Balam- 
Agab, Mahucutch and Iqi-Balam, who came to ancient Central 
America from "the other side of the sea where the sun rises". . . . 
"They had been there a long time, when they died, and already they 
were very old men (or men who were venerated) called the high 
priests. . . . Afterwards, the princes of the Quiches bethought them- 
selves of going to the East, conformably to the wishes of their fathers, 
which they had never forgotten." 

The Popul Vuh goes on to say that these princes took wives long 
after their fathers were dead . . . "and later said : Let us go east, 
whence our fathers came, and they took their road". Their names 
are given as Qpcaib, Qpacutec and Qpahau, sons of the god-men 
above. Brasseur-de-Bourbourg theorises that these ancient princes 
took the road towards the gulf of Honduras, perhaps a little above 
Livingstone. 

Says the Popul Vuh : "They went by design and wisdom and took 
leave of all their brothers and relations, and parted full of sadness, 
saying: *We shall not die; for we shall return.' And when they 
arrived in the East for without doubt they passed over the sea 
they received royalty. Now, here is the name of this Lord, the King 
of the Easterns : he is called Lord Nacxit of Ranaual, the sole judge, 
whose power is without bounds and to whom they conceded die 
insignia of royalty, and all it represents." 

Brasseur-de-Bourbourg says that Nacxit was Quetzalcoatl, whose 
kingdom extended afar and was known as the "Empire of the East". 
This is a vivid glance at old Atlantis and her great colonial American 
empire ! The insignia mentioned were "tents or baldaquins, worked 
in gold and studded with gems er ornamented with precious feathers ; 



THE MISSIONARY MEN IN BLACK I(>7 

flutes, and other instruments ; powders of various colours*, perfumes, 
the tiger chief, the bird, the stag, the shells, pine-knots, trumpets, 
the royal emblems of the herons' plumes, the art of painting of 
Tulan, and its writing, they said; for that had been preserved in 
their history." 

Therefore, it was after the Hy-Brazilian, Atlantean Quetzal- 
coatl went back to the dead cities then still in their threatened 
glory and crossed the "Red Sea" to Tlalpallan that the Great 
Catastrophe came on this planet Earth. It does not seem the first 
time he had gone back to Hy-Brazil from Central America; 
for a Quiche tradition, in Guatemala, tells us that "on re- 
turning to Palenque, he found other colonists of his own race 
there". 

When Cortes came to Aztec Mexico, in A.D. 1519, the last 
Mexican emperor, Montezuma, told the men of the white-bearded 
race of Castilians that they were the men of whom his ancestors had 
been foretold that their coming would be one day from the east to 
deliver Mexico. Thus, the luckless emperor contributed to ruin his 
own country in the shadow of a mystic prophecy many thousands of 
years older than the beginning of the Aztec civilisation of a paranoiac 
New Stone age ! 

Cortes was so struck with Montezuma's strange story that he 
sent it over the ocean to the Holy Roman emperor and Spanish 
king, Charles V in old Spain. It is in his first letter, dated October 
30, 1520: 

"It is now many days since our historians have informed us," 
said Montezuma, "that neither my ancestors, nor myself, nor 
any of my people, who now inhabit this country, are natives of 
it. We are strangers and came hither from very distant parts. 
They also tell us that a Lord, to whom all were vassals, brought 
our race to this land, and returned to his native place. That, 
after a long time, he came here again and found that those he 
had left were married to the women of the country, had large 
families, and built towns in which they dwelt. He wished to take 
them away, but they would not consent to accompany him, nor 
permit him to remain as their chief. Therefore, he went away. 
We have always been assured that his descendants would return 
to conquer our country, and reduce us again to obedience. 
You say you come from the part where the sun rises." (See 
Francisco Lorenzanos* Documentos Mexicanos.) 

* In a subsequent book, I shall draw attention to some unpublished Spanish MSS., 
which I shall translate, which show the existence of these Atlantean insignia, hi the 
seventeenth century A.D., in the strange land of Gran Paytite, and among Indians in the 
unknown region of eastern Andean Peru and modern Bolivia. The perfumes, the powders, the 
colours, the painting, the tiger-chief, the writing all were found, or reported to far-ranging 
Spanish dons, by remote Indian tribes. 



I08 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

Torquemada has another curious, but significant version of 
what Montezuma told Cortes : 

"He told Cortes that Quetzalcoatl was a great magician 
and necromancer, and reigned king of that land, and that, on 
leaving that country, he betook himself towards the sea, feigning 
that the sun-god had called him to the other part of the sea on the 
eastern border; but he promised to return afterwards, with 
great power, and avenge his wrongs and redeem his town from 
injuries, and tyrannies ; for they say of him he was a very merci- 
ful and humane man." 

As we know, the luckless Aztecs did not find the sadistic, gold- 
crazed Castilian conquistadores more bandits than soldiers 
merciful ; but it is remarkable that these good Catholic Spaniards, 
hearing that Quetzalcoatl was the Jesus of old Mexico and Central 
America, said he must have been the apostle, Saint Thomas. Of 
course, that could hardly be ; since the apostle was born only nine or 
more thousand years after the passing of Quetzalcoatl ! And, of 
course, that benevolent apostle of Hy-Brazilian culture, Quetzal- 
coatl, lived long before the ancient day of Votan, whose day in 
Yucatan, Guatemala and what was then proto-Mayaland is, in an 
ancient MS. copied by Don Ramon de Ordonez y Aguiar very soon 
after the Spanish Conquest of Mexico, made contemporary with the 
erection of a great temple at Rome, by the Consul Publius Cornelius 
Rufus, in 290 B.C. (The same ancient MS. of Votan, by the way, 
also says that Votan, identified with men of a Phoenician, Canaanite 
or Carthaginian race, went, in his travels from ancient Central 
America to old Europe and Asia, to Babylon from the great temple 
ofjerusalem, and saw the ruins of the Tower of Babel. Vide: Ordonez 
" Probanzo de Votan".) 

Ages had passed before Votan set out on his travels from what is 
now Guatemala or Yucatan, and the Great Deluge and Cosmic 
Disaster that for centuries on centuries made the Atlantic Ocean 
impassable to the keels of the galleys and triremes of the ancient 
world had left the memories of great Atlantis and her South American 
empire, with their splendid cities overthrown by vulcanism and 
seismic disturbances, hardly even a dim legend among wandering 
tribes of Central and South America. Far and wide, as we see, were 
the Hy-Brazilians dispersed over South America; albeit, their 
posterity still, as I have said, survives today in remote and un- 
explored regions of modern Brazil, Venezuela of the Western 
provinces, and the Peru of the Andean Oriente a posterity known 
as the "White Indians". 

Somewhere about the time that Qiietzalcoatl landed in Panuco, 
on the Gulf of Mexico, another old and bearded man of great 



THE MISSIONARY MEN IN BLACK I0g 

wisdom and knowledge and benignity, dressed in black, like a 
Phoenician merchant in the old port of Gades, Spain, of 3,000 
years ago, went out from Hy-Brazil and came among a country of 
high savanas in the mountains of what is now Colombia, South 
America. He found himself among the (then) savage race of the 
Muyscas, or Chibchas, a naked, repulsive and ferocious people, with- 
out laws, the elements of agriculture, or any sort of religion. They 
called him Bochicha or Zuhe, said he suddenly appeared from a 
land to the east of the cordilleras of Ghingasa, and was ag&d and 
bearded, and unlike a man of any race known to them. He carried a 
golden sceptre. 

Their traditions as told to the Spaniards at the Conquest 
were that his name was also Nemteresqueteba, and that he wore long 
garments, and was also called Chinzopoqua ("sent from God"), but 
was a human person with a long and bushy beard, who came from 
the east of the Andes to Paxa and vanished at Sogamuso. With him 
came civilisation and laws. Bochicha built towers and introduced the 
worship of the sun, and taught the savages how to clothe themselves 
and form towns. It was in the "remote days before the Moon accom- 
panied the earth" ! Then, like Quetzalcoatl, his contemporary in 
Central America, Bochicha organised the government of the 
country. He nominated two chiefs, one of whom was to have civil, 
the other, ecclesiastical jurisdiction. Then he withdrew himself, says 
the tradition, into the holy valley of Idacanzas, near Tunja, where 
he lived in the exercise of the most austere penitence for the space of 
2,000 years! 

As this legend says that Bochicha came among the savage 
Muyscas at a remote time before the moon accompanied the earth, 
it suggests that those 2,000 years were, perhaps, not our present years 
of 365 days each. There was, as one noted above, a race of shepherds, 
musicians and soldiers, dwelling in Arcadia, in the Peloponnesus, 
in Southern Greece, in ancient times, which also boasted that their 
race was older than the moon. 

When the Conquistadorian Spaniards overran the country in the 
sixteenth century A.D. they found the Muyscas still surviving: and 
they were greatly struck by the fact that the Muyscas, or Moscas, 
and two other Indian nations on the high savanas of Bogota, lived in 
settled communities, tilled the land, and wore clothes, while, on the 
plains below, the other tribes were naked, brutal and barbarous to 
a degree. An old Spanish monk's MS. of the days of the Conquest of 
Nueva Grenada, or modern Colombia, gives curious details about 
Bochicha. He appointed a zague, or king, to stop the war that 
threatened among the people disputing authority. He also set up a 
council of four chiefs to choose a high priest, after his (Bochicha's) 
death. The Muyscas called Bochicha sua, or sun, and when the 
bearded Spaniards arrived, they called them "children of the 



110 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

which, of course, implies that Bochicha, from Hy-Brazil, was a 
white bearded man. The name Muyscas means men, Chibcha being 
the name for their language. 

It is significant that after Bochica, or Bochicha, came to the high 
savana of Bogot&, there appeared as money, small circular plates 
of gold. It will be remembered that Joao Antonio, the Portuguese 
bandeirista, in A.D. 1 750, picked up in the dead city of Hy-Brazil, 
behind the sierra in the sertdo of Bahia province, "a piece of gold 
money of spherical shape, "greater than our Brazilian gold coin of 
6,400 reis. On one side of the coin was the figure of a kneeling youth ; 
on the other, a bow, crown and arrow." (Vide page 46 supra.) 
In one part of the cordillera of the Colombian Andes (deep in the 
Sierra Santa Marta), there has been found remains of a splendid 
stone city, with paved roads, fissured and upheaved by tremendous 
earthquakes. It has even yet the remains of a square arch tiled with 
enormous slabs of granite. (It may have been a colony of the far 
earlier (?) empire of Lemuria, or Mu.) A great highway, paved with 
granite, leads no one know where, today, and in valleys adjoining 
there are ruins of great buildings, and tombs cut in the living rock 
the sort ofhuacas whence modern treasure hunters take out emeralds, 
crystal collars of black and red gems and fine gold. In fact, it was a 
story, told by the Indians, of gold plating ancient palace ruins, of 
cyclopean type, and idols of the same solid metal that, when fol- 
lowed up by the same avaricious investigators, gave a very unplea- 
sant time to the hungry conquistadorian soldiers, under Don Jiminez 
de Qjiesada, who led an army of hauberked and morioned men 
Europe's finest infanteria on the hunt for El Dorado. 

No. 3 emissary from the ancient land of Hy-Brazil was he whom 
the Incas called the Ayar Manco Capac. He is also called Vira- 
cocha, which, again, means sun-worshipper. He, too, said the Inca 
Peruvians, was a "white man, with a full beard, who came over the 
Andean Cordilleras from a land to the east". Another Peruvian 
tradition is that the white, bearded man suddenly "appeared, from 
nowhere", in an island in Lake Titicaca, in the old Collao. 

Don Antonio de Herrera, Coronista major de su Majestad de las 
Indias y su Coronista de Castella (Crown officer of the King of the 
Indies and Castile, in Peru) was told, by the Peruvians, the story 
following, about the year A.D. 1600: 

. . /There presently appeared in the middle of the day, 
when the sun came out on Lake Titicaca, in the Andes, a white 
man, of a great body and venerable presence, who was so power- 
ful that he lowered the hills, increased the size of the valleys 
and drew fountains from the rocks. They called him, for his 

great power, lord of all created things, and father of 

the sun : for he gave life to man and animals and by him notable 



THE MISSIONARY MEN IN BLACK III 

benefits came to them. And, working these marvels, he went a 
long way towards the north, giving, on the road, an order of 
life to the nations, speaking with much loving benevolence, cor- 
recting them that they might be good and upright (buenos), and 
joining them, one with another (y se amasseri), who, until the 
last days of the Incas, they called Ticeuro-cocha> and in the Gollao, 
Tupaco, and in other parts, ArrausL And they built many 
temples." (JV.5. The Gollao corresponds to the western region 
of modern Bolivia.) 

Montesinos, who wrote a very rare book which he copied from a 
lost and very valuable MS. of the Jesuit Bias Valera, on the history 
of old Peru, says the high priest of the sun told the thirty-sixth Inca 
emperor, Huira Cocha Gapac, that the ruin of the Peruvian Inca 
Empire would be brought about when there arrived " white bearded 
and very severe people, hitherto unseen". This prediction was made 
in A.D. 1320, and realised with the arrival of the bearded Castilian 
bandit, Francisco Pizarro, 200 years later. As we have seen, a 
similar prediction in Aztec Mexico, associated with Qiietzalcoatl, 
promised deliverance, but also actually resulted in the ruin of the 
Aztec Empire, which immediately followed. 

So Qjietzalcoatl, Bochicha and Viracocha, the wise, black- or 
bushy-bearded men, clad in austere black garments, or robes, 
departed by sea or land to their home country of Atlantean Hy- 
Brazil, and the gods of culture, knowledge, wisdom, civilisation and 
enlightenment began to prepare for a long sojourn in the twilight. 
The wandering planet streamed into our earth's skies, and must 
have been noted in awe and amazement by the astronomers peering 
from their high towers in the white cities of Hy-Brazil, and the 
fatherland of older Atlantis. Warlike races from old Atlantis had, 
as the priests of Sais and Heliopolis told Solon, invaded Western 
Europe and the Mediterranean, and reached almost as far east along 
the North African shores as the land of Egypt on the Nile. As the 
world-dominators stood, confronting the pre-Hellenic races of old 
Attica, who alone opposed their overwhelming power and menace, 
tremendous earthquakes shook the ground. The blazing sky turned 
to night a night rent with terrific lightning-flashes and a rain of 
vast meteorites upon the stricken earth. Men flew to the mountain- 
tops, only to be stricken with fear and madness, at what the skies 
disclosed. Aloft, the planet Venus seemed hourly changing her 
colour, course and size. Our earth was receding into space backwards 
from her old orbit, nearer the sun. The stars and planets receded fast, 
the great glowing ball of fire in the night sky shone like a sphere of 
sultry copper, while, in the day, only less black than the night of 
terrors, rising above the ball of fire the orange globe of the sun shot 
out an ochre penumbra of flame from its periphery, as, of course, 



112 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

seen above the swirling of the dense clouds of smoke and gases 
arising from the earth. On the sea coast, terrific tidal waves rolled in 
higher than the highest hills, they crashed on to the beaches, and 
the immense force and momentum of colossal league-long rollers, 
coming on behind, drove them far inland, overwhelming cities, 
drowning whole country-sides, swirling up the sides of high moun- 
tains, driving the current of rivers backward towards their sources, 
even as the Earth was being impelled "backward* ' into space. Man 
called on the gods to save him. The gods were silent and powerless 
on high Atlantis-Olympus, looking down on the reeling globe.* 

Out seaward, borne on the turgid and ever-rising waters of the 
obliterated rivers, floated thousands of bodies human beings 
and animals ; women, their hair clotted, or floating on the swirling, 
surging waters, swept by, clutching babies to their breasts, or clasp- 
ing the arms of drowned lovers, or husbands, their eyes glazed in 
madness and terror as they gazed unseeingly at the sky where 
dwelt the impotent gods. Old men clutching coffers of gold and 
jewels, in hoary arms pressed to their chests, jostled with the dead 
bodies of priests, warriors or robed rulers whose utmost skill or 
might had not been able to avert by one spark the rain of fire and 
gases that had overwhelmed the world, or by one drop the appalling 
deluge that was drowning the world, nor by so much as one spark 
the rain of fire and gases yet to come! . . . Yea, woe unto them 
that gave suck in those days ! . . . 

"There came a rain of fire following the sun of rain. All that 

existed burned Then there fell a rain of rocks, and sand-stone 

. . . the sky drew near the waters and the earth. The planet Venus 
had changed her course. There was darkness over the whole face 
of the earth . . . men flew to caves and the rocks fell on them and 
shut them in for ever. . . . They climbed trees and the trees bent 
and shook them off. . . . The sun went out and for five whole 
days no light pierced the black darkness. . . . Great and terrible 
earthquakes shook the land. . . . Flames belched out from the 
ground, and there came a rain of flaming bodies from the 
heavens. . . . Men came and went beside themselves. . . ." 
(From an Aztec codex) . 

So reported contemporary observers, in places as far apart as 
the mountains of old Pelasgian Greece, the land of Egypt, the high- 
lands and burnt places of Central America, South America, Poly- 
nesia, Micronesia, Melanesia, and Africa. . . . For the great catas- 
trophe that sunk Atlantis, the island-continent, into the depths of 
the ocean was accompanied by simultaneous volcanic outbursts in 

* This reconstruction of the Catastrophe is actually based on traditions current among 
certain Brazilian tribes, ages before the Spaniards or Portuguese came to the country. 




Cuneiform (Gilgamcsh-Nineveh) version of Deluge Story. (British Museum.) 




[Photo : Courtesy of U S. Armv Air 

Meteor (or Platinum) Crater, Arizona. Work of aerolite, 10,000,000 tons 
weight and 400 feet wide, some 10,000 years ago. 




\Lonrifsy of S. Pmivuin Riulu>nv\. 

Sachahuaman, ruins of megalithic pre-Inca unknown race, Cu/co Hill, Peru. 




[Courtesy S. Peruvian 

Old Inca wall in Cuzco. 



THE MISSIONARY MEN IN BLACK 

America, Africa, and the chain of mountains of Central Asia, and 
far out in the Pacific. What followed were great ice ages, all over the 
greater part of the northern hemisphere. 

In the land of Hy-Brazil and the dead cities into which the 
bandeiristas were to blunder, 10,000 years later, no day could be 
told from night. The skies were darkened. Up from the ground 
swirled dense clouds of thick ash and vapours, choking and mephitic, 
poisoning all round. Terrific electric flashes rent the endless black- 
ness, making it the more unearthly and darker. The maddened 
sea, in the mightier Marafion-Amazon gulf, rising like a thing 
demented, surged and roared in over the Amazon basin, dashing on 
the walled cities, with their massive breakwaters of stone. 

In the highlands of this great Atlantis colony the new Atlantis 
of old America it was the fire from heaven and the earth below that 
ruined them. When the earth shook, and day turned to night, in 
these dead cities of the unexplored Matto Grosso, of today, there 
came from great and bottomless crevasses in the ground, in the 
paved roads, by the side of their splendid temples and palaces, 
volumes of deadly gases. Blinded, asphyxiated, maddened beyond 
human endurance, rendered insane by the appalling suddenness of 
the cosmic catastrophe, men and women, white-skinned, beautiful, 
some red-haired like Berenice the Golden, others fair and blonde as 
the Greek goddess Aphrodite, fled out of the cities, leaving all behind 
them. Parts of the cities sank into the ground, swallowed up by 
terrific earthquakes. May be, great fires swept through some of the 
buildings ; for the old bandeiristas were puzzled by the absence of the 
least vestige of furniture and utensils. The great palaces and temples 
were shaken to their foundations. Those people of Atlantis-Brazil 
who did not manage to escape into the surrounding mountains, 
along the splendidly paved roads, now cracked and fissured and 
overwhelmed by great boulders and rocks which the appalling 
earthquakes and torrential deluge had toppled from the peaks into 
the gorges, were either burnt and calcined, or engulfed in the 
yawning earth. What was not incinerated was destroyed by the wild 
beasts and birds of prey who, for many thousands of years to come, 
would inhabit alone these cities of old Hy-Brazil, swept by the 
besom of destruction. The Andes had risen in a night and a day, and, 
far out at sea on the edge of another lost continent^ Barnes three miles 
wide or high shot from a crater in what is now Hawaii.* 

It was a scene that would have caused the fire of the Lord and 
the spirit of poetic prophecy to come on the old Hebrew poet 
Isaiah, contemplating the mournful remains of what had once been 
a wonderful civilisation. With fire in his eyes, he would have de- 
claimed : 

* So tayi in old Hawaiian tradition. 



114 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

"... And all the host of heaven shall be dissolved and the 
heavens rolled together as a scroll ... it shall not be quenched 
night nor day, the smoke shall go up for ever and ever.'* 

Yes, we have on the Earth no sure or eternal abiding-place ! 

If this sound to you, reader, like a new, flesh-creeping apocalyptic 
vision of a fanatic "world-ender", be pleased to note that this 
appalling catastrophe of around the year 11,000 B.C. had a "faint" 
reflection in something that befell modern Brazil, on August 30, 
1931 (A.D.), when three giant aerolites roared down from the sky 
and depopulated hundreds of miles of forests. A lonely padre, 
Fidelio, reported the amazing event to the Vatican in Rome. . . . 

"They fell in a forest bordering the Rio Curaca. The heat 
engendered was terrific, their size was immense. Great flames 
sprang up from the mass of compressed air incandescent and 
glowing white-hot that is borne in front of the aerolites. The 
forest was set afire, and the conflagration lasted many months, 
when a whole wide region was denuded of people. The fall 
was preceded by remarkable atmospheric disturbances. At 
eight o'clock, in the morning, the sun became blood-red and a 
penumbra spread all over the sky till it darkened the air, as in 
time of solar eclipse. Then an immense cloud of reddish powder 
filled the air and it looked as if the whole world was going to 
blaze up. The powder was followed by a rain of fine cinders' 
which covered trees and blanketed the vegetation with white. 
There followed a whistling sound that pierced the air with ear- 
shattering intensity then another and another. Three tre- 
mendous explosions were heard. The earth trembled. Natives 
in the forest were thrown to the ground, or into the water, as 
they worked or fished. Indians, fishing, say they saw three 
enormous globes of fire fall from the sky and vanish earthwards." 

Nor has this been the only cosmic visitation from outer space in 
South America of modern days. There was the huge aerolite that 
fell on a mill in the Argentina, crashed with an explosion heard for 
miles round, and reduced the mill to a smoking ruin (Dec., 1932). 
There was the amazing meteor that crashed to the earth, in the 
jungle, only ten miles from the camp of Dr. Wm. Holden, leader of 
the American Natural History Museum's expedition to Guiana, 
on November 18, 1937. He said (or saw) it cut a swathe thirty miles 
long in a forest fringing the wild mountain-side about 300 miles 
from Georgetown, British Guiana. 

Up to date, as in the case of the appalling Siberian disaster in the 
icy, barren tundras, in A.D. 1908, when hundreds of miles of forest 
were burnt up and whole nations of Samoyeds wiped out, these "law- 



THE MISSIONARY MEN IN BLACK 115 

less", wandering bodies from outer space have managed to fall in 
lonely parts of the earth hundreds or thousands of miles from any 
large centres of civilisation. May it always be so ; though Nature 
regards man and his Earth no more than anything else in the Great 
Unknown Cosmos! 

The world was driven insane by that appalling disaster, of around 
11,000 or 12,000 years ago. When the survivors, ages after, again 
congregated in communities, in Central America, and the Mediter- 
ranean, as also on the uplands of far-away Britain, of the New Stone 
(Neolithic) age, a very definite lunatic twist was imparted to their 
culture. They became obsessed with a desire to ward off any future 
catastrophe, and the desire became also queerly linked with a doc- 
trine of propitiating the gods presiding over harvest. So, all over the 
northern hemisphere, from the great stone cities of civilised Maya and 
Aztec Mexico, to the high savanas of Bogotd, in Colombia, across 
the ocean to the summit of Bredon Hill, on the borders of Worcester- 
shire, in England, and eerie Stonehenge on lonely Salisbury Plain, 
Wiltshire, you saw, before dawn of midsummer day, each year, a 
procession of skin-clad priests, followed by bearded chieftains, long- 
haired warriors, and staring women and children processing behind 
a fair youth and maiden along an avenue, between monolithon 
pillars, to a great stone circle of tri-lithons. Here the victim, bound 
with thongs of leather, was laid prone on a long block of stone : the 
slaughter-stone. At the moment of the nascent dawn when the sun 
cast his beams right along the stone avenue, till the level rays fell 
on the head of the victim bound to the slaughter-stone, priests, with 
knives of stone, killed the victim, in prehistoric Britain just as they did 
in old Mexico, as late as the days of Cortes when looting Castilian 
soldiers actually met this fate in certain Aztecan temples of the sun- 
god. The Aztec priests, as is well known, tore the heart of the 
victim out of the writhing body, with knives of obsidian volcanic 
"glass" and actually ate it, as it smoked, in the sight of the wor- 
shipping multitude To that state of lunacy and a horrible 

doctrine of atonement had the great planetary collision brought our 
Earth's pre-Diluvian civilisation! 

The ancestors of the ancient Muyscas of Bogotd, in strangely in- 
congruous memory of Bochicha, their humane and gentle civiliser 
from Hy-Brazil, and also to ward off the catastrophic perils of the 
skies, chose a victim at the end of every cycle of twenty years. He 
was called the Guesa guichica, which means "houseless" or "wander- 
ing" and "door", because his death was supposed to open a new cycle 
of 185 moons. This guesa, as on Bredon Hill and at Stonehenge, 
England, was a boy, or youth. He was taken from a village in the 
plain of the llanos de San Juan, the eastern slopes of which had seen 
Bochicha, the white saviour, enter the Muysca land from the un- 
known east of the cordillera. The guesa was carefully educated in a 



Il6 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

temple at Sogamoso, Colombia. At the age often, the boy was made 
to walk in the paths trodden by Bochicha, when he was instructing 
the people, and working miracles. Then, at the age of fifteen, he 
was led in procession to a circular place, in the middle of which was 
a lofty column, marking, as the gnomon of a sun-dial, the length of 
the shadow thrown by the sun. The priests, called xeques, wore 
masks, very like those of the priests of Pharaoh's Egypt, and, having 
followed the youth, they killed him as a sacrifice. 

It is, again, queer that one of these masks represented the Moon, 
the "evil planet", first seen in the skies of the cataclysmal world. 
When the guesa reached the end of the road, or suna (Sun), he was 
tied to the column, a cloud of arrows shot at him, his heart torn out 
and offered to Bochicha, as a sacrifice, and his blood drained into 
vases. Once again, it is ironical that a civiliser such as this old, 
bearded white man, as gentle as he was wise, should have had, long 
after his disappearance, such a hideous ceremony attached to his 
memory. The post-Diluvian world in South America had, also, 
turned to a form of paranoiac religion. 

In the western world, Quetzalcoatl's memory is mirrored in a 
strange but significant sign on a very old map, done by Bianco, in 
A.D. 1436, and showing the Atlantic Ocean, fifty-seven years before 
Columbus ^-discovered America. This sign is that of a great red 
hand on an island in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. It is titled 
"Yd lamon Satanaxio" (the hand of Satan). The legend is that a 
great hand rose from the sea and snatched men into the ocean deeps. 
Great Hand, or Iron Hand, was, as we know, the name of the bar- 
barian conqueror who drove Quetzalcoatl out of Central America, 
and had himself worshipped as a god. By a curious and ironical 
transposition, his name was given to Quetzalcoatl by the men who 
were first civilised by that old and wise man of the spade-beard. 
Huemac, or Great Hand, became a god among Toltecs and Mayas, 
who (a second, later wave) are believed to have reached Yucatan 
around 220 B.C. when the last part of the old Atlantean continent of 
Antillia leaving above water the modern Antilles submerged. 

The survivors of Hy-Brazil are heard of, from time to time, down 
the ages, since their splendid cities were made desolate. Some of 
them wandered across the wilds of Brazil and climbed the cordil- 
leras into Peru, which had been "shot higher into the sky" since the 
cataclysm. A colony of the white-bearded men are heard of in an 
island in Lake Titicaca, in the Andes (as we have already noted), 
ages before the Inca empire began. Here, they were attacked by a 
race called the Colloas, who, my old friend, U.S. Senator Miles 
Poindexter, one time U.S. Minister in Peru, and an authority on 
South American pre-history and archaeology, suggests were a branch 
of the Toltec race kinsmen of the same militarist Huemac, of the 
Iron Hand who had wandered there from old Mexico's highlands. 



THE SIGN OF THE SUN 

The old priest and Spanish soldier, Pedro Gieza de Leon, heard 
about the fate of these lost Atlantean white men, when he was 
travelling the Andes, around A.D. 1550 : 

"Before the Incas conquered the country, many of the 
Indians declare there were two great lords in the Colloa, one 
called Sapani, the other Cari. They conquered many of the 
fortresses called pucaras. They say that one of these chiefs, Gari, 
entered the large island where it is swampy, in la Laguna de 
Titicaca, and found there a white people, who had beards. They 
fought with them in such a manner that all were killed." (La 
Cronica del Per&). 

So, once again Toltec Huemac, of the Great or Iron Hand, had 
sown the dragon's teeth of war and extermination among the luck- 
less posterity of Quetzalcoatl of Hy-Brazil. 

These white-bearded men came from the valley of Coquimbo, 
and lived in the Isle of Chiquito, says old Antonia Herrera, Coronista 
major of the king of Spain and Castile, in Peru, in A.D. 1610. The 
next people recorded to have seen them, but only at distance, up an 
inland rushy creek, nine days' journey from the dead city behind 
the mountains of Bahia, were the old Portuguese bandeiristas of 
A.D. 1750. Jesuit missioners have left MSS. stories of encounters with 
these white and bearded Indians, but those stories have long been 
lost to sight in the dust of South American libraries and archive- 
rooms. In 1932, as I may be pardoned for repeating, a German 
missioner sighted them in a wild and wooded part of the Oriente of 
Peru, but these shy, furtive and gentle men flee like the wind in the 
forest from the sight of strangers. They are the oldest race now alive 
in at least our western world ! 



CHAPTER V 

THE SIGN OF THE SUN: WORLD'S OLDEST ALPHABET 

IN Chapter III, I told the romantic story of the discovery by the 
young gunner-lieutenant, P. H. Fawcett, in the jungle of Ceylon, 
in 1893, f a strange creeper-covered stone of ancient and unknown 
date, which bore hieroglyphs (or letters?) of peculiar and bizarre 
form, identical, so Mrs. Nina Fawcett tells me, with certain in- 
scriptions found cut on a great slab over a vault (?) in one of the 



Il8 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

unknown cities of Atlantean Brazil. (The reader will remember that 
a copy of these strange letters was taken by the old Portuguese 
bandeirista, in or about A.D. 1750.) 

I have myself discovered some queer links between these strange 
letters of old Brazil, and characters found in Tibet and Vedic 
Hindostan. One of the ancient letters is almost identical with a sign 
in Sansar the ancient form of Sanscrit, which Hindu pagoda 
traditions said was derived by the ancestors of the Sanscritian Hin- 
dus from the drowned land ofRutas, which may be identical with the 
Atlantis of the Pacific Ocean, known as Lcmuria or Mu. It is said 
to have been found on one of the leaves of the mystic Kounboum, or 
Kounboun tree discovered at the lamasery of Sinfau, or Sifau, by the 
famous Abb Hue, who was subsequently unfrocked by his superiors 
for his candour and courage in declaring the identity of the ritual 
of the Roman Catholic church with that of Buddhism and Brah- 
manism. 

The Kounboum tree, it may be stated, is the (white sandal) (?) 
tree of 10,000 images, found, it is said, in a great brick-walled court- 
yard of a Buddhist temple at the foot of a mountain. Each leaf of the 
tree is said to bear one of the characters of Sansar, or ancient Sanscrit, 
the language of the sun in the drowned land of sun-worshippers of 
the Pacific Atlantis, called Rutas. Hue said the sweat mounted to his 
forehead in his effort to detect any lamaic fraud about the tree, which, 
he added, "is very old, about eight feet high, with brilliant scarlet 
flowers, and nowhere else exists, and cannot be propagated from 
seeds or cuttings 5 '.* 

* It is curious that while Hue says he saw these lettered Kounboum leaves, about the 
year 1845, in this lamasery, on the western frontiers of China, the Prussian leutnant, 
Kreitner, who visited the lamasery about 1880, saw neither Buddha pictures nor archaic 
letters on the leaves of the tree. He says he noted the ironic smile at the corner of the mouth 
of the old lama guide and suspected trickery with acids. Rockhill was at Kounboum in 
1890 and saw only broken leaves with no visible images and none on the tree. Waddell 
was there in 1895 and had no better luck. It reminds one of the "testimony leaves", about 
Mohammed the prophet and Allah, which Ibn Batutah saw, on a tree in the courtyard of a 
mosque on the Malabar coast. Rockhill, indeed, asks the pertinent question why there has 
been a change from alphabet leaves to Buddha images on the tree. I myself am reminded 
of the magic money which the wily jadoo-wallah in the N.W. provinces of India makes, and 
which vanishes a short time after he has paid it over for good money received. But the 
mystery is further deepened for me. In winter 1942, a friend hi Canada sent me a cutting, 
from the Vancouver Sun, of a feature by the well-known Ripley wherein pictures of the 
Kounboum alphabet leaves appear. From Dr. Randle of the India Office Library, I learn 
that a Dr. Gordon Stables supplied information, from Singapore, about these leaves, in 
1940, when he wrote to a well-known London Sunday newspaper. Whether or not these 
characters appear on the leaves of the tree in the Kounboum lamasery, they certainly 
seem genuine and extremely ancient. In fact, no Orientalist has, to my knowledge, any 
acquaintance with the alphabet or tongue of which this inscribed letter forms a part. Other 
letters on these leaves are as follows: 




AUTHOR. 



THE SIGN OF THE SUN IIQ 

Let my reader glance at the comparative table, below : 
ATLANTEAN BRAZIL ASOKA (OLD INDIA) PHOENICIAN 



t 



I 



J 



I 



\) 



A 

6 

1 



t 



Values: 
numeral 4 and letter k. 



Value: 
tau> or cross. 



ATLANTEAN BRAZIL 
(on left} 



TIBET (Sansar or Pro to-Sanscrit). Letter on the Kounboum, 
or mystic "alphabet tree". (See footnote, page 1 18, supra.) 

NORTHERN SANSCRIT: (1200 B.c.-8oo B.C.), also found in the 
Rastrakuta-Govinda Inscription (807 B.C.), Kanheri In- 
scriptions (877 B.C.), and in Northern Hindostan (1200 B.C. 
-800 B.C.) . Equivalent letter u. 

KATHIAWAR ROCK : (Ancient Sanscrit Inscription). Equiva- 
lent letter /. (Laoka : sickle.) 

KOSAMBI SANSCRIT EDICT: (on pillar at Allahabad). 
Equivalent (?). 

SANSCRIT (ANCIENT) : Equivalent letter y, as in vira : lute. In 
Atlantean Brazil, this sign may have been that of Vira, the 
Sun God. (A similar sign is found in Etruscan tombs). 

SANSCRIT (ANCIENT) : Equivalent letter j. Also sign of Mons 
Veneris. 

SANSCRIT (ANCIENT): Equivalent letter t (tala: fan palm). 

(N.B. The "cruciform" part of the Atlantean-Brazilian letter 

is similar in shape to the Karian letter, h). 



SANSCRIT : 



ANCIENT EGYPT: 



O 



Thejww, or 
female sex- 
emblem. 



Mons Veneris (female 

sign of sex, with 

zone). 



BABYLONIAN 
(Identical, ex- 


FALISCAN 


PHOENICIAN 
(Old form 


EARLY TYRE (also 
GREEK GREEK 
Vic. B.C.) 


cept that a 
fourth" hori- 
zontal" re- 


(Same sign 


on 
Moabite 

Stone). 


^7"? 


places the 
"circle orb"). 


in 
KARIAN: 
letter *). 


t, 

(Same sign 


(Letter 
Samekh 
fulcrum,stay, 
support, 






in 
KARIAN: 


bed). 






letter*). 





I2O MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

ATLANTEAN BRAZIL NINEVEH PHOENICIAN TYRE MOABITE STONE 
(on left) (Palaeographic) 



9 



p 

(Letter Caph or 



PHOENICIAN (Pa laeographic) . 

(Very ancient Punic or Pauch-Atta 
(India) forms of letter Lamed) (ox-goad) 

TYRE, NINEVEH ETRURIA, MOABITE, SIDON, CIUCIA 

I IZS II X /V 

(Letter %ayn, or ^flfw). 

TYRE, KARIAN, GREEK, BABYLONIAN PHOENICIAN 

(Palaeographic) 

(Upper part of Atlantean A 

Brazilian sign s found in 2LX 

Koaty and Titicaca (Ay- \ 

mara Indian ideograms), (Letter Daleth 

today) . (tent or gate) . 

PHOENICIAN AND CARTHAGINIAN MOABITE 

(circa VI c. B.C). STONE 



W 



(Letter Aleph (cow).) (Letter Shin). 

PHOENICIAN, GREEK, BABYLONIAN 



(Letter: Tet or Teth). 

TYRE AND CARTHAGE EARLY 

(IV c. B.C.) GREEK 



* (Letter Beth (house).) (Cursive letter b). 

(* It is doubtful if there is any relation with the Hy-Brazilian character). 

Even more remarkable similarities and identities in respect of 
these ancient Atlantean-Brazilian signs have been found in the 
islands of the Sun and the Moon (Titicaca and Koaty), in Lago de 
Titicaca, of Peru. It was in this very lake that the last-known living 
colony of bearded white men and women of old Atlantean, post- 



THE SIGN OF THE SUN 121 

cataclysmic Brazil was annihilated by bloodthirsty and savage 
Golloans, whose descendants, today, may be the Aymara Indians of 
modern Bolivia. (See chapters II and IV, pages 48, 1 17 supra). It is 
exceedingly probable that the elements of culture and the syllabary, 
or alphabet, or hieroglyphs of the old white race of Atlantean Brazil 
survived for ages afterwards among the primitive races of later 
Brazil. The Atlantean civilisation lasted for thousands of years, and 
evidence exists to suggest that Diodorus was right in asserting that 
the ancient Egyptians derived their hieroglyphs from old Atlantis, 
and that the Phoenician seamen traders took their alphabet from 
the same civilisation, but in a far later day, when decadence had 
overtaken the Atlanteans of old South America and the Great Catas- 
trophe was near at hand. By the side of South America one suspects 
the civilisations and cultures of the so-called old Worlds of Asia and 
Europe may be mere parvenus and inheritors. Nor, one must repeat, 
is the white race of old Atlantis, as found in old South America, 
extinct today. 

It is, again, one of the ironies of history that the lost colony of 
these old Atlanteans exterminated in Lake Titicaca as reported to 
old Cieza de Leon by the Inca priests and chronologists should 
have fallen under the sword of a chief, Cari, who, as his name attests, 
was a descendant of those very Carians, Europe's oldest navigators, 
whose female relatives, the Amazons, were first driven across the 
Atlantic Ocean after battles with the militarist elements of Atlantis, 
fought on the confines of Southern Europe and in North- West 
Africa and after the war of Troy ! 

Here follow a few of the ancient ideograms, of Atlantean Hy* 
Brazilian origin, found by the old Spanish missioners to be in use 
among Indians, in old Peru, on the borders and shores of el Lago de 
Titicaca (Lake Titicaca). These Indians, it may be surmised, were 
akin to the other Indians in Uycali, Peru, near the source of the 
mighty Amazon, whose remarkable books of paintings and hiero- 
glyphs were seen by the Franciscan missioner, Narcissus Gilbar, in 
the early nineteenth century. 




Swastika, denoting movement, ere- Denoting eye, first, before. Nayra, 

ation, conception, rotation. (Luratha, Nayran, Nayrakatahana). (Koaty and 
Camatha, Indkatha, Hakkutta). (Koaty Titicaca). 

and Titicaca). 



re 

"A very old woman*' "A very old man," stricken in years", Hy-Brazilian- 

(Apachi) (God, Father (Achachi, Auki, Achachela). Atlantean 

(Koaty and Tititaca). (Koaty and Titicaca). character. 



122 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 



Signs at end of a period. 

First two characters appear in Hy-Brazilian-Atlantean dead city). 
(Koaty, Titicaca and Hy-Brazil). 

$ -0 / \ t 

Koaty and Titicaca (Peru) signs similar "Earth, universe, earth and 

to characters in African Touraeg heaven". (Koaty and Titicaca)" Hell" 

(Sahara) and Ferro (rupestrian, v. (sign on right) (Koaty, Titicaca and 

ancient) in Canaries. Tiahuanacu). 

I # UiiU. 

God, Uru (Cf. Vira, Two Gods "To create" (Luratha) Six (Sojta). 
Atlantean-Brazilian (Koaty andTiticaca). (Koaty and Titicaca). (Koaty andTiticaca) . 
for Sun (Dyaus, the Cf. with similar 

Unknown God"). Babylonian sign 

( Koaty and Titicaca). (Greek xi) . 

Besides the characters above, there are also three Koaty and Titicaca ideo- 
grams identical in form with three of the Atlantean-Brazilian characters, repro- 
duced supra, in Chapter V. In the Koaty and T. ideograms their meanings are 
"Sky and Earth"; "I create"; "I believe". Moreover, as remarkable evidence 
of ancient world-wide diffusion of culture in the heliolithic age of 15,000 20,000 
years ago, a system of "dots", occurring in the K. and T. Aymar& Indian (Bolivian 
Peru) ideograms, is also found in ancient rock inscriptions at Thugga (Tunisia) ; 
in Numidia and among the Touaregs ("Veiled Men" of the Sahara). Another 
K. and T. ideogram is identical in form with Karian (Asia Minor) letter w, 

It is likely that American and other prehistorians and archaeo- 
logists may be forced, sooner or later, to revise their ideas on the 
antiquity of civilisation in North and South America. The dis- 
coveries of really revolutionary character are on the increase. 
For example, in the one year of 1940, there was found, by American 
archaeologists, a colossal head in stone of a man of a clearly highly 
civilised race of unknown age or origin. It was carved, with great 
art and sense of character, in basalt, and was found deep in the 
jungle at Tabasco, Mexico, which is twenty miles from the modern 
Mexican coast, and more than 100 miles from the nearest source of 
this volcanic stone. It is obvious that a system of good roads must 
have linked what is now deep and almost impenetrable jungle and 
forest with the distant quarries. The head one of five is of a man 
of white, civilised race, of masterful character, a sense of humour 
judging by the expression and clearly one of a master-race. The 
features are as majestic as the heads of the Pharaohs at Karnak and 
Thebes and the great Rameses. The experts of the Smithsonian 



THE SIGN OF THE SUN 123 

cannot tell what race sculpted these colossal and majestic features* 
I may note, however, that Tabasco is the place to which the Atlantean 
civiliser, the humane QuetzalcoatI, man in black of peace and 
culture, brought the torch of civilisation from Hy-Brazil, the great 
imperial colony, of the motherland of Atlantis. In or about 15,000 
or 12,000 B.C. QuetzalcoatI ma n not god sent to Tabasco colonies 
from his capital, Central American city of Tollan, or Cholullan (?). 
The other strange discovery is of a bowl, or olla, found, also in 
1940, by Dr. Ousdal, the palaeontologist, in the mountains of 
Southern California, in the top of a sandstone boulder which erosion 
has thrown on to its side. The bowl bears round its rim the writing 
of a highly civilised race ; for the signs are geometric and phonetic. 
They were made with great care and not merely scratched on the 
surface. For how many thousands of years the bowl has lain in the 
hollow of this rock none yet know. But a clue to the advanced civili- 
sation of this great unknown race of North-Central America I give 
in the two signs among others carved on the bowl-rim with 
their probable signification: 




ffl Dt Dt 



(i) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 

(i) Letter on bowl (or olla) of unknown, very ancient race inhabiting what is 
now a mountain range in S. California, U.S.A. (2) Similar ancient Brazilian 
sign on ceramics and funerary urns at Maraj6 Island, Lower Amazon. Both 
probably equivalent in meaning to (3) : Ancient Egyptian symbol Tort or 
Teri: God. (4) Another symbol on olla ((i) above). Compare with ancient 
signs : (5) at Maraj6, Brazil ; (6) China and (7) ancient Egypt. Meaning : river 
spanned by bridge. 

Nor is the above the only amazing example of diffusion of culture 
in an incredibly ancient world of civilisation preceding even the 
dynastic Egypt of the priests of Thais and Thebes and the ancient 
Egyptian temple-archivists of Solon's day. This same Amazon 
basin confronts us with identical signs and symbols stretching hands 
across a very ancient world of wise men, from China and old India 
to South and Central America of a far, pre-Columbian age. How old 
these symbols may be none yet can say. They may take us back to 
the days of the heliolithic culture of 15,000 years ago, before the on- 
rushing waters of the outer Atlantic drowned the black- white-red 
civilisations of the ancient Mediterranean basin. They were found 
about seventy years ago in the large island of Maraj6, at the mouth 
of the lower Amazon, which is separated from the port of Belem, 
North Brazil, by the Rio Para. In this island there is inset a lake 
wherein is a small island, called Pacoval. Here have been found 
many highly artistic ceramics, idols, ornaments, funerary urns, 
buried in mound-dwellings. 



124 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

Nothing is known about the long vanished race who made them ; 
but one strange fact about the craftsmen emerges, when one examines 
the relics : they depict an extraordinary variety of human faces,* so 
that it seems as if this ancient and unknown people of the old 
Amazon basin had studied every race in the world ! Some of the 
figures on the vases and ceramics are strikingly similar in their 
characteristics to figures found on ancient Mexican monuments. f 

These ceramics are often very highly finished and artistic; 
but what is odd is that no two funeral urns have the same devices, 
and on only one of them is found a decoration of part of a plant. 
Their colouring is vermilion or dark black, and in this all primitive 
races are alike, even to the days of the Palaeolithic man of the famous 
Altamira caves of the Basque mountains. Red, black, or yellow is 
the limit of their colour-apprehension; and, in fact, even the 
Greeks of the heroic, epic time of Homer, and the much later Aris- 
totle, recognised no more than three colours. Blue or violet was not 
recognised as such, until the days of modern Europeans, proof of 
which is Homer's frequent epithet of the wine-bright, or wine-dark 
Mediterranean sea, and not purple or blue. Primitive and even 
classic art was morphologically developed, but the apprehension of 
colour rays of the spectrum and the sense of perspective are re- 
markably modern developments of human consciousness. 

This unknown race of Marajo Island had some queer ideas 
non-Egyptian about interment and the future life, beyond the 
grave. Their funerary urns were used to house desiccated skeletons 
of corpses previously buried elsewhere. The skull was placed on top 
of the skeleton, and the earthenware cover over the urn. Holes were 
left for the worms to enter and eat the rotting flesh ! All the cooking- 
pots and utensils of the dead were smashed by this unknown race, 
and not placed, even in miniature model form, with the remains of 
the deceased, as was, of course, the case in the tombs of the Pharaoh's 
Egypt. The ancient "Marajans" seem to have come to old Brazil 
from three or four directions : over the flanks of the eastern equatorial 
Cordilleras of the Andes ; along tributaries on the northern bank of 
the Amazon, or Maranon ; and by sea. There are also traces of an 
ancient sea-faring race (the Garians?), who wandered to the Maranon 
basin southwards from what is now Florida and Louisiana, and the 
waters of the West Indies. They seem to have reached Brazil from 
the lands of Central America, by way of Venezuela and the Gydanas. 

One of these unknown races, settling in Marajo Island, practised 
phallic-worship. The human generative organs are found realisti- 
cally depicted in terra-cotta, and \htyoni and lingam appear exactly 

* Compare with the submarine relics brought up off the coast of Ecuador by diver 
of Sefior Mufioz, the haciendado. (Vide pages 20 and 183). 

t Along the Rio Counay in the Brazilian Guiana, are other ancient tombs, in caves nine 
feet deep, covered with heavy granite slabs, and containing glazed ceramics of art even 
superior to Maraj6. 



THE SIGN OF THE SUN 125 

as they did in ancient Babylon, or old (or modern) India, in the cult 
of Shiva. This unknown Marajan race had exactly the same notions 
of the generative force of the universe symbolised in the dualism of 
the sexes. This ancient form of worship they seem to have shared 
with other vanished races, traces of whom have been found at 
Chillicothe (Ohio), in California, in the ancient ceramics of Peru, 
and in the ancient temples of old Yucatan. Here is a terra-cotta 
phallus found in a mound at Marajo. Side by side with it is a phal- 
lomorphic representation of the "sexo feminino", or yoni both 
being depicted on the ceramics, or in conspicuous places on the 
vases, between a special type of arabesque, and painted either in 
vermilion, or black : 




PHALLI (ancient Brazil) : lingam (male) \yani (female). 

But the amazing feature of these ceramics of old Marajd's un- 
known race of unknown date consists in the queer resemblances and 
exact identity of forms found here, in old Brazil, and in ancient 
Egypt, India, China and Aztec, or pre-Aztec Mexico. No one can 
yet say what chronological relation they bear to the higher and 
vanished white, Atlantean civilisation of the dead cities of Hy- 
Brazil ; but it may be surmised that Marajo's ceramics and mounds 
belong to a much later age than the former incredibly ancient and 
vanished civilisation. 

The reader will find these comparative symbols (set out below) 
of great interest, if he or she is interested in ancient South America, 
probably the cradle of the world's earliest civilisation : 

THE SHADOW OF ATLANTEAN WHITE BRAZIL PROJECTED INTO 

MARAJAN BRAZIL, PHARAOH'S EGYPT, OLD INDIA, ANCIENT 

CHINA, AND PRE-AZTEC AND AZTEC MEXICO 

A comparative Table of Symbols found on Ancient Pots, Funerary Urns and 
Ceramics in the Mounds of Marajo Island, in the Lower Amazon-Marafton, 

Modern Brazil 

(All symbols in first column, below, are found on Maraj6 Island Funerary 
Urns and Pots). 

It should be here observed that, sixty years ago, Dr. Ladislao Netto, of the 
Archives do Museu Nacional of Rio de Janeiro made a fine and careful com- 
parative study of these remarkable inscriptions on the ceramics and funerary 
inscriptions of Maraj6, to which one has been able to add little, except a com- 
parison with the strange letters found in 1940 on the rim of the olla, sunk in an 
ancient rock on a mountain-top in California. (Vide chap. V, p. 123, supra). 

BRAZIL (MARAj6) MEXICO CHINA EGYPT INDIA 

(Identical symbol found in the other four ancient 
lands). 

/> 



126 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

In Maraj6 Island, it is found engraved, and also painted in ceramics; but 
seems to have undefined meaning, except as bearing some affinity to an act of 
phallic worship. In India, of the Hindus, it appears to have had the same inner 
significance as the Delta of the Greeks. In ancient Mexico, it symbolised the action 
of pricking, or breaking into parts, or the noun thorn; also the idea of union. 
Some exege lists translate it as Ui-Hui-Uh', and others see in it a resemblance, 
or likeness to the Egyptian sound Hou 9 having for symbol the same figure. 

BRAZIL MEXICO CHINA EGYPT INDIA 



Sign sometimes found painted, or represented in front of a mound, or tumulus. 
When upside-down, it is an ancient Mexican character, meaning cup, or vessel, 
translated by Cax-Cax-ItL 

BRAZIL AND S, CALIFORNIA (Unknown race). EGYPT 



P 



Means God, or Tore*, or Ten (Egypt). 

BRAZIL EGYPT 

AA/l 



Means a mountainous region, a strand by the water wherein such a 
mountain is reflected. Hence, the symbol of plurality. 

BRAZIL MEXICO CHINA 





A house, or the verb, "to dwell*'. 
BRAZIL CHINA EGYPT 



A battlemented wall, or defensive barrier (found painted or engraved). Means 
also a palisade on the bank of a stream. 

BRAZIL CHINA EGYPT 



This is the only vegetal sign found on Marajd ceramics. In Egypt and China , 
the sign meant a place covered with woods; also, in Egypt, the syllable AM. 



THE SIGN OF THE SUN 127 

BRAZIL CHINA EGYPT 



Dt Dt 

A river spanned by a bridge 
BRAZIL EGYPT CHINA 





The symbol for night, also suggests a form of lantern, or pharos. Means, also, 
division of day and night, in ancient Chinese. 

BRAZIL MEXICO EGYPT 



Means govern, or command. In Egyptian is equivalent to the phonetic 
symbol ph or p. In the Mexican is equivalent to petlatL 

BRAZIL EGYPT CHINA INDIA 

5 T 

Umbrella, shelter, cover, calm. 

BRAZIL EGYPT CHINA 

JVt LJ -AA* 

Rock, or mountain. 

BRAZIL EGYPT CHINA 




> < 

Character not met alone, but in combination. Means pyramid, or stela, 

BRAZIL EGYPT 



In Egypt, is equivalent to the phonetic symbol "N", Stands for goddess 



128 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 
BRAZIL MEXICO EGYPT AND CHINA 



The symbol of old Egypt's Uraeus, idea of cunning, or wisdom. Is also the 
symbol of Quezalcoatl, the wise man in black from Hy-Brazil, who civilised the 
barbarians and savages of Central America, perhaps about 12,000 B.C. 



BRAZIL MEXICO CHINA EGYPT INDIA 

T ft ~ r 

Sign which sometimes represents two arched eyebrows united to the nose. 
Is identical with the tau of the Greek alphabet, and corresponds with the Egyptian 
cross, where it symbolised omnipotence, grandeur, eternal life. In phallic sym- 
bolism it means the act of coition between male and female. In the Aztecan Dres- 
den Codex and No. C. Troano MS. it has same meaning. It was also the sign 
borne by the ancient Egyptian goddess of fire, Sekhet. 

And from the Serapcum of Isis, Horus (the son), and Osiris, the Alexandrian 
Christians took it for the Christian ritual cross. It is, thus, in origin, as much a 
phallic symbol as the spire of the mediaeval church, or the dome of the Moslem 
mosque, or the curious monolithon stones of the Stone Ages found today in 
various out-of-the-way parts of our English shires, or the abandoned old East 
India army cannon (of old John Company) to which, not so many years back, 
East Indian women of the Hindu religion were seen, in a jungle clearing, praying 
for male offspring. 



BRAZIL 



MEXICO 



CHINA 



EGYPT 




Means divine light, or sight. Idea of seeing or knowing, or sagacity. Aztec 
TX IX/LT. 




MEXICO 




This ancient Brazilian symbol is identical with the Mexican Aztec symbol, 
in which Landa says it means the lyth day, called Ahau> King, or, a period of 
24 years. It also stands for demon, chief of the Legion, and invokes Hun-Hau, 
Of the Qyicto Bible Popul Vuh, and alludes^lso to Hun-Camt, associated with the 
wise old man, Qucttalcoatl of Hy-Brazil. 




ex 

CB 

u 



. 



w 




[Cnitrtfiv of Muw> \ncioiHil, Mn.co C/'v. 




Human sacrifice stone from Aztecan teocallis (pyramid), near Mexico Gity. 




Mi'clitll. 



(') () (3) 

Nos. i and 3 : Gordon-Medusa heads, old Greece and Syracuse. No. 2 : Same 
motif at Palenque of Quetzalcoatl. World-wide heliolithic culture diffusion. 




[Courtesy of M. Ic Alarq us ilc Wavnn. 

The evolution (stairway) symbol (as at Tiahuanacu) on backs of Boro Indians, 
Amazon headwaters, West Brazil. 



BRAZIL 



THE SIGN OF THE SUN 

EGYPT 



129 





Cut in rock, or stone, is a symbol sign representing a lizard, or reptile. 
In Egypt, it stood for the crocodile, and, as the bent tail, represented the West 
which was the abode of the dead, or the land, or island-continent from which 
the ancestors of the Egyptians came to the Nile, via (perhaps), old Spain, from 
South America, or Rutas-Lemuria (?) of the proto-Egyptian. 




CHINA 



EGYPT 



DMt 



A reptile, or residence, between or upon mountains. May be a royal city 
with two exits, and located between mountains. Or suggests a dead Brazilian 
city, or Atlantean city, moated, or surrounded by water, as many of them were 
and are (both in African ruins and in South American jungle cities of the dead). 

BRAZIL MEXICO EGYPT 



Means lagoon, basin of water, or water limited in area. Identical symbol in 
all three countries. In the DRESDEN Aztec Codex its value is ATL- and Mauh. 
May be a veiled reference to the drowned Atlantean island-continent. 



BRAZIL 



CHINA 




Meant a city, or the four cardinal points, or natural forces. In ancient 
Chinese, the sign meant royal residence, or palace. 



BRAZIL 



EGYPT 




Figurative sign of a passaro, or bird. Has same sense in Peruvian antiquities. 
May be compared with the sign of the Egyptian god Horus, and the Mexican 
Toztli, a kind of parrot with golden feathers. It is also, for this reason, the emblem 
of the sun. Teotli, or TeotL In Mexican means God. N*B. Horus, the hawk-headed 
god of ancient Egypt, was the god of sunrise and the day. It was said that only the 
falcon, or hawk, was able to gaze on the sun and not be blinded, or dazzled. 

I 



130 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 
BRAZIL EGYPT CHINA INDIA 





DD 



A compound, or composite, symbol having the idea of a temple, surmounted 
by the "T", or tau, that thus appears a universal divinity. This primitive form 
of pyramid was given to the temples of all the early races of America and Africa. 
Presumably the idea of the pyramid came from the drowned continent of Atlantis 
to Africa (Tanis, in old Barbary) and the Nile, and to America, South and 
Central, across the then existing land-bridges. But the identity of these ancient 
Marajans, who thus adopted this very ancient sign, remains a riddle, sixty years 
after the discovery of their fine ceramics, funerary urns and statues.* 



CHAPTER VI 

SIGN-POSTS TO THE SHADOW OF ATLANTIS 

"They fly, forgotten, 
As a dream dies at the opening day." 

"As above, so below. What has been, will be again." 

These words, in the ancient mysteries, whispered into the ear 
of the neophyte, at low breath, mouth to ear, and in hushed voice, 
as the freemasonic ritual has it, arise to the surface of the conscious 
mind at every interval of a half century in the history of mysterious 
South (and Central and North) America, when the great god Chance, 
or the Zeit Geist, or the Central Sun of the Cosmos, or what you 
will, breaks a little cranny of light into the practically impenetrable 
veil shrouding the mystery of the ancient American world. f 

Who are the mysterious mound-builders, whose remains are 
found in Ohio? What relation do they bear to the races migrating 
from old Atlantis? Had they any dim knowledge at all of that 
ancient world of Stone- Age culture, which yet knew how to work 
copper? 

In 1927, one of the mounds of this mysterious race, or races, was 

* This vast island of jungle and thick grass, today reaching five feet above the heads of 
the tallest men, is known to be inhabited by head-hunters. Two officeis of the Atlantic 
group of the R.A.F. Transport Command crashed there when an engine failed in February 
1944. Radio flashed out the SOS, followed by a carrier pigeon. American and R.A.F. 'planes 
located the wreck of the 'plane and the survivors, at the outlet of the Rio Arapixi. U.S. 
Army and Navy airmen in a motor-crash boat were directed to the scene from the air and 
forced a way through swamps where caymans and poisonous snakes abound. But they 
had to turn back. Eventually, the two Transport Command officers were rescued by a 
Navy blimp whose crew made a daring landing m the jungle and an equally risky take-off. 
I mention this story in order to indicate the nature of the terrain that field workers and 
archaeologists will have to face in this strange island of Maraj6. 

Wide pages 122-23, supra* 



SIGN-POSTS TO THE SHADOW OF ATLANTIS 13! 

examined by Dr. Wm. G. Mills, of Columbus, Ohio. There are 
thousands of these mounds scattered all over that state, and in the 
Mississippi Valley. As is well known, mounds in ancient Central 
America formed the basis of the pyramid-temples on which they 
were erected. Prominent men chiefs or medicine men were 
buried in them, often at ground level, as in the case of Stone- Age 
tumuli in Britain. The earth was then heaped over them. (In 
Britain, as we know, the earth was often heaped round and over a 
tri-lithon structure of stone, as in the dolmen, and a hidden tunnel- 
gateway provided for some purpose, which, it may be surmised, 
was not of the future tomb-robbers.) 

The mound-builders of America were artists in the use of 
copper. They also had rich pearls, wove fine fabrics, and made 
artistics objects of bone, stone and shell. No iron has been found in 
these mounds. 

Copper, again, was their precious metal. 

The earlier culture built their mounds on terraces; the later 
used bluffs. In the graves have been found obsidian volcanic 
glass arrow-heads, though obsidian is not found nearer the Mis- 
sissippi than the Yellowstone. There are also beads made from shells 
found along the Gulf of Mexico, which is evidence of trade and 
contact with members of the race who had migrated to Central 
America. It has been estimated that the earlier mound-builders 
migrated to America some 12,000 years ago, which is about the date 
given in the Solon-Plato-Sais account of the cataclysm that sunk 
Atlantis to a watery Hades. 

The race do not appear to have known the potter's wheel; yet 
there have been found in the ancient mounds hand-fashioned bowls 
and pots of such beauty and symmetry that the unaided eye cannot 
detect the least defect. They cremated their dead, in some cases, 
and in one such mound in Ohio, there was found, in 1927, four 
"princes" lying in beds of pearls and covered with exquisitely 
woven fabrics decorated with artistic designs. Some of the skeletons 
show that the people were afflicted with tuberculosis and other 
"modern" diseases. Again, some of these ancient mounds are larger 
than the pyramids of old Egypt. Like the makers of the petro- 
glyphs, to which we shall soon refer, the mound-builders wandered 
in groups down the Pacific coast southwards to Mexico, Central 
America and across the land-bridge to South America. 

Arriving in the region of Mexico City, they founded a civilisation. 
Pottery was made and from a species of wild grass they developed 
corn. From this centre, their arts spread north and south, and they 
traded and inter-married and invaded, eventually importing their 
inventions and culture to the Illinois, Ohio and Mississippi valleys. 
In one county of Ohio Fulton alone are some i, 600 mounds. In 
the older terraced mounds, the skeletons are found flexed, the limbs 




(13) Petroglyphs, Sierra dc Santa Marta, Colombia, found 1933. Note the 
proto-Greek, Carton, and Phrygian type head-dresses. The Carians, defeated by 
the great Pharaoh Rameses, emigrated across the Atlantic to the Americas. They 
called their aldeias (villages in Brazil) Tabas (Thebes, of the Pharaohs?}. (14) 
Splendid head of Tiahuanacu notable. (Vide (5), page 90.) (15) Stairway-evo- 
lution sign on "dome" of high priest, Tiahuanacu. Also central cross : ancient 
phallic symbol, identical with Onkh symbol of Egypt's Pharaohs ("to live"). ( Vide 
also (i), page 90.) (16) Stone statue from ancient midden, British Columbia. 
Type of prehistoric head-dress found in old Atlantean Brazil and Columbia. 
(Fufepagc90.) (17) (Left) Venus (phallic coition) sign on (Central American) 
Mayan glyph. (Middle) identical symbol of Egyptian tau, and Christian cross 



SIGN-POSTS TO THE SHADOW OF ATLANTIS 133 

being folded on the chest. Pottery of a different sort is found in these 
older mounds. In the mounds on the bluSs later in origin, since the 
terraced mounds have been found buried under them the skele- 
tons are buried fully extended and a different type of pottery in- 
terred with them. 

Below the level of the earlier terrace mounds skeletons of another 
race have been found with longer and lower skulls. Whether these 
are men of an entirely different and far earlier people, or whether 
the skulls of the later arrivals changed in shape has yet to be 
determined. 

Thousands of years before the day of the North American Red 
Indian, this ancient race made splendidly shaped pipes statuettes 
of human figures resembling other Caribbean culture statuettes 
found in Honduras and the Friends' Islands, in Rattan. Some of the 
skulls found in the mound-graves have artificial copper noses fitted, 
indicating that they had been operated on after death, though the 
why and the significances are mysteries. A copper claw of an eagle, 
exquisitely made, and a fine statuette of a handsome beardless man, 
or youth, come from other graves. The race, of course, was not 
nomadic, as were the Red Indians. 

An even more apparently insoluble mystery of a race of whom not 
even an Indian tradition remains unexpectedly came to the light of 
modern day, when, in 1940, Dr. Asbjorn Ousdal, of Santa Barbara, 
California, found on a mountain-top in Southern California the 
queer primitive bowl sunk in the rim of a great sandstone boulder 
which had slipped on its side during ages of secular erosion. Cut into 
its surface was the mysterious inscription in letters, not hieroglyphs, 
on which one has essayed to throw a very dim light. (Vide page 123 
supra) . 

The words of the famous hymn sounded, again, in summer 1940, 
when close to an American episcopal mission at Point Hope, Alaska, 
remains of a prehistoric city were found, with an unknown type of 
very high culture. Even the Eskimos, who usually have a tradition 
explaining such remains, could say nothing of these. It is quite 
unlike any other finds in Alaska, or the Far North. Unless, however, 

of Serapeum. (Right) Venus sign, Tomb of the Bulls, Tarquinia of the mysterious 
Etruscans (Atlantean type race?). (Vide page 128.) (18) Petroglyphs, Sierra 
de Santa Marta, Colombia, also found Amazonas, Brazil. Top middle glyph 
like sign of Tore, or Tere (God), ancient Egypt and identical with one letter of 
strange alphabet on rim of ancient olla, found, 1940, on S. California mountain. 
The man in the "rayed" head-dress with staff suggests some ancient prophet or 
civilizer, like Quetzalcoatl. Figures this type found also on rocks of Orinoco 
headwaters. (19) (Top) Stairway-evolution signs, Tiahuanacu. (Bottom) Same 
sign on modern Quichua (native Peruvian) wayside altar, Andes. (20) and (21) : 

(20) "Los simbolos escalonados" (stairway signs), and also Zodiacal (deluge) sign, 
Aquarius, Tiahuanacu, and all over S. and C. America, and S.W. of U.S.A.; 

(21) similar signs, ancient Brazil, China and old Egypt. 



134 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

more finds of the sort are made, in later years, it will remain a riddle, 
exactly as that of the rocks of South and North America, whereon, 
written by a far-wandering race, is an Odyssey none may read, or 
interpret, as yet ! 

These petrcglyphs have been traced to the Aleutian Islands, 
where the Jesuit missioner and archaeologist, Father Bernard R. 
Hubbard, in 1937, found in the islands Attu and Agattu, farthest 
eastward, an aboriginal people speaking a strange language which 
he thinks has some relationship to the speech of the hairy Ainu, the 
old Stone- Age inhabitants of Northern Japan. These rock signs run 
right through the Aleutians, though they really start, so far as at 
present traced, in Central Siberia. They mark the passage of an un- 
known race who had reached a fairly advanced stage of culture. 

The trail is again picked up in the gorges of the River Columbia, 
in the state of Washington, west coast of U.S.A. They cross the 
Rockies, into the states of Nevada and Arizona, and bear away 
southwards, through the still mainly unexplored sierras of Mexico, 
to the Cordilleras of Colombia, South America, and the gorges of the 
Orinoco and Maraiion- Amazon. Yet, do these petroglyphs differ 
considerably in degree of artistic execution and subtlety of symbolism 
as I hope to show here. 

More than a century ago, Humboldt and Schomburghk (wander- 
ing in Guiana wildernesses and along the upper Orinoco), and, 
almost forty years later, Bates, in the canons of the Rio Xingu of the 
Matto Grosso, of Brazil, came on fresh passages of these Odysseys 
of the rocks. It is significant that in the llanos of Venezuela and 
Eastern, and still mostly unexplored Colombia Humboldt found no 
rocks covered with inscriptions of the sun and animals, though, on 
the banks of the Rio Caicara, where the forest joins the plain, such 
rock-drawings are seen. This may mean that the unknown race 
travelled through the river gorges and valleys in a day when a vast 
morass, more than a million square miles in area, separated these 
gorges from the nascent Andes, from whose slopes the waters were 
draining into this terrible region of swamps, fevers, and, it is likely, 
fearsome prehistoric monsters, or feral saurians of gigantic size. 
(Qiieer stories of such monsters, leaving tracks unrecognized in the 
beaches of swampy lakes are, as I have said, still current in places 
on the foothills of the Eastern Andes, much about where Sir Arthur 
Gonan Doyle probably placed his "Lost World' 5 .) 

It was on rocks, in 7 degrees North latitude, and at a considerable 
height, that Humboldt saw those figures of animals, boa-con- 
strictors, the sun and the moon, stars and strange hieroglyphic signs. 
The whole country, he says, was a savage desert in 1810-20. It is 
not more "civilised", even today, in 1942. The natives said that, in 
this country of the rock-pictures, and of the queerly Phoenician- 
looking signs, found carved in rows, in a cave, their ancestors, in the 



SIGN-POSTS TO THE SHADOW OF ATLANTIS 135 

time of the great waters, came in canoes to the tops of these mountains, 
and that the rocks were so plastic that a man could trace marks on 
them with his bare fingers. 

Humboldt remarked that the tribes of his day, in that wild 
region, knew nothing of the use of chisels, or metallic tools. From all 
of which it may seem that some of these inscriptions came before, 
and some after a great catastrophe, that wiped out the culture of the 
great civilised race of ancient Brazil and the mighty Maranon- 
Amazon basin and valley, far wider, then, than even today. As I 
have suggested in this book, it is probable that great aerolites from 
the sky, and vulcanism, with tidal waves below, brought the "sun" 
of fire and water, as ancient pre-Aztecan sacred books, traditions, or 
codices have it, on these dead civilisations. May be, then, I hazard, 
the more primitive petroglyphs, of the naively primitive sort, such 
as men with the intelligence of children might make, were done 
with their fingers in these rocks, as the Caribs told the baron, after the 
time of the great waters. The inscriptions that preceded the terrific 
South and Central American cataclysm, described luridly in the 
Mayan bibles, such as the Popul Vuh, are, probably, the work of 
very different peoples and cultures. Time may lift the veil. 

Humboldt's words are worth quoting here* He said, in 1820: 

"In the interior of S. America, between 2 and 4 N. 
lat, there extends a great plain, bounded by four rivers: the 
Orinoco, Atabasco, Rio Negro, and Casiquiare. On them are 
found rocks of granite and syenite, equal to those of Caicara 
and Uruana, covered with symbolical representations. There 
are colossal figures of crocodiles, tigers, houses, and domestic 
utensils, and signs of the sun and moon. At this day, this un- 
frequented region is entirely without a population over a space 
of 500 square miles. The neighbouring tribes, exceedingly 
ignorant, lead a miserable vagrant life, and are not capable of 
drawing hieroglyphics. In S. America, a belt of these rocks, 
covered with these symbolic emblems, may be followed from 
Runupuri, the Essequibo, and the Pacariama mountains, to the 
banks of the Orinoco and the Yapura, over an extent of more 
than 8 of longitude. These marks, thus engraved in the 
rocks, may belong to several different epochs ; for Sir Robert 
Schomburghk has seen on the Rio Negro a drawing of a Spanish 
ship which, of course, must be later in origin than the beginning 
of the sixteenth century, and this in a savage country where the 
indigenous stock was probably quite as uncultivated as the present 
inhabitants." (Ansichten der Natur. 3 Ausgabe, Bde /., p. 240.) 

These picture writings range north, from the gorge of the 
Xingu, on the eastern side of the Matto Grosso of Brazil, to the 



136 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

highlands of modern Colombia, and south through Maranhao, Ceara 
and Parahyba, in lands which, as I have shown, were within the 
actual zones of influence, if not always residence, of the great white 
race of the Atlantean Brazil, of the pre-cataclysmic age, at least 
11,000 years ago. One feature marks them all: they are carved on 
high rocks, in gloomy canons, impossible to climb. No more than in 
North America has one, at present, the key to these inscriptions, 
and it is still, palaeontologists contend, very much an open question 
whether man existed in ancient Brazil in the time of the giant 
mammals. (Until one hears the Indian rumours of what lies between 
the Goyaz and Roosevelt plateaux in Brazil!) His bones have 
certainly been found mixed with theirs in Brazil and other South 
American regions. 

In the Rio Negro, of the Amazon, there are many of these rock- 
pictures. Two of them strike the imagination : rock-glyphs of tall 
men, of archaic type, in long robes, one with arms extended, the 
other grasping a long baton or staff; and they are depicted wearing 
remarkable head-dresses, like extended haloes. Similar figures are 
also found in the Upper Orinoco region. True, they are in a style 
such as a child, or man with a child's mind, would draw ; but they 
suggest most graphically that the primitive artist was copying 
monuments of a dead civilisation, far higher than his own, or, per- 
haps, engraving memories in stone of the leaders of a great race to 
whom his forefathers had been helots of some sort. Schomburghk 
wrote to Humboldt that he had seen colossal human figures in the 
rock of Timeri (interior of Dutch Guiana), and close to the great 
cataracts on the upper waters of the Rio Gorentyn, on the borders of 
Dutch and British Guiana. These figures were executed with much 
greater care than any discovered in Guiana (Venezuela) .... 

"The size is about seventy feet, and the figures seem to re- 
present the human body. The head-dress is extremely remark- 
able. It encompasses the head, spreading outwards considerably 
in breadth, and is not unlike the haloes in the paintings of the 
heads of saints. I have left my drawings of these figures in the 
colony (British Guiana), and I hope some day to be able to lay 
them before the public. ... In the Cuyuwini (N. British Guiana), 
I saw ruder figures, and they extended over a space of 192,000 
square geographical miles. 55 

It is curious that head-dresses, somewhat of this type, are found 
in some of the monuments of what are probably the world's most 
ancient ruins : those at Tiahuanacu, and also close to mysterious 
hieroglyphics on rocks in the Santa Marta Mountains, Colombia. 
The late R. B. Gunninghame Graham, "El Gran Caballero", "Don 
Roberto", saw rock-pictures of this sort in Mexico though he does 



SIGN-POSTS TO THE SHADOW OF ATLANTIS 137 

not say if they depicted colossal men with curious head-dresses at a 
great height ; but, in the days "when I passed through the valley, the 
Mescalero Apaches made things unhealthy for archaeologists". 

Who were the Homers of this Odyssey of the rock-pictures? 
May be, there were more races than one ; for, as I have pointed out 
before, the pictures vary greatly in type and skill of execution. Some 
may be of far later date than others. R. B. Gunninghame Graham 
jestingly suggested that Don Gonzalez Jiminez de Quesada, the con- 
quistador of Colombia, as a lawyer, might have thought that the 
writings, figures and pictures seen at a great height at a place known 
as La Pefia Tejada, where the mountain stream had cut a passage 
through the living rock, were a "species of Indian conveyancing". 

But were they a sort ofpateran or route-map and trail, of wander- 
ing ancient South American "Romanies' 9 , showing to people coming 
on behind, years later, which route the pioneers had taken? Or, 
again, had the makers of the rock-glyphs chanced on some in- 
credibly ancient grey stone American city riven by thunderbolts, 
or upheaved by earthquakes in a far-off day? Had their imagination 
been so impressed by what they saw there that they copied some of 
the hieroglyphs, or syllabary forms, or ancient alphabets, or some 
of the monumental representations of colossal human figures, and 
reproduced them as they journeyed on, ever on, into the great un- 
known? (Or, again, were the rock-carvers migrating refugees from 
some submerged land Atlantis?) 

So, on the forehead of rocks high in mountain gorges they had 
carved a sign to future, wondering men that, even of old, in the night 
of time, or the morning of the world, or the twilight of cosmic 
castrophe, men knew that they had no continuing city on this 
planet, and that, aeons after the destruction by cataclysm of their 
own incredibly ancient civilisation, the far day must dawn which 
the priests of old Hindostan called the "Night of Brahma", when 
life and motion cease, or, as the modern physicist would say, en- 
tropy increases and energy degenerates into a molecular degrada- 
tion of heat, the solar system ceases to rotate round its blazing 
centre, and the universe falls asleep till the next dawn. . . . 

However fantastic this may sound, and whether or no some of 
the far-spread American rock-pictures are mute memorials of some 
past Heliacal year of deluge, destruction and the passing away of 
great civilisations which have not left even a bone or a shred of 
pottery, as in the dead cities of the highlands of Brazil, it is true, 
generally speaking, that the petroglyphs and ancient rock-pictures 
of South America's mountain gorges and the cliffs along the affluents 
of the Maranon- Amazon, such as the Rio Negro, are more advanced 
or artistic than those of North America. Yet, in both, oddly Phoeni- 
cian, Semitic, or Asiatic signs appear, and may not be their (ancient 
South America's nomads') direct reminiscences of those other 



138 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

wandering races of the ancient worlds of Asia and Europe, or as 
accidental as some American and Brazilian professors would have us 
believe. 

At the moment, we know more of the tides of migration from 
North to South America than of the meaning, or meaninglessness or 
mere conventionality of some of these petroglyphs. One trail starts 
at Celilo, on the River Columbia, of Oregon, close to Big Eddy and 
Roosevelt, Washington. The petroglyphs cross the Rockies into what 
is now Nevada and New Mexico, and reach southwards to Perti, 
on whose rocks similar signs have been cut. May be, there were two 
distinct streams of migrants : those on the east, from the shores of 
the Mississippi; those on the west, wandering from the banks of the 
Columbia, Oregon, to the Rio Ucayli, of the Andes. 

It must be remembered that, thousands of years before Menes, 
the ancient Egyptians cut perfect hieroglyphs on rocks and monu- 
ments, and designed canals. Just so, the ancient American races, 
lapidarian artists, built twelve miles of canals so far traced and 
irrigated 90,000 to 150,000 acres of land in Western North America. 
Some modern American archaeologists say they were men of the 
Shoshonean race, makers of baskets, far older than the cliff-dwellers, 
who reached the highlands of Central America from the Far 
West. 

One's general impression, after a study of these petroglyphs, is 
that the sculptors may have had contacts with an ancient civilisa- 
tion in America, probably long after its passing into the abyss of 
time. For among the meaningless scrawls on the rocks are significant 
pictures of serpents and animals, and forms suggesting the letters 
and hieroglyphs of old Phoenicia and Egypt. But those signs pro- 
bably came neither from Egypt, nor the wandering Phoenicians, but 
from the sources whence those ancient races derived their letters 
and glyphs: Rutas, the great vanished continent of the Pacific, 
whence came the old Sanscrit forms, or the northern tropical 
sea-continent of the Atlantic, called by the Greeks of Plato's day 
Atlantis. 

The different races and periods of these rock-painters and carvers 
are suggested in the comparative illustrations below : 



Petroglyphs found in the Aleutians, in 1937, 
by Father Bernard Hubbard, S.J. 

(These signs may, later on, be compared with the 
rupestrian inscriptions to be mentioned in a subse- 
quent book, as found in the Canaries, the Sahara, 
and old Spain.) 




SIGN-POSTS TO THE SHADOW OF ATLANTIS 139 

^^^ Petroglyph from Cliff in Oregon. 

(0) Serpent, or earth, trailing gaseous fire-mist in the Azoic Age? 

(Possible Sanscritian conception derived from either Atlantis or Rutas- 

Lemuria.) 



Ditto: similar idea. 

Tadpole, symbol of generation. Frogs were worshipped in old Brazil 
as in ancient Egypt, as a symbol of generation. (Similar sign ends 
Phoenician (or Karian ?) rupestrian inscription at Graves Creek, 
Ohio Valley.) 



Utah cliff- 

dweller's 

glyph. 



Ancient 
Brazil : 
Maraj6, 
Amazon 
mouth. 



Mexico: sign of Quetzalcoatl, 
the pacifist pioneer, who, from 
Atlantean Brazil, or the mother- 
land of Atlantis, brought ele- 
ments of civilization to savage 
North and Central America. 




New Mexico : 



Petroglyphs on canon 
walls. 



Rio Negro Valley, Amazonas, 
Brazil: Men with rayed headdress 
suggestive of preachers or pioneers (?) 
from Atlantean South America (?). 
They are not the people depicted in the 
New Mexico petroglyphs at left. 
. ,._ Another theory is that the hcad- 

Petroglyph on Arizona chff. dresses are feat h ergj which & not 

convincing. 

More advanced feeling for pictorial art is shown in 

this Amazonian rock inscription in the valley of the 

Rio Negro, Brazil. (Animals may be the S. American 

aquatic rodents, the capybaras). 

Along the Orinoco and the Amazon river-gorges and in Mexican 
sierras the signs are often found on inaccessible cliffs. In Siberia, 
near Krasnoyarsk!, and in old Tartary, the glyphs also take the 
form of rude figures of men, quadrupeds, reptiles and birds cut in 
the rocks at places where the rivers run close under the granite 
cliffs, which, in some regions, are smooth, steep and unscalable. 

May it be that the rock-carvers are of different races of various 
dates; that they migrated, in some cases, from a common centre, 





140 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

not necessarily in Asia, as many scholars advance, but in ancient 
America, or even across some ancient land-bridge, long since dis- 
rupted in the Pacific, linking Lemuria with ancient America? 
In other cases, the evidence seems to point to a wandering, from 
Asia, across the Bering Strait, or the existing land-bridge of the 
Aleutians. 

What do we know of the extent of the migrations from Atlantis, 
in the far ages preceding or after the various cataclysms presaging 
the final catastrophe of the Egyptian account handed down to us in 
the Solon-Plato dialogues? It may be that some of these Atlantean 
migrants went wandering in thousands of years eastwards, right 
across Europe into Asia, eventually reaching the American con- 
tinent, which other Atlanteans had, in ancient South America, 
colonised in a westward approach. 

My theories are equally as good as the more conventional and 
fashionable ones; for none of them are written on volcanic basalt as 
enduring as the petroglyphs on inaccessible cliff-walls in America 
or Northern or North-Eastern Asia ! 

Peru has a number of mysterious and ancient rock-inscriptions, 
and, in many cases, they are far anterior to the Inca's civilisation. 
One of them was found by the Peruvian historian, Dr. J. von 
Tschudi. It lies about a league from Huari, in a very ancient settle- 
ment of an unknown race : 




Inscription of unknown and ancient race, near Huari, Peru. 

These inscriptions of Huari, Peru, resemble shorthand con- 
sonants ; but three of the characters are remarkable. One appears to 
be a representation of a large running bird, such as an emu or ostrich. 
Neither exists in modern South America. Another is a bare-legged 
man in a short tunic, or one of those individuals who appear in 
Mr. H. G. Wells's novels of worlds in A.D. 2500, and shapes of things 
to come, or in Professor J. B. Haldane's lively scientific sketches of 
the future. The third appears to be the head of a horse though the 
hippine species is supposed to have been unknown in North, Central 
or South America before the coming of the Spanish jennets of the 
conquistadores. 



SIGN-POSTS TO THE SHADOW OF ATLANTIS 

There are other quite different characteristics of some pre-Inca 
culture cut in a rock at Sahpuayacu, Peru, in a territory not known 
ever to have been conquered by the Incas, which lies about 190 
miles east of Guzco outside the bounds of the old Inca Peruvian 
empire. To the archaeologist, these inscriptions at Sahpuayacu are a 
standing puzzle. No one of them can make up his mind, though 
sorely tempted to say they are merely conventional inscriptions, or 
pictographs cut on the rock in the idle moments of some savage, or 
primitive gentleman, who, had he lived in the days of Sam Slick, 
the famous Yankee clockmaker, would probably have spoiled some 
blaspheming farmer's new five-barred gate to a cattle-fold, by carv- 
ing his insignificant name, date, and initials of his sweetheart on the 
top bar, in oak, or hickory. It is unsafe to dismiss them as con- 
ventional, or ornamental, merely; since one sign appears thrice and 
three others twice each in the two rows* 



Unknown signs at Sahpuayacu, Peru. 

The third discovery is the most remarkable of all. It was made, 
says Senor Mariano de Rivero y Ustariz, on a granite rock eight 
leagues from Arequipa. Many of the engravings are of animals 
and flowers and of a fort anterior to the age of the Incas. At one 
place, called Huayti, was found a ruined palace, of unknown age 
and origin, and certainly not Inca. Here, a mass of granite was 
engraved with these curious figures. The "hot cross bun" sign is 
exactly the same in form, and, perhaps, significance as that associated 
with the mysteries of the sun-god, Baal, or Bacchus, or the Phoeni- 
cian letter Teth (Tyrian alphabet). As for the primitive gentleman 
standing on the back of a large bird, and with the rays issuing from 
the crown of his head and tips of his fingers, one might speculate 
whether or no he had some knowledge of aviation or electricity, or 
electro-magnetic healing. 

Here is the place for one to ask how much longer American 
archaeologists or their British confreres mean to persist in the 
absurd and unhistorical assertion that Peru of the Incas had never 
devised a form of writing? That all they had invented were a crude 
system of knots, quippus, known to the conquistadores and early 
chroniclers and which remind one of the mediaeval system of 

* Compare these unknown signs in old Peril, with pre- Phoenician, rupestrian inscriptions 
found in the Sahara, in parts of old Spain, and in the Canaries. (To be referred to in my 
subsequent book on S. American riddles). Berthelot suggested that unknown races all over 
the world, some 20,000 years ago, had a sort of lingua franca in these signs cut in stones. 

One of the above signs appears in a writing of Indians, in an island in Lago de Titicaca. 
Vide Chap. V., p. 122 supra,) 



142 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

tallies, made of wood, current among the secretaries and accountants 
of the royal scriptoriums, or primitive state offices of the English 
middle ages. These quippus were coloured knots used as a mnemonic 
aid ; but the earlier Incas had actually devised a system of writing, 
far older in date than the quippus, known in Quichua as quilcas. 
The Incas lost this early system of writing when an insane and 
superstitious tyrant of an Inca emperor* forced the caste ofamautas, 
or learned scribes, to adopt the quippus. Fernando Montesinos, whose 
authoritative "Memorias Antigas Historiales del Peru" was largely 
copied from the lost and most valuable MS. "Vocabulario His- 
torico del Peru", of the learned Jesuit, Bias Valera, son of a Peruvian 
lady and a conquistadorian soldier, tells us how this came to pass. 




Rupestrian Inscription (unknown and ancient race near Arequipa, Peru). 

(That MS. vanished from the Jesuit college of La Paz, Bolivia, in or 
after 1631, when the historian of the Society of Jesus, Padre Anello 
Olivia, saw it.) 

Montesinos , repeating what Bias Valera had collected of oral 
traditions and history, from the mouths of Peruvian priests and 
nobles, in the days just after the Conquest, says that, in the reign of 
the Inca Huanacaui: 

"The amautas, or learned scribes, who knew the events of 
those times by very ancient traditions passed from hand to hand, 
say that the Inca had letters and also wise men, amautas, who 
taught reading and writing ... as far as I am able to learn they 
wrote on the leaves of plantain trees, which they dried, and 
then wrote upon, whence the idea came to Juan Coctovito, in his 

* Neither the word quilca, nor vira, is found in Quichua, or makes any sense in that 
tongue of the Incas. There are Brazilian Indian tribes, knowing nothing of the Incas, who 
sing each dawn to the sun. Their song is an invocation to Vira-Viral In the language of 
the Nahuatls of old Mexico quilca means write or paint. Did this word, too, come from the 
dvilisers from white Atlantean Brazil? AUTHOR. 



SIGN-POSTS TO THE SHADOW OF ATLANTIS 143 

'Itinerario Hierosolimitano y Siriano' (lib. I, c. 14, foL 92), 
that the ancients wrote upon these leaves, and that the lines which 
are used in parchments in Italy, today, owe their origin to this 
custom. And also in Chile, when paper for his 'Araucana' was 
lacking, to Don Alfonso de Arcila (Ercilla), an Indian filled his 
need with leaves of the plantain tree, and on them he wrote 
great portions of his poem, as the Padre Acosta says. Also they 
(the old Incas) wrote on stones. A Spaniard found among the 
buildings of the Quinoans, three leagues from Buamanga, a 
stone with some characters which none could read. And thinking 
that the memory of the guaca (burial place, or tomb, in Quichua) 
was inscribed there, he kept the stone for the sake of under- 
standing better. These letters were lost to the Peruvians through 
an event which befell in the time of Inca Pachacuti the Sixth." 

This king is said, in Montesinos, who is following the lost work 
of Bias Valera, to have been the seventy-eighth king of the Incas. 
He was the sixth Pachacuti. He made great sacrifices to appease the 
Illatici (Herodotos's Alilat, god of lightning and thunder), who was 
associated with Viracocha, the man in black from Atlantean Brazil, 
who performed the same civilising and cultural task in old Peru as 
Qjietzalcoatl, his fellow-countryman, had in old Mexico. One of the 
priests told Inca Tupac Cauri Pachacuti to give him his full name 
that letters were the cause of the plague and none ought to use 
them or resuscitate them from that time forth, or great harm would 
come: 

"So (about A.D. 300?) the Inca decreed pain of death to any 
trafficking in the quilcas, or writing-material, which were the 
parchment and leaves of the trees on which they used to write. 
Nor were any to use any sort of letters. And, because, in later 
times, a learned amautas invented some characters, they burnt 
him alive. So, from this time forth, they used threads of quipos" 

However, the plagues, as well as earthquakes and floods, happened 
as frequently after this reactionary Inca had turned back the hands 
of the clock of Peruvian culture. These hieroglyphics, written or 
copied on the quilcas, were the royal mail of the Old Inca Empire. 
One Inca Inti Capac set up post-houses on the Andean roads, and 
chasquiSy or runners, travelling on foot running 12-14 (long Castilian) 
leagues a day. surely a record of speed and endurance hardly matched 
in any part of the world, at any time ! carried the letters until they 
handed the folded leaves to the runners at the next mail-house. So 
the post travelled till the letters reached the provincial governor. 
After the use of letters was stopped the post-runners were forced to 
commit the messages to memory. 

It was, by the way, Bias Valera who compiled a list of kings of 



144 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

the Incas going back to 1220 B.C., "a date" which, says Mr. Philip 
Ainsworth Means, "is too early. In all probability South America, 
at that time, was an uninhabited wilderness." 

In advancing this theory, Mr. Means has gone badly off the 
archaeological rails ! As this book has shown or it has failed dis- 
mally old Brazil was a highly civilised country thousands of years 
before 1220 B.C. True, it may be that the Inca tribe of Guzco did 
not rise to Imperial power till A.D. noo, and that, as Bartolome 
de la Gasa (who was in Peru in A.D. 1532) says, other dynasties 
of chiefs ruled in the Andes before that date, of A.D. 1 100. That does 
not alter the fact that Bias Valera's informants among the Peruvian 
priests and the descendants of the old class of amautas, living in the 
late sixteenth century of our era, were neither fools, liars nor 
romancers. 

Let us consider the significance of what they told him : Ayar> 
MancO) and Pirua, names of Peruvian-Inca kings, have no meaning in 
Quichua, the language of old Peru. Pirua, the name of the first 
dynasty of the Incas, is a corruption of Vira, meaning sun, as it 
probably did in the Atlantcan lands of old Brazil, of the dead cities. 
Bias Valera says it was an archaic term and meant "storehouse of 
creation". Ayar was the name applied to the four brethren of the 
Paccari-Tampu myth, who issued from a city of caves in the high 
Andes, and founded the old empire of Peru. 

And what was the ancient forerunner of this late Empire of the 
Andean Cordilleras? Again "chance", or adventure, gives the answer ! 

In 1929, a romantic adventure befell Mr. Lawrence Griswold, 
an American traveller, who brought the famous Komodo dragons 
from the Lost World Island of the Dutch East Indies to the Zoo in 
New York. It is graphically suggestive of the far past of ancient 
South America, and tears another small hole in the veil of mystery 
shrouding this most ancient land of the world. Mr. Griswold was 
captured by the Shuara Indians, a branch of the notorious Jivaro 
tribe of head-shr inkers. He was somewhere up the Rio Juara, a 
tributary of the Amazon, when he was captured, and the tribe 
took him eastwards to the foothills of the Andes. One day, he was 
chasing a peccary along the bed of a dried-up stream, when he 
stopped as he saw, jutting from a hill, the foundations of an ancient 
building. Digging away the soil, he came on some carefully jointed 
stones extending backwards and upwards into the overshadowing 
hill. There were two pyramidal structures and a horse-shoe amphi- 
theatre, its open wings separated from the pyramids by a distance of 
thirty feet. Mr. Griswold thought it might "be Tiahuanacu work of 
5000 B.C." The Unta, or old man of the tribe holding him captive, 
said the ancient builders were the "ancestors of the Shuaras". Many, 
many years ago, he said, the Shuaras were great bearded men, like 
gods, and only since the Flood had they taken a form like that of apes, 



THE ZODIAC 



AKJ&lUSUUf 



BtUZit 



I5IAWP 



NORTH 
AFR1C* 



PISCES 



EfCrtt* 




MftTttnTmortp 



SCORPIO 



/W 



AQUARIUS 




TT 



CHINA 



LIBRA 



ANDALUSIA* 



TAURU5 



CAnUOSNU 



*& 



OKIuJN OF 
TH5iaSOF 
THEZODWC 



PFKU 



n 



CANCER 



Atlanta 



VUUJO 



up 



Grimaldi, in 1905, traced earliest Zodiacal inscription to Babylon (Tigris), 
ca. 1 187 B.C. ; but the priest-astronomers of Atlantean-Brazil may have originated 
them between 20,000 and 12,000 B.C. 



146 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

and this was because of their antediluvian misdeeds. "These gods 
were as tall as you," said the old Unta, "and red-haired. And it was 
your red beard that saved you from death when we captured you. 
We thought you must be one of the old race who built that city, on 
the hill yonder." The Unta gladly gave Griswold an escort to the 
nearest post on the Amazon, the village of Caracaica, whence he 
returned to Manaos and took steamer for Rio and New York to 
persuade an American archaeologist to return and inspect these 
ruins. It is probable, though Mr. Griswold does not seem to have 
heard of the adventures of the bandeiristas of A.D. 1750, in the dead 
city, that this may also have been one of their outlying cities. 

Fawcett said he had met a tribe he does not say where, but it 
may have been in Brazil who had a name for every planet barring 
Neptune ; which suggests that the old civilised race of astronomers 
in prehistoric South America from whose elements of culture cer- 
tain fragments had passed to the ancestors of these South American 
tribes, had not discovered this planet, and is evidence of their ex- 
treme and astounding antiquity. It is on the at present outermost 
elliptical ring of the solar system, and on account of its immense 
distance away, little is known of it by modern astronomers. Neither 
Babylon nor the even more ancient world knew Neptune. But, in 
1836, Lieut. W. Smyth, in a trip from Lima to Para, encountered the 
tribe of the Sencis, living on the Rio Ucayli, a tributary of the 
Amazon in Northern Peru. These Indians actually had names for 
Jupiter and Mars and ten constellations. They are (or were) savages ; 
so, here, again, there must be fragments surviving from the far-off 
day of some vanished white Atlantean civilisation of South America. 
It was among the Indians of the same Rio Ucayli that the Fran- 
ciscan missioner, Fray Narcissus Gilbar, in the eighteenth century, 
found an old man reading, under trees on the pampas of the Rio 
Sacramento, MSS. on plantain-leaf paper, covered with orderly 
arranged bold characters, and single hieroglyphs and pictures of 
men and animals, the whole in colours. Earlier in the same century, 
another missioner among the Pafios, in the valley of the Rio Hual- 
lagu west and adjacent to the gorge of the Ucayli found similar 
MSS. of plantain leaves among the Indians. Juan de Lucero says 
they told him these MSS. contained "a history of events in the days 
of their ancestors". 

When the Franciscan friar, Fray Narcissus Gilbar, came back to 
Lima he got in touch with Baron Alexander von Humboldt, who, 
about 1820, was visiting Perii, on his travels of Central and South 
America. The friar told the baron his very curious story. 

Says von Humboldt: 

"When I was in Lima, an extremely curious fact came to my 
knowledge* The padre Narcissus Gilbar, well known for his 



SIGN-POSTS TO THE SHADOW OF ATLANTIS 147 

courage and spirit of research among the independent Indians 
of the Pafios, on the banks of the Ucayli, at a little to the north 
of the point where the Rio Sarayacu (on the pampas of eastern 
Peru) joins the Maranon (Amazon), found among them some 
MS. books of paintings, which, in their external appearance, 
perfectly resemble our own volumes in quarto. Each leaf was 
i if inches long, by about yf inches broad. The books were 
covered, or bound in leaves of a palm tree, with a very thick 
parenchyma (tissue from bark and pith of stems), and glued to- 
gether. A piece of tolerably fine cotton formed the leaves, which 
were fastened by threads of agave. When Gilbar reached the 
dwellings of the Pafios, he found an old man at the foot of a 
palm tree, seated and surrounded by several young people to 
whom he was explaining the contents of these books. The 
savages would not, at first, permit a white man to approach the 
teacher, and informed the friar, through the Indians of Manos, 
who, alone, understand the language of the Pafios, that these 
paintings contained hidden things which no stranger ought to 
know. With great difficulty, Gilbar procured one of these col- 
lections, which he sent to Lima, for the inspection of P. Cisneros, 
the learned compiler of a periodical called El Mercurio Peruano. 

"Several people, of my acquaintance, have seen this book of 
the Pafios which is covered on every page with paintings. These 
were figures of men and animals, and a great number of isolated 
lines of characters, which were deemed to be hieroglyphs. They 
were arranged with admirable order and symmetry. The liveli- 
ness of the colours was particularly striking ; but, as no one at 
Lima had seen a fragment of Aztec MS., it was impossible to 
judge of the identity of the style of paintings found at a distance 
from each ether of 800 leagues. P. Cisneros wished to deposit 
this book in the convent of the missions of Ocupa; but whether 
the person to whom it was entrusted lost it on his passage over 
the cordilleras, or whether it was taken and sent clandestinely to 
Europe, it is certain it never reached the place of its destination. 
Every search for it has proved in vain . . . and the regrets of not 
having made a copy came too late. . . . The missioner, Narcissus 
Gilbar, with whom I was intimately acquainted at Lima, 
promised to get me another collection of these paintings of the 
Pafios. He knows that several exist among them, and that they 
themselves say that these books were transmitted to them by their 
fathers. The explanation they give, of these paintings, seems found- 
ed on an ancient tradition which is perpetuated in some families. 

"The Indians of Manos (or Manoa), whom Padre Gilbar 
commissioned to make researches into the meaning of these 
characters, imagined them to relate to travels and ancient wars 
with neighbouring tribes." 



148 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

Manoa, of course, reminds one of Sir Walter Raleigh's Golden 
Manoa of El Dorado fame ! 

Humboldt adds that the Panos were savages dwelling in deep and 
sultry forests, and such recent inhabitants of the soil, that it was very 
unlikely they originated these paintings. Indeed, like the ancient 
glyphs on the granite rocks of the Orinoco, and the Guiana savanas, 
and the elevated plains of the Cordilleras in the paramos of Guanca, 
these Panos paintings and MSS. must have been there long before 
the ancestors of modern tribes came into that region of the Peruvian 
pampas. The problem of their real origin, however, was not to be 
solved in the light of the knowledge available in A.D. 1820 or, it 
may be said, in A.D. 1920 ! But, with the evidence I have gathered in 
Brazil, and reinforced by my own arduous researches in English, 
Spanish and Portuguese source-material and MSS., I have no 
hesitation in saying that in these plantain MSS. we see the hand 
of the lost white imperial race of Hy-Brazil, of Atlantis the 
Great ! 

Pedro de Garcia, of the Order of Preaching Friars, noted a 
peculiar use to which Peruvians, at the time of the Spanish conquest, 
put "paintings in image-characters with which they confessed their 
sins, and painted each one of the ten commandments, in a certain 
manner, and use ciphers to indicate the offences against the com- 
mandments". The friar thought this meant that the Incas used 
symbolic paintings, ruder and more unpolished than the hieroglyphs . 
of the Aztecs. He admitted that quippus were ordinarily used by 
them; but, oddly enough, for that age, refrained from suggesting 
that brethren from the Lost Ten Tribes had been sent by Mosheth 
to old Peru to convert the Peruvians to Jahvch, the hook-nosed 
demi-ourgos and vindictive old gentleman whose spirit, under other 
skies, had so often striven with other lesser men in fire, plague, 
slaughter and clouds of loud hosannahs. 

Were these MSS. or quilcas, that had escaped the attention of the 
fanatic Inca Pachacuti the Sixth; or were they relics of a far earlier 
civilisation? Until a MS. of this sort reaches civilisation the question 
remains in suspense. We do not yet know, though, like the author of 
this book, one may have strong opinions. 

Von Tschudi, in his Antigiiedades Peruanas (Vienna, 1851), gives 
us the clue to the probable origin of these ancient letters, though he 
did not perceive its significance, when he wrote : 

"It was reputed, on investigation (among the Panos Indians 
of the pampas of the Sacramento, on the banks of the Rio Ucayli) 
that these MSS. referred to the history of a nation that arrived, 
from the north or the east> to the mountains of the Ucayli ; and 
that they brought with them the knowledge of that writing ; or 
that they are the remains of an ancient civilisation." 



SIGN-POSTS TO THE SHADOW OF ATLANTIS 149 

There is no proof that the Mayas' culture penetrated so far south 
and over the Andean cordilleras to old Peru. But as von Tschudi 
knew nothing of the existence of the inscriptions in the dead cities of 
Brazil although transcripts of them already existed in the old 
Royal and Imperial Library at Rio de Janeiro, in his day he 
naturally did not connect this ancient civilisation with Atlantean 
Brazil. 

A slender clue to die range of some of these South American, 
vanished civilisations, though its end is and may ever remain lost in 
the night of time, may exist in the dense and dangerous forests and 
jungles of the interior of the republic of Haiti, and across the border 
in the sister republic of Dominica. It was in the latter, behind the 
mountains of Santiago, in a region far less known today than in the 
fifteenth century A.D., that Bartholomew Columbus found the 
strange, deep gold-mines spoken of by George Hornius, the (Dutch) 
Leyden professor, in his De Originibus Americans (1652 edition) : 

"In Haiti are found the wonderful mines (fodinae) out of 
which (Bartholomew) Columbus judged the fleet of Solomon 
sailed to fetch gold. Of these in his voyage he writes : 'Bartholo- 
mew Columbus found in Hispaniola a cave very high and very 
ancient, whence they say Solomon dug up his gold. This gold 
mine is 16,000 feet deep and very ancient. The proof is great 
that at one time men went to the island for metals, as in all times 
the Phoenicians and those of Spain did. For these mines were not 
made by the Haitians, who, of metals and mines are completely 
ignorant, and of veins in the bowels of the earth, as is certain. 
They get their gold out of rivers.' " 

Bartholomew Columbus, who was then adelantado of San 
Domingo, took a trip to these ancient mines, with a troop of soldiers 
and miners. The natives told him the mines* lay sixty Spanish 
leagues from the town of Isabella. When he reached there, the 
obvious antiquity of the workings impressed the imagination of 
Bartholomew. He saw that the pits extended over an area of nearly 
six miles. The miners, riddling the earth of the workings, at several 
points, affirmed that they found such great amounts of gold, hidden 
in this soil, that a single miner might easily pick up "six drachmas of 
gold a day. This was on 5th day of the Ides of March, 1495," says 
Peter Martyr. (As those mines have long since vanished into the 

* These prehistoric gold-mines of extraordinary depth may lie behind the still unex- 
plored mountains of Cibao in modern Dominica's territory; but, as even maps of the late 
seventeenth century show, Peter Martyr, or Bartholomew Columbus, must have been greatly in 
error in stating that the region of the Montana de Cibaos, where these mines may be pre- 
sumed to,lie was sixty Castilian leagues' distant from the township of Isabella {Ysabella de 
Torres.] If that were the distance, then Bartholomew's soldiers must have gone a very 
roundabout way to their objective. However, in a coming day, startling archaeological and 
prehistoric discoveries are going to be made in this terra iwoj?nto.-~ THE AUTHOR. 



150 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

jungle, lost to sight and memory, there must be a fortune waiting 
some prospector in the wilds of modern Dominica.) 

My friend, Captain John Houston Craige, late chief of police, 
during the U.S. occupation of Haiti, says an American marine is 
the only man he has ever known to reach near these mysterious 
gold-mines. 

Peter Martyr, or Peter Martyr de Anghiera, speaks of ancient 
works of art found in this old buccaneering island. He died at 
Granada, old Spain, in 1526. 

Saint- Mery, in his Description de la patrie frangaise de St. Domingue, 
speaks of a stone cut with strange and unknown letters, found in the 
mountains of Guanaminto, in Haiti. That find was made in 1787. 
"In these mountains, as in neighbouring isles, there exist great 
grottoes, worked by man, and ornamented with sculptures, analogous 
to those of the moon ofCaurau, and preceded, usually, by two stelae 
of the ckemis, always found two by two, as in Asia," said Abb6 
Brasseur-de-Bourbourg, the Americaniste. E. Nau, who wrote an 
infernally dull book, titled Histoire des Caciques d* Haiti, adds that the 
Caribs of Haiti had no traditions about the ancient builders of these 
monuments and the workers of the ancient gold-mines, which were 
shrouded in their forests and jungles. . . . 

"There are vast crypts hollowed in the rocks, walls of great 
extent and length in drystone, or only en terre (earthworks)/ 
Another race, other men more polished in culture (polices] must 
have occupied this country in remote times, and the Indians of 
the last epoch must have succeeded to the civilisation of people 
extinguished by time or revolutions. Whence came these first 
occupants? Were they autochthones? The savants are divided 
over these questions. They are obscure and inextricable." 

Queer caverns were also among the discoveries of the con- 
quistadores in Hispaniola, or San Domingo. One of them, named 
"Jouanabaina", was on the land of the cacique of Machinech, and 
the object of the worship of the natives. It "was ornamented with 
various paintings. At the door stands two carved zdmes. Then, 
the original natives went on pilgrimage to these caverns." (imes, or 
chemis, were idols of the old Antilles.) A later French traveller and 
naturalist, Michel-Etienne Descourtilz, author of Voyages d'un 
naturaliste, en Ha%ti> in 1799-1803, found similar Haiti-Domingan 
caverns at Dubeda, among the Gonaives; on the Selle mountain, 
at or near Port-au-Prince; and at Doubou, near Cap Frangois. . . . 

"They are natural excavations lit from the top, so as to let 
pass the first rays of the rising sun. The interior of these grottoes 
is covered with idols, carved, engraved and inlaid in the rock, 



SIGN-POSTS TO THE SHADOW OF ATLANTIS 15! 

in rude and bizarre forms ; toads with heads at the ends of their 
feet, monstrous human figures with crooked body diminishing 
like a cone, terminated by a spherical knob ; tortoises ; and other 
animals, especially snakes." 

My good friend, Dr. Price- Mars, s&iateur de la R^publique and 
President of the Society of History and Geography of Haiti, has 
kindly sent me a copy of a very interesting brochure titled UArt 
Prtcolombien cT Haiti, which was published by the authorities of the 
republic at the time of the recent third congress of the Garibs. In 
this illuminating booklet are reproduced some striking photographs 
of discoveries, in that island, of remains, statues, betyles (statues of a 
god, or the shrine of a deity), and stelae. These remains are of a 
people of unknown race and date who knew not of iron. Like the 
race in Atlantean Brazil, they seem to have been heliolithic, and of 
very advanced culture. The statues show that two races existed there 
thousands of years ago : one white, the other black. One of the heads 
is a sculptured funerary face of a white man and another of a white 
woman of Atlantean type. There is also a remarkable head (masque) 
of a black woman, in polished but weathered granite of prehistoric 
date which bears a strange resemblance in shape and peculiar, 
coronal head-dress to a splendid terra-cotta head of a negro Venus, 
found in British Nigeria and now in the palace of the native ruler of 
Ife, where it is worshipped as a goddess. (As, doubtless, was this 
similar head in Atlantean old Haiti.) The Nigerian head of great 
beauty was carved by an artist of great skill belonging to a very 
ancient advanced, black civilisation in Africa. 

Frobenius, who associated this ancient culture of West Africa 
with Atlantis, was probably right. Had he seen this similar head in 
Haiti, he would also have remembered that, in Atlantis, and her 
colonies, and empire, red, white, and black races commingled. 
Part of the old Empire of Atlantis extended from the far greater 
Gulf of Maranon the Mexican Gulf of today into the island- 
continent as it was then of the West Indies, not then shattered by 
cataclysm. 

One may also infer from these pictures, in the UArt Pricolombien 
d* Haiti, that necromancy and black magic of the Voodoo type 
existed in this strange island long ages before ever the Spanish or 
French introduced negro slaves into old Hispaniola. Who can say 
whether such black cults came there from the motherland of 
Atlantis far gone in decay? 

There are also extremely ancient petroglyphs of a curiously 
symbolical whorled type recalling similar rupestrian inscriptions in 
modern Colombia both baffling to modern archaeologists and pre- 
historians. 

Yes, on Haiti-Dominica, too, rests the shadow of great Atlantis! 



152 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 



CHAPTER VII 

THE ATLANTEAN "SUBTERRANEANS" OF THE INCAS 

"The topaz blazing like a lamp, 
Among the mines beneath." 

("Mad" Kit Smart.) 
(The Song of David (A.D. 1760). 

TRAVELLERS both in Mexico and on the bleak and lonely paramos 
of the high Andes, in Peru, and far down on the trail of the old con- 
quistadores that led to Potosi and the Argentine, are pretty sure, at 
some stage of their journey, to meet, especially in the short twilight 
at those heights, a strange light, called la luz del dinero (money light). 
It is a phenomenon for which science and physics, at this time, has 
no explanation. Indeed, it is pretty safe to say that, in Europe, no 
physicist has ever heard of this phenomenon. You meet it about the 
time of the pale, lambent dusk along the solitary tracks that lead 
across the Cordilleras and the bleak paramos from old Cuzco. 

Of course, the European or American traveller departing from 
that old city of sad and depressing memories is likely to be in the 
mood and frame of mind to be receptive of this marvel of the trail. * 
And yet it is certainly not a subjective illusion, existing only in the 
mind of one who has just left a melancholy place of ghosts, where 
the apparitions of ruffling, Spanish hidalgos, with fierce dark eyes 
and haughty, saturnine countenances, steal in the pale moonlight 
across the plaza and down shadowy streets, with carved doorways, 
still emblazoned with heraldic beasts, ramping on Castilian coats 
of arms. (Yet, despite all his mail and hauberks and his flaming 
matchlocks, the Castilian and Estremaduran soldier even with the 
cold-hearted, sadistic monk, lurking in the background with his 
fiery faggots of the auto da ft was never able to wrest from the 
gentle and solemn-eyed Incas the secrets of their lost caches !) 

As you jog along on horse-back, or afoot along any of these 
old Spanish gold trails from the mines to the coast ports, in old Peru, 
or the old Spanish Argentine, you may meet, at a turn of the cold 
and stony ways, some Indian, or mestizo half-caste, or even a white 
man, hunting for buried gold. A man will swear to you that, in a 
lone canon, just off the old, gold way, he saw one evening, as the sun 
had sunk into his ocean bed, far away to the west behind the walls 
of the valiant Cordilleras, yonder, and the stars wheeled up the deep, 
blue sky, a strange whitish light, or queer, greenish luminosity, 
appear, hovering above the rocky ground. 

"Estd la lu% del dinero, stHor" says he. 



THE ATLANTEAN ''SUBTERRANEANS*' 153 

"It is the 'money light', and where that wavers on the trail, why, 
Carajd, there is a tapada (a treasure cache) . . . un tesoro entierro!" 

The colonial Spanish trail from Potosi to Tucuman, in the 
Argentine, is pitted with holes showing where generations of seekers 
have dug for tapadas. Some of these tapadas may be caches of royalist, 
or ecclesiastical gold and jewels made when the monarchist armies 
were retreating from before the advancing legions of Simon Bolivar 
el Liberador. These mysterious lights often appear in the dusk, or 
darkness, when they may trail along the ground like slithering 
snakes, emitting a greenish luminosity, or a queer, whitish shine. 
At other times, the lights may stand upright like shafts of the 
columns in an old Inca temple of the sun : or take the form of tropic 
trees. The tapada hunter drives a stake in the ground, and retires 
to some resort of >vine and warm and cheerful company, song and 
fandango, to await the coming of broad day. There are demonios 
abroad, as everyone knows, in the night hours, and not for all the 
lost treasures of the Incas will your mestizo, or your full-blooded 
Indian dig in the darkness for these treasures. His piquete serves the 
same purpose as a buoy to the salvor of silver wrecks. None will 
brave the evil spirits of buried treasures and darkness in the high 
altiplanos of the tierrafria to grub up his piquete and jump his claim. 
. . . "Si, sefior, hasta manana, when we will return and hunt for the 
gold where the 'money light 5 has shone!" 

I have heard some say that it is caused by the emanations of 
gases, such as is probably the cause of the mysterious Faro de Cata- 
tumba, in the Gulf of Maracaibo, in the Venezuelan oil regions. May 
be, and may be not ! I have heard others compare the light to the 
jack o 5 Ian thorns, or will-o'-the-wisp lights, which used to be fre- 
quent, a century or less ago, in the neighbourhood of undrained 
English fens and marshes. An old, blind and crippled gold-bug 
bitten friend of mine, who died a few years ago, in his bed in a West 
of England infirmary, swore that the luz del dinero was a radio-active 
emanation from buried gold. Yes, but radio-activity is not usually 
associated with the breaking-up of stable atoms, such as we find in 
gold. Better say that the mystery remains still unsolved. 

This old engineer friend of mine, who was the nephew of a 
former Bishop of Bath and Wells, Somerset, England, spent many 
years of his adventurous life in the Argentine and Mexico. 

Said he to me: "I owned a gold-mine in South America, which 
I found by this small, bluish-white light coming from the ground. 
There, I dug up a very rich piece of quartz-ore. It was hardly an 
inch below the surface. I always found metal after digging where 
these lights were seen in the dusk. The peones and the Iiulids fear this 
apparition, and give it a wide berth. Were it not for this fear of the 
supernatural, many more treasures would have been discovered by 
its means. It always struck me, this lu% del dintro, as resembling 



154 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

alcohol burning with blue tongues of flame. It can be seen for a 
long way, and the Indids and Spanish-American 'greasers' have 
sworn to me that the light extends over a radius equal to that of the 
subterranean metal causing it. ... I once hired an old hacienda in 
Mexico where an old Indian woman told me she'd seen this light. 
I searched walls and floor, but found nothing ; yet a man who took 
the place after I left found a tin of gold doubloons in the roof." 

Yet, no mystic, lambent flames of a money light will ever suggest 
the location of the amazing lost cache of ransom-treasure of the last, 
and murdered, Inca emperor, Atahualpha, a treasure which the 
Spanish chroniclers and historians say consisted of from 600-650 
tons of gold and jewels, worth 384 millions gold pesos de oro. (If we 
suppose, conservatively, that there were 600 tons of gold in this vast 
treasure, then, taking the value of gold at the pre-Great War No. 2 
rate of 7 ioj. a troy ounce, the metal, at raw gold value, leaving 
out of account all antiquarian values, would have been worth, in 
1938, about 147,000,000, or say, $835,000,000). . . . And yet, 
there is good reason to believe that, as an Inca nobleman told 
Benalcazar, the Conquistador of Quito, even this immense treasure 
is but a kernel of corn compared with a heap from the harvest-field, 
in relation to another very ancient subterranean treasure which I 
shall mention, later, in this chapter. 

As Pedro Cieza de Leon virtually said, in A.D. 1545, the backs 
and bottoms of the stoutest galleons of that age would have been 
broken transporting these immense heaps to the bar of San Lucar 
and the stone houses of the Gasa de Contratacion in old Seville, even 
had that mystery sprite of the sea, Davy Jones, consented, under old 
Father Neptune, to its passing overseas. 

The genie decente of old Spanish descent, who govern, today, the 
administrations in Lima and La Paz would lend more aid than they 
do to the efforts of enterprising gringos from New York and London 
to find some of these immense, Inca caches, were it not for fear of the 
vigilance of millions of Quichua Indians, who still revere the memory 
of the murdered Inca Emperor of the Sun, and who would flame 
into revolt at the first bruiting of such an enterprise. The down- 
trodden Indians, who bear small resemblance to the pictures of the 
Incas which one can see, today, in the old church of Santa Ana, 
a little northwards of melancholy Guzco, dream of the day when, 
led by their reincarnated ancestors, they will find the wheel again 
come full circle and the vanished glories of the old Inca empire of the 
sun once more dawn on.a Western, South American world. 

Where do whispered, native Quichua traditions say these lost 
Inca hoards lie? 

They lie in forests, the bottoms of lone mountain tarns where 
the brooding shadows retreat into limbo only for the short space of 
time when the almost vertical, mid-day sun casts his beams on to 



THE ATLANTEAN c c S U B T E R R A N E A N S ' ' 155 

the deep, tranquil, dreaming waters ; in sealed caves to which mystic 
hieroglyphs, whose key is possessed only by one descendant of the 
Inca, at a time, in each generation, give the open sesame; and in 
strange "subterraneans", thousands of years old, which must have 
been made by a mysterious and highly civilised vanished race of 
South America in a day when the ancient Peruvians, themselves, 
were a mere wandering tribe of barbarians, if not savages, roaming 
the Cordilleras and the high passes, or still living, perhaps, in 
some long-disrupted Pacific continent, from which they came in 
ships. 

"If all the gold that is buried in Peru . . . were collected, it would 
be impossible to coin it, so great the quantity; and yet the Spaniards 
of the conquest got very little compared with what remains. The 
Indians said : 

" THE TREASURE IS SO CONCEALED THAT EVEN 
WE, OURSELVES, KNOW NOT THE HIDING-PLA CE !' " 

This was what the Peruvians told Cieza de Leon, the soldier- 
priest, about fifteen years after the conquest of Peru. They did not 
think fit to add that there were some among them who Jknew and 
closely guarded the tremendous secrets. Cieza de Leon adds : 

"Within the space of eight months, in the year 1598, 
35,000,000 of gold and silver crossed the bar of San Lucar, on 
its way to old Seville, in three cargoes." 

It is golden-tongued Lasso (Garcilasso de la Vega, El Inca} who 
tells how one of the world's greatest treasures came to vanish in such 
a way that the secret of the cache has baffled all the cunning and 
scoundrelism of gold-crazy adventurers of almost all nations under 
the sun, as well as the ingenuity of the cruellest, keenest wits and 
intellects, in the brains of men, who ever shipped themselves aboard 
galleons from Cadiz and the old port of Barrameda to fly poverty 
and the ever-enduring curse of old Spain, in all ages la hambre 
(hunger) and die plagues and miseries springing from the wars 
and European broils financed by this stolen gold of the Americas, 
in the late sixteenth, the seventeenth, and early eighteenth cen- 
turies. Verily, the gentle, lofty-browed Inca had, by his sun-god, been 
revenged on the avaricious and most religious sadists of old Castile 
and Estremadura and Aragon, upon whose own lands, in far-away 
Spain, there now descended the deadly plagues of unemployment 
and almost universal poverty. So scarce was food to become, that, if 
the caballero wished to give a present to the seftorita who was queen 
of his heart, or the doncella honrada, his Nina of the scented calk of 
San Sebastian, he was reckoned a "verie parfait, gentle knyghte" 



156 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

if he gave her a gammon of ham, a large and savoury capon pie, or a 
sirloin of beef or haunch of venison, instead of a jewelled miniature, 
or a bouquet of flowers, which, after all, stayed the wamblings 
of no one's hungry belly. As for the lower orders of old Spain, 
after the mostly stolen riches of the older Americas had poured 
into old Seville and Madrid, what, after the conquest, befell 
them? 

It happened to a hungry picaro, or famished knave of a boy-porter, 
once well off under the old Moors of the Alcazar, and Granada, that 
he accounted himself lucky could he be employed to carry great 
weights, or a heavy basket, as an esportillero, and thereby earn a 
sueldo to silence the call of hunger after the daily portion of soup had 
been handed out at the abbey. Surely was this a peculiarly ironic 
punishment on old Spain who, by her conquistadorian banditti, 
and fanatic black priests, had wrecked a civilisation of ancient date 
wherein no man or woman starved, or lacked clothing and shelter, 
albeit gold was deemed only a medium for ornamentation and not 
a medium of exchange. La venganza upon Spanish bandits who had 
committed the atrocities whose authors Las Casas forebore to 
name ! Now let us raise the curtain on this drama of history. 

Today, at Caxamarca, you are shown a room which the Inca 
Atahualpha had to fill with treasure for his ransom. A heap of 
gold ornaments as tall as his upraised arms could reach, and as 
broad as the span of his arms outstretched. The conquistadores ' 
were not niggardly in their estimation of what his Inca majesty's 
liberty might be worth ! The usual estimate is that this room could 
contain around $500,000,000, or, say, 100,000,000 of gold. The 
conquistadores did not welcome gems. They looked with disfavour 
on them, in fact ; for had they not found so many splendid emeralds, 
pearls, turquoises and diamonds of fine water in the Peruvian empire 
that the bottom of the lapidarian market had been knocked clean 
out? Wedges of gold were preferred, till even they became so com- 
mon that a Castilian soldier-man would liefer have a jennet or 
Castilian stallion, or a quart of wine or pair of shoes. 

Don Francisco Pizzaro, el gobernador y marquis del Per&> drew a 
line in bright red round the walls of this cave-room of Aladdin or 
Ali Baba's forty thieves, which is seventeen feet wide and twenty 
feet long, and which the Inca said he could easily fill with gold. The 
red line was nine feet above the stone floor. The Spaniards stripped 
the gold-plating from the Cuzco royal temple's walls, and the yard- 
wide gold guttering which ran round the temple like a coronal 
frieze. They even took the gold pipes which fed with pure water, 
from the snows of the cordilleras, the five fountains rising and falling 
in iridescent displays in the lovely garden-close of the temple of the 
sun. The native goldsmiths were a whole month melting down this 
gold from Cuzco Temple into bars worth, today, some 5,000,000 or 



THE ATLANTEAN ''SUBTERRANEANS*' 157 

$25,000,000. So exquisite was the jewellers' work of some of these 
antiques that even the rude bandit Pizarro was moved to preserve 
it to send to the Court, in old Spain. 

But, like soldiers in all ages, the Castilians and Estremadurans 
might be trusted never to forget that they had a belly with two 
desires, and that, after the hard battle, the warrior wanted his 
recreation. 

These hardy soldiers swore by Venus as ardently as by Midas's 
golden ass's ears. I have an engraving, of piquant character, taken 
from a very rare book published at Frankfurt on the Rhine, sixty- 
six years after the conquest of Peru. It is a Latin history of America, 
and tells the story not to the approval of later, Spanish historians ! 
of what happened the morning after the amazing victory over the 
Inca's hosts, outside the walls of old Guzco. The Spaniards ate and 
slept all night, as far as they were able; for they had fought like 
Israelites in David's famished armies, or like buccaneers in Darien 
who were so hungry they could have sacrificed "Sambolloe" Indians 
to their teeth. In the morning, they strolled into the country, a mile 
outside the camp at Caxamarca, and lit on many handsome, nude, 
Inca women bathing in the imperial, open air baths. The picture 
shows the bearded Castilians wading into the water and haling the 
reluctant women to the nearby groves. These, with others ravished 
in the Inca's camp, totalled, if we are to believe some old and not too 
discreet, Spanish chronicler of the Indias Occidentals , no fewer than 
5,000 women ! Valde, as the Latinist historian hints, Venus, Bacchus 
and St. Midas had a rare day out in that year of 1533, in the dying 
empire of old Peru ! 

When Atahualpha was brought prisoner into the presence of 
Pizarro, the Inca emperor was wearing a magnificent collar of 
emeralds of great size and extreme brilliancy. The gems blew such 
a flame of avarice alight in the brain (or soul) of the conquistadores, 
that, as Cieza de Leon writes : 

"If, when the Spaniards entered Cuzco they had not com- 
mitted other tricks, and had not so soon executed their cruelty 
in putting Atahualpha to death, I know not how many great 
ships would have been required to bring such treasures to old 
Spain, as is now lost in the bowels of the earth and will remain so 
because those who buried it are now dead." 

Pizarro at once sent emissaries hot foot to Cuzco, and three of 
the conquistadorian soldiers brought back gold to the Spanish camp, 
at Caxamarca. Each horse soldier got a share of 8,800 castellanos 
de oro (gold castellans), and 362 marks in silver, each mark weighing 
eight ounces. The infanteria got half as much each man. The share- 
out started a great gambling saloon going night and day which 



158 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

beats almost anything even in the great days of the Poker Flat saloon 
in the wild west of Bret Harte's prime. 

As John Harris picturesquely put it, in his Moral History of the 
Spanish West Indies (London, 1705), written as if he had been on the 
scene as an eye-witness, rather than one writing nearly 200 years 
later: "Debts were paid in wedges of gold and no Spaniard 
troubled if a creditor got twice the amount of his debt. Nothing 
was so cheap, so common, so easy to be got as gold and silver ... a 
sheet of paper went for ten Gastilians of gold," 

The three emissaries brought back, also, the rifled treasures from 
the sun temple of old Cuzco. They comprised an immense freight 
of gold and silver vessels loaded on the backs of 200 staggering, 
sweating Indians. It was almost more than twelve men could do to 
heave even one of the gold vessels ; and when there entered the 
Spanish camp the great massy gold throne of the Inca, and a heavy 
gold funnel of a fountain, Pizarro felt as did Nadir Shah, in the 
middle of the eighteenth century, when he broke into the Dewan-i- 
Shah in the old throne-room of the Moguls in Delhi and bore off to 
Iran the great golden peacock throne. 

The Inca's queen, says an old Quichua tradition, I heard 
in Peru, had, when her husband was made prisoner, offered for his 
liberation a room full of gold "from the floor up to the ceiling, as 
high as his conqueror could reach, and before the sun set on the 
third day". She kept her promise; but Pizarro broke his. For he . 
said, struck with the marvellous exhibition of such treasures : "I 
will not release the Inca; but will murder him, unless you tell me 
whence all these treasures come." Pizarro had heard, goes on the 
native Peruvian tradition, that the Incas possessed a secret and in- 
exhaustible mine, or enormous depository of mysterious character, 
which lay in a vast, subterranean tunnel, or road, running many miles 
underground beneath his imperial dominions. Here were kept the accumu- 
lated riches of the country. 

The poor queen begged for delay, and, in the meantime, went to 
consult the oracles of the priests of the sun. In the course of the 
sacrifice, the high priest asked her to look into the black mirror.* 

* This must have been the Inca equivalent of the Unjun, or Anjin t of which the famous 
Victorian traveller, Sir R. F. Burton, speaks. It is a lamp-blacked, magic mirror, prepared 
in a peculiar manner and then applied to the palms of the hands of a child, or other virginal 
person, who had to stare hard into it, and so produce a dilation of the normal consciousness. 
*This art for finding hidden treasure is practised by Yogis, Sanyasis, and other Hindu 
devotees," he says. From other sources, one learns that the black mirror was prepared in the 
province of Agra, and also in Tibet and China. Brasseur-de-Bourboiirg, the famous savant 
and historian of Central America, where he was abbe in the frontier, Mexican province of 
Chiappas, cites a native historian who said the ancestors of the ancient Quiches of Yucatan 
brought the black mirror to Central America from old Egypt. The Peruvian sun-worshippers 
knew it, as we see. When the Spanish Conquistadores landed in Central America, the king 
of the Quiches ordered his priests to consult the mirror so as to learn the fate of his king- 
dom and "the demon reflected the present and the future as in a mirror'*. Of course, what 
happened is that the normal consciousness transcended the normal plane and had a fourth 
or fifth dimensional peep into that world where all space lies stretched out in time, and 
past, future and present are all one. 



THE ATLANTEAN ''SUBTERRANEANS*' 159 

She looked, and, shuddering, saw a picture of the fate of her 
husband, inevitable whether or no the gold were delivered to the 
conquistadorian and most Spanish Catholic bandits. The horrified, 
grief-stricken queen ordered that the entrance to the great tunnel 
a masoned door in the rocky wall of the cliff-gorge be closed, and 
this was done under the direction of the high priest and the magicians. 
The chasm was hidden from sight and entirely closed by filling its 
depths with huge masses of rock. When the levelled-off surface was 
reached, it was hidden under green grass and bushes, and made to 
appear like a natural lawn covering a rock ; so that not the slightest 
sign of any fissure was perceptible to the eye. Spanish avarice was 
foiled, and the secret was known only to pure-bred Indians of 
Qjiichua-Inca birth, and never to mestizos^ or half-castes, who, it 
was thought, could never be trusted with any such knowledge. 

(I have a remarkable sequel of this story, to tell, later.) 

As the fatal day drew on, the Inca asked to be taken into the 
open air to see a large comet, green, black and nearly as big as a 
man, which streamed across the Peruvian skies. It was on a day in 
July or August 1533. Then, at the suggestion of the infamous and 
fanatic black monk, Valverde, a monk of that very order, the sadistic 
Dominican, which, in the "Most Holy Inquisition", drenched the 
white worlds of old Europe, and Asia, and the Americas in blood 
and tears, on the pretence of securing the salvation of burning souls, 
the luckless emperor of the more rational sun-cultus was strangled 
for the good of his soul, after he had been baptised, so they said, that 
he might escape burning at the stake in the public plaza of old Guzco. 
A mass was held, and a solemn funeral followed, when the dirges and 
the chants rose to the diabolical skies. Here, and in the chapel, 
Gonzalo and Francisco Pizarro attended in black mourning habits. 
Whether this was out of pure hypocrisy, or dictated by remorse, or 
twinges of conscience, only those can say who may penetrate into the 
dark depths of the souls of these ruthless, stern, and fearless men who 
built a great empire on the tarnished blades of men who were 
simultaneously zealous Christian Catholics, hardy pioneers and 
brigands who would stick at nothing to gain gold. 

Theodore de Bry, writing in 1596, in Latin, shows the monk 
the black Dominican Vincent dc "Valle Verde" approaching 
the Inca, in the middle of the tumult of the Indians, with cross and 
breviary in hand, or, "as some say, the Bible". An engraving shows 
Pizarro, the breaker of faith with the Inca, ordering his strangling 
"by blackamoors" and closing his ears against the advice of some of 
the Castilian captains that the Inca be sent home to the "Kaiser" 
Carlos V., in old Spain, and that the Spaniard should not pollute his 
hands with the blood of an inoffensive man, and a king at that ! . , . 
"Also, for the dead emperor, Francisco Pizarro put on black mourn* 
ing clothes and ordered a ceremonial funeral." The gold and silver 



l6o MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

brought into Gaxamarca by the Indians were weighed. There were 
26,000 Ib. of pure silver; 3,600,500 castellanos' worth of gold, 
called pesos by the Spaniards, and reckoned each at a crown and a 
half (tricies vicies sex milleni et quingenti Castiliani). They gave Carlos 
V., in Spain, a fifth (400,000 pesos), which suggests that our Lord 
the King was unlucky in the division ! Each knight in the conquista- 
dorian army got 8,900 gold pesos, and 185 Ib. of silver; ninety 
captains got 30-40,000 gold pesos; while Hernando Pizarro, the 
conquistador's brother, received a fifth of the treasure. Yet, sagely 
comments de Bry : "It is worthy of note that the barbarous murder 
of that Prince, the Inca, did not remain unpunished ; for afterwards, 
they perished miserably who had conspired to cause the Inca's 
murder." It may be added, too, that, in the following century, the 
Spanish Council of the Indies, at Seville, allowed no man to ship 
from Seville, in any galleon bound to the "Indies", unless he 
attested in writing that he was not of the kin of Pizarro and Almagro. 
(I freely admit that Bartolomeo de las Casas, the noble Dominican 
monk and champion of the Indians, made what atonement he 
could.) 

Certainly, no Spanish kings, or holy Roman emperors, would, or 
did, approve of the assassination of home or foreign kings and em- 
perors, whose personages they would deem sacred, no matter whether, 
by divine right, they governed wrong or right. Anyhow, the brothers 
Pizarro followed the Inca's bier in deep mourning, and after bearing . 
the royal corpse into the yard of the convent of San Francisco, they 
allowed the Peruvians to take the body over the Andes to royal 
Quito, where, as it was his birthplace, the soon dying Inca had said he 
wished to be buried. Peru, as England of the dark ages, had reason 
to say to her dark soul : "Woe unto thee, O land, when thy king is a 
monk, and not a soldier !" 

When the news reached the queen she followed her husband 
into the land of the shades, committing suicide to escape a fate 
worse than death no cant phrase, this, in that age ! which, later, 
befell the young Inca princes and nobles, whom the devilish-hearted, 
cold sadist, el Virrey, Don Francisco Toledo, a man after the heart of 
the butcher Alva, exiled to the fever-haunted frontiers of the Darien 
peninsula, or broke their hearts by deporting them to the snowy 
wastes of the southern Andean Cordillera. 

The story, usually told of one of the lost caches that of the 
immense treasure that was whisked away from the clutching hands 
of Don Francisco Pizarro waiting for it in the camp near old Cuzco 
is that 1 1,000 llamas, freighted with gold from Cuzco, and elsewhere 
in the old empire of Peru, were on their way to Pizarro's camp when 
the Qjiichua Indians heard of the assassination of their Inca. The 
Indians drove the llamas off the road, and buried the 100 Ib. of 
gold with which each animal of the caravan was laden. Sir Clements 



THE ATLANTEAN * c S U B T E R R A N E A N S * ' l6l 

Markham, whose opinion as one with peculiarly intimate knowledge 
of Peru must carry weight, said that the 1,100,100 Ib. of gold lies 
hidden in the mountains behind Azangaro. The Cordillera de 
Azangaro is a wild sierra little known to the Americans, or the 
British ; but I may add, for the information of those interested, that 
the name Azangaro >, in the Quichua tongue the tongue of old Inca 
Peru means "place farthest away". It is believed that it was the 
farthest eastern point in the Andean cordilleras, which the old Inca 
empire dominated. Yet, despite the fact that the early conquista- 
dorians and Pizarro's other camp-fellows worked old Inca mines in 
the eastern montafta of this wild region, no inkling of the location of 
the wondrous cache ever reached their "hungry ears". 

There is a tradition current in the mystic east, and, perhaps, 
derived from Atlanteans who quitted their great motherland before 
the time of the terrible cataclysm (which, we may recall, the 
Egyptian priests of Sais and Heliopolis told Solon happened about 
9700 B.C. when a militarist section of the Atlantean peoples had over- 
run Western and South- Eastern Europe and North Africa), that the 
central cathedral temple of old Atlantis's capital, hill city, "Sardegon", 
had a dome-shaped ceiling from which flamed a magnificent central 
sun of blazing gold. The late inheritors of the remains of the civilisa- 
tion of the Atlantean imperial colony of Hy-Brazil, of South America, 
the Incas of Peru Peru, as one has stated, being derived from a 
word (not found in the Qpichua, or native Peruvian tongue) Vira, 
meaning the god of the sun had a glorious sun of purest gold which 
shone with truly dazzling refulgence from the walls of Cuzco's 
great temple of the Sun. It was there when the keels of Don Fran- 
cisco Pizarro's caravels and galleons touched the shallows of the 
Peruvian coast in A.D. 1530. The very eye-balls of the beholder were 
pained by its scintillations. 

But when Pizarro's conquistadores laid their bandits' hands on 
this ancient civilisation, as the Carian-Colloans had done before 
them in relation to what was left of the communities of the old, white, 
bearded Atlanteans of Hy-Brazil in the islands of Lake Titicaca, 
Peru, that glorious sun of gold vanished. For four centuries its 
whereabouts have remained a mystery, the close secret of one, or 
not more than two, of the Inca's posterity. Be sure, that there is 
living, today, in one of the valleys of the Peruvian cordilleras, some 
Peruvian, little suspected by his fellows, who knows where this sun 
went to ground ! 

In the neighbourhood of modern Guzco, I have heard some of 
the traditions about this mystic lost sun. How well its shining wonder 
attests the old melancholy and vanished grandeur of a great race ! 
The Qirichuan pednes say it was fashioned as a human face of solid 
gold, radiating shafts of light as it blazed from the walls. It per- 
sonified, to the people, the Sun, and, hieratically, to the priests, no 



l62 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

doubt, the "Great Central Sun of the Cosmos"; the unknown God 
whom Paul of Tarsus proclaimed to the men of Athens, as he stood 
on Mar's Hill, or the Areopagus; or He whom the Brahmins of old 
called Dyaus, the sky, the Deus of the Romans. 

This glorious face of refulgence was really, at Cuzco, a massive 
plate of purest gold, of enormous width, encrusted thickly with 
emeralds of superb size and quality, and other gems. At his rising, 
the rays of the Sun fell directly on to this face in the temple, where 
gold blazed back everywhere from walls and ceilings. The cornices 
were of gold and a broad frieze of gold, let into the stonework, sur- 
rounded the whole exterior of the temple. 

Don Marcio Serra de Leguisamo, last of the conquistadores of 
old Peru, spoke of the ' 'child" of this Sun, when he wrote the preamble 
of the will he made at Cuzco, on September 18, 1589: 

"I had a figure of the sun made of gold, that was placed by 
the Incas in the House of the Sun at Cuzco, which is now in the 
convento de San Domingo. I believe it is worth 2,000 pesos; and 
yet I die poor, with many children, and I beseech his Catholic 
and Royal Majesty, Don Felipe, our Lord, el Rey, to have pity on 
them, and may God have mercy on my soul." 

Leguisamo gambled this smaller sun away the night after the 
day on which he had taken it. "He plays away the sun before the . 
dawn," said Fray Acosta, the monk, of him. But this sun of Legui- 
samo was merely a plate of gold on which the image of the sun was 
carved, and which acted as a lid, or cover to a great, hollowed stone, 
in the outer wall of the temple, into which libations of chicha (fer- 
mented maize beer) were poured, by the people, in the festival of 
Rqymi, which reminds one of Ra, the sun-god of old Egypt. On either 
side of the image of the great sun sat the embalmed bodies of thirteen 
Incas, in their chairs of gold, standing on gold slabs. In these chairs 
they had sat in life. The outraged Indians made haste to hide these 
sacred mummies, with the rest of the treasure, and only twenty-six 
years later did the hungry and never-resting Polo de Ondegardo, 
conquistador, accidentally light on the mummies of three kings, and 
two queens the latter removed from the corresponding temple of 
the moon. All the corpses were, of course, stripped of their jewellery 
and broken in pieces by the sacrilegious hands of these insatiable 
treasure hunters. 

Along with the royal mummies, in 1533, therfe also went to 
ground the great, gold, life-size statue of the Inca Huayna Capac, 
and only one man knew the secret of that cache, and he, again, no 
Spaniard, or half-bred mestizo. 

"If the Christians have not found the Inca's treasure," said the 
prudent Peruvians to Pedro Cieza de Leon, in A.D. 1550, "it is be- 



THE ATLANTEAN '^SUBTERRANEANS*' 163 

cause they are so concealed that even we know not the place." 
r, por la Santissima Virgen had any one, at that time of day, admitted 
that he had so much a blind horse's wink of knowledge about one 
such cache, then el Virrey would have experienced such a good, 
Catholic, fervent desire to assoil his soul of the accursed memory of 
hidden gold that he would have called on a holy Dominican Father 
of the Holiest Inquisition to shrive him with fire, anoint him with 
burning oil, and crown him with faggots in the open plaza of Cuzco 
or Lima, unless the secret were instantly divulged to the Audiencia ! 
Nobody went about boasting of knowledge of that sort, in those 
picturesque days, or tried to lead hungry, official Castilians up old 
Inca fairy golden gardens, on false trails of ancient gold-bugs, unless 
he wished to save himself the trouble of committing suicide. If you 
wiere a Catholic conquistador not of hidalgo rank of the post- 
Pfzarro age, and did not need soul-saving of this sort, you yet found 
it best to keep your knowledge to yourself; for you were a long 
way from the justice and the alguazils of old Spain, did el Virrey or 
the adelantado, hearing how that you frequented bodegas and posadas 
in a way you were not accustomed to, of old, and oft sounded fellows 
about the locations of likely haciendas for sale, sent to senor el Corre- 
gidor and had you cast into the carcel to explain your unwonted 
prosperity, and forever cut away from yourself the root of all evil. 

In the archives at Cuzco, I have seen an old, yellowed parch- 
ment, insect-bitten, as is the way in these countries, written by one, 
Felipe de Pomares. He tells a romantic story about a Inca hoard of 
Arabian Nights' splendour and variety, sealed up somewhere in, or 
under the ancient fortress of Cuzco, on the Sachsahuaman Hill. 
Carlos Inca, a descendant of an Inca emperor, had married a 
Spanish lady, Dona Maria Esquivel, who did not think he was 
ambitious enough on getting on as he ought, and did not keep her in 
the style she deemed befitting her rank, or his descent from kings. 

"You may call yourself Inca a lord, or hidalgo but you are 
tmly a poor Indian," she one day twitted him. 

Carlos, who did not rule his poultry run in the way advised by 
old Spanish hidalgos^ or, yesterday, by ex-Wilhelm II, Rex et Imperator 
of Prussia and the German Reich, that is, as cock of the walk, was 
content to keep oviedos (sheep) and alpacas, and not worry about 
gold of any origin. She somehow found out that he knew where great 
treasures were hidden. The poor Carlos was plagued, night and day, 
until, to gain a night's peace, he consented to blindfold his wife, and, 
late at night, lead her out into the patio of the old hacienda. Under 
the cold light of the stars, when all around were asleep, and no unseen 
eye was on the watch, he took her by the shoulders, and, although 
she was exposing him to serious risk of prison, or torture in Cuzco, 
twirled her round three times. Then, deeming she had become dis- 
orientated, he led her down some steps into a concealed vault in, 



164 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

or under the fortress. He removed the bandages, and Dona Maria's 
tongue for once was silenced. She stood on the dusty, stone floor of 
an ancient vault cluttered with gold and silver ingots, exquisite 
jewellery, and temple ornaments. Round the walls, ranged in fine 
gold, were life-size statues of long dead and gone Inca kings. Alone, 
the golden image of the Sun, on which the old Incas set the greatest 
store, was missing ; but the lovely goldsmiths* work was of the same 
artistic creation as the gold and jewelled plants and flowers which 
the Peruvian workers made for those wondrous gardens on the isle 
of Puna, in the northern part of the old Empire (modern gulf of 
Guayaquil), where the Incas retired to hear the melancholy music of 
the Pacific combers on the beaches below. 

Don Carlos was the custodian of the secret, and from him it 
passed to a successor. As Mr. Squier, one time U.S. Commissioner 
in Peru, said in 1870 : "All I can say is if that secret chamber she had 
entered has not been found and despoiled, it has not been for 
want of digging. . . . Three hundred years have not sufficed to erad- 
icate the notion that enormous treasures are concealed within the 
fortress of Cuzco. Nor have three hundred years of excavation, 
more or less constant, entirely discouraged the searchers for 
tapadas, or buried treasure mounds." 

Even today, in 1945, the secret of that vault under the Sach- 
sahuaman hill may still remain locked up in the breast of some 
descendant of the Inca. The last man of whom I heard in search of- 
these treasures, was one, Tito Cusi Ticcapato, said to have Inca 
blood in his veins. It was in 1928, and he planned to accompany an 
American expedition to quarter another ancient hill near Cuzco, 
where he said the lost caches lie. He was also an inventor and sought 
for Inca gold to promote and exploit his creations. What struck his 
imagination, as he said, was "the fact, senores, that the old Incas wall- 
papered their houses with thin sheets of beaten gold". 

None of the old secrets of the land of the Incas have really 
perished. There are native societies of the underworld who, age by 
age, keep them inviolate. Their members are sometimes wandering 
Catholic priests who, on one day of the year, revert to the celebration 
of their real religion : the rites of the sun, that Central mystic Sun of 
the pre-cataclysmic ancient world, symbolising the unknown 
Divinity and not an anthropomorphic demi-ourgos. 

Peru is a very ancient country. All who sojourn there are, or soon 
become deeply impressed by the mystic atmosphere hanging over 
this strange land. There may, and probably does, still remain in 
some Quichua breast, the sub-conscious perception of the cyclic 
notions of the ancient world : that what has been will be again, when 
the wheel comes full circle and the life-forces rise in an ascending 
arc. Ancient glories will be restored, and men play again the 
part that was played by others whom they never knew, not even in 



THE ATLANTEAN ''SUBTERRANEANS 9 ' 165 

the most shadowy ghost of a dead tradition. Qyien sabe? says the 
gentle and brooding-eyed Peruvian who knows that he is still 
ruled by the descendants of the old Spaniards, for all the political 
revolution that was accomplished by Simon Bolivar more than a 
century ago. Be sure, then, that in some Andean village in a lone 
vale, lives some man who still guards this secret of untold millions. 

It was in 1925 that the Tito Gusi Ticcapato, the Inca descendant, 
we mentioned above, told someone in old Cuzco that he had had a 
vision of the night in which he saw the life-sized statues of gold- 
armoured Inca emperors of the sun, who had been buried, perhaps 
in the wild and lonely hill of Guanacauri, in sight of their sun- temple 
city, old Guzco. 

Don ]os6 Eusebio de Llano Zapata, writing in Lima, in 1 760, 
in the time of Senor Don Carlos III (King of Spain), tells of a 
number of these finds some of them happening in his own day. 

Says he : 

"In our America, men who use sorcery and divining rods to 
find hidden treasures, have been brought before the tribunal 
of the Holy Inquisition, and I have seen various autos da fe 
celebrated in Lima, where they punished severely those who 
persuaded others to engage in this harmful art." 

Zapata gives a list of gorgeous finds of hidden gold, both in his 
own day, and in the preceding (seventeenth) century : 

"In the days just after the conquistadores, gold and plate 
worth more than 800,000 pesos were found where the last 
cacique of Pasmanga Chimo-Ccapac, who was also lord of 
Paita and Tumbes, whose capital is Trujillo had buried it. 
In another entierro (cache) a quarter of a league from Trujillo, 
which is called Tasca, and is on the high road (camino) of 
Guanchacho, Escobar Gorchuelo and another companero found 
over 600,000 pesos, and Gomara tells of a certain Spaniard who 
found in a huaca plate which he sold for 50,000 castellanos de oro. 
Moreover, late at the end of the past (seventeenth) century, in 
the vale of Late, in the jurisdiction of Lima, Francisco de Loren- 
zana found a great earthen jar (gran tinaja de oro) of gold (about 2 
gallon capacity) and he bought the site of the cache, and gave 
his name to the hacienda and the manor-house he erected there* 
In our days, it is common talk in Lima that Alferez Jos6 de 
Surzo found in a pueblo of the Magdalena, half a league from 
Guzco, a treasure of great worth. The news has the living 
appearance of truth. Surzo, born in Lima of poor parents, was, 
in his early years, a soldier of infantry. Afterwards, he settled 
himself in the same pueblo, where he became a rich merchant, 



l66 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

and when, in 1 754, he died, he left over 200,000 pesos, which he 
got in less than ten years ; so that the presumption of the source 
of his riches is not improbable." 

I, myself, possess an old Spanish map made by a Jesuit missioner, 
in the year 1800. It is un piano del Obispado del Cuzco (map of the 
bishopric of Cuzco), and shows the route from la Parte de la Laguna de 
Titicaca through this mysterious river-canon of the Huatanay a 
wild, unearthly region of mountainy grandeur, where the gloomy 
rock-walls hem in a stream which roars and booms over the boulders, 
cluttering the bed, and hears no sound "save its own dashings", from 
age to age. 

The trails through this unexplored region, where the Incas 
maintained, for more then eighty years, resistance to the Spanish 
penetration, after the murder of their last emperor, are, even today, 
full of dangers. As one goes through the winding gorges, far up the 
precipices, eyes unseen are on the watch, in eyries one cannot discern. 
Though all one's laden burros may carry be a load of ancient bones, 
or archaic pottery and artifacts of an ancient culture, that will not 
stay the hands unseen from sending great boulders dashing from the 
heights on to the narrow track on the side of vertiginous precipices. 
The word of the coming of strangers into these wild and gloomy 
regions passes with the quickness, almost, of radio. And down on the 
lower hot slopes westward of the great Cordilleras are always los 
bandidos (the bandits) ! 

Indeed, this route into the unknown recesses of the Azangaro is 
as perilous as that to another mysterious old Inca ruin which, today, 
shrouded in bush, lies high up in the hills along the upper reaches of 
the Rio Ene, about 150 miles into the Cerro de Pasco, reached by 
rail from Lima. A haggard and half-crazed white adventurer, dying 
in a dirty hovel back of the wharfside of Gallao, some years ago, told 
an Englishman about this mysterious Inca ruin. 

"Its walls are plated with pure gold. I came very near it, one 
day, on the side of the mountains. The Serrano Indians alone have 
penetrated the montana where it lies. They shoot dead, at sight, all 
intruders. . . . They shoot straight, too, scfior" 

Wonder is heaped on wonder, alp on alp rises, till, in the mystic 
atmopshere of the snowy Cordilleras, one comes on a queer and 
shadowy clue to the existence of an immense treasure greater than 
any that has gone before. The story, which has about it that strange 
quality of unearthliness which reminds one, once again, that this is 
a very ancient land, goes back to the melancholy days of passing 
grandeur of an old civilisation, in the year A.D. 1533, when the last 
queen of the Incas, despairing of her unhappy country and murdered 
imperial consort, committed suicide. The last hopes of an ancient 
people had faded into the setting sun behind the peaks of the blue 



THE ATLANTEAN '^SUBTERRANEANS* 3 167 

and misty Andean cordilleras a people of whom the remorseful el 
Conquistador, Don Mancio Serra de Leguisamo wrote, on September 
1 8, 1589, in old Cuzco: 

"The Inca Peruvians were so free from crimes and excesses, 
the men as well as the women, that the Indian who had 100,000 
pesos of gold and silver in his house, left it open, merely placing 
a small stick across the door as a sign that the master was out, 
and no one could enter or take anything that was inside. . . . 
When they found we put locks and keys on our doors, they 
supposed it was for fear of them that they might not kill us, 
not because they believed that anyone would steal the property 
of another. So, when they found we had thieves among us and 
men who sought to make their daughters commit sin, they 
despised us. But now they have come to such a pass, in offence of 
God, owing to the bad example we have set them in all things, 
that the natives, from doing no evil, have changed into people 
who now do no good or very little. . . . But I do what I can to 
discharge my conscience ..." 

Somewhere about the year 1844 an old Catholic priest was 
called to shrive a dying Quichua Indian (direct descendant of the 
Inca Peruvians). It is the strange sequel to the closing of the sub- 
terranean, of which I spoke, above. 

"Bend your ear down to my mouth, taita" said the dying Indian, 
whose face was lined like an old parchment, "for I have something 
to tell you which is not for other ears." 

The story was about a mystery of a labyrinth and a series of 
amazing tunnels going back far beyond the days of the Inca em- 
perors of the sun. It was told under the inviolable seal of the con- 
fessional and could not be divulged by the priest under pain of hell 
fire ; and it would probably have remained a secret had not the old 
priest, in a trail of the mountains, come into the company of a 
sinister Italian, who was on his travels to Lima. This Italian, with 
very dark, piercing eyes, and a hypnotic stare, talked to the old 
priest, who, unwittingly, let drop a hint about a long-sought hidden 
and very ancient treasure. The sinister gentleman, said to have 
come from Naples, somehow managed to hypnotise the old priest, 
who was a native Quichua, into telling him the story the priest had 
learnt, under confession, from the dying Peruvian peasant. The 
latter had said that this strange secret was known to many pure- 
blooded Quichua Indians, descendants of the old Incas, but not to 
the half-caste mestizos, who were deemed unreliable. 

" Taita" said the dying man, "I will reveal to thee what no white 
man, be he Spaniard, or American, or English, knows." 

The story he told was what I have related of the closing of the 



l68 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

amazing tunnel-labyrinths, by the high priest of the sun temple of 
old Cuzco, and the magicians, under the eye of the imperial consort 
of the last emperor, Atahualpha. The old priest added that, about 
1830, rumours of this tunnel had somehow reached the ears of the 
Peruvian authorities, for they had sent out emissaries to hunt for the 
concealed opening. These emissaries were disguised as scientists 
and archaeologists, but so well had the secret been hidden, that they 
went back to Lima and La Paz no wiser than they set out. 

Between the years 1848 and 1850, the well-known Russo- 
American mystic, Madame Helena Petrovna Blavatskaya, was 
travelling in Peru, which was as badly or, perhaps, worse in- 
fested with brigands than it is, in some regions, today. She was told 
something of this curious story by a Peruvian she met on a mountain 
trail, in the Andes ; and in Lima she rather curiously encountered 
the very Italian who had hypnotised the old priest into breaking the 
seal of the confessional. The Italian said he had since visited what he 
believed to be one of the entrances to what suggests to the imagina- 
tion a great cave of Aladdin and the wonderful and very mysterious 
labyrinth of ancient kings, seen by Herodotus /on Lake Moeris of the 
Western Nile, and already ancient, even in his far-off day. 

"However, I had neither the money nor the time to make a 
personal verification, and this I hope to do some time later," he 
added. 

Madame Blavatskaya herself journeyed southwards from Lima 
to Arica (which, at that date, was not part of extreme Northern 
Chili), near the Peruvian frontier. It was a year or so after the story 
had been corroborated in her hearing, in different parts of Peru, 
and by people entirely unconnected. 

"We reached Arica, near sunset, and at a certain point on the 
lonely coast we were struck by the appearance of an enormous rock, 
nearly perpendicular, which stood in mournful solitude on that 
shore, and apart from the cordillera of the Andes. As the last rays 
of the setting sun strike the face of the rock, one can make out, with 
an ordinary opera-glass, curious hieroglyphics inscribed on the 
volcanic surface. 

"When Cuzco was the capital of old Peru, it contained a Temple 
of the Sun, famed far and near for its magnificence. It was roofed 
with thick plates of gold and its walls were covered with the same 
precious metal. The eaves troughs, carrying off the rain-water, were 
also made of pure gold. In the west wall, the architects had con- 
trived an aperture, in such a way that, when the sunbeams reached 
it, it caught and focused them inside the temple's nave and sanctuary. 
Stretching inside the temple, like a golden chain, from one sparkling 
point to another, the rays encircled the walls, illuminating the 
grim idols, and disclosing certain mystic signs, at other times in- 
visible." 



THE ATLANTEAN '^SUBTERRANEANS*' 169 

Madame Blavatsakaya does not mention one curious fact about 
this mystic Sun Temple of old Cuzco a fact found only in a very 
rare MS. chronicle of the conquistadorian age. It enshrined a mystic 
white stone called by the Incas luracrunu which seems to have 
combined the functions of an oracle with that of a crystal in which 
visions and pictures were seen. In some ways, it recalls the mystic 
Urim and Thummim and the shining light on the breast-plate of 
the high priest of the old Jewish Temple, themselves probably 
derived by Moses from the ancient Egyptian breast-plate of the 
goddess of truth Thmti (identical with Greek goddess, Themis). 
The monks in the train of Pizarro felt impelled to make an end of this 
mystic stone, on which the rays of the rising sun also shone through 
the aperture. They alleged it had done great damage to native con- 
verts to Catholic Christianity, "cspantandolos con tas estrefias 
Crueldades, que algunos perdian la Vida" (frightening them with 
such extreme cruelties that some lost their lives). The Padres deter- 
mined on a given day to destroy the white stone . . . 

"They first read prayers with the Indians, then round about 
the house of the Sun (Casa del Sol), and the white stone (piedra 
bianco), they laid much firewood and set fire to it in different 
parts, exorcising the spot beforehand, and when the fire was 
bigger there was heard great cries and horrid howlings, that 
they were persuaded were those of the Devil (el Dcmonio) that 
had been exorcised by our holy Mother Church." 

Probably, in the old Cuzco Temple of the Sun, there may have 
been thaumaturgists among the priestly corps, who must have had 
much curious and secret knowledge about the origin, history and 
purpose of the amazing, labyrinthine tunnels of ancient Peru, and 
of other arcana of a very ancient race. The sun-emperors these 
priests served were men of a very different type of feature from the 
down-trodden Quichuas one may meet, today, on the Andean trails. 
There are pictures still to be seen in the old colonial church of Santa 
Ana, north of Cuzco, which portray the Incas as men of royal dignity, 
of a much lighter colour, as kingly as any Pharoah of old Egypt, and 
their priestly aristocrats were also men with a high forehead, slightly 
aquiline nose, thin mouth, firm chin, and refined and intellectual 
face of much majesty, or serenity. 

It was only, says Madame Blavatskaya, by interpreting the 
mystic signs, invisible except when the sun's rays struck them at a 
certain angle, at a certain hour of the day, in the old Sun Temple of 
Cuzco, that one might learn the secret of the tunnels and how and 
where they might be entered. 

One of the approaches to the great tunnels lay, and still lies, 
near old Cuzco, "but it is masked beyond discovery". This hidden 



170 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

approach leads directly into an immense "subterranean", which 
runs from Cuzco to Lima, as the crow flies, a distance of 380 miles \ 
Then, turning southwards, the great tunnel extends into what, until about 
1868, was modern Bolivia, around 900 miles ! At a certain point the 
tunnel cuts into and is intersected by a royal tomb, inside which, 
with all the ingenuity employed by the old priestly architects and 
engineers of ancient Egypt, when they wished to trap tomb-robbers 
of the Pharaohs, thousands of years ago, the ancient Inca (?) en- 
gineers had contrived two cunningly arranged doors, consisting of 
two enormous slabs of carved stone, pivoted to turn and close so 
tightly that one can see not the faintest sign of crack or join. In fact, 
their position can be discerned on the sculptured walls of the royal 
subterranean mausoleum only by reading secret signs whose key is 
in the possession of hereditary custodians. 

(It is whispered that the old caste of custodians of these wonder- 
ful tunnels and their secrets has not died out, even today, in 1945). 

One of these pivoted, turning slabs, so cleverly sculptured and 
invisibly hinged, conceals the southern mouth of the branch of the 
tunnel leading to Lima. The other masks the southern entrance to 
the great tunnel to the former Bolivian end. This former Bolivian 
corridor (today located in Chili) runs southwards, passing through 
Tarapaca and Cobijo, which are in modern Chili. It must then turn 
eastwards, passing through or under the Cordillera and, skirting the 
mysterious Atacama desert, of Northern Chili itself, this Atacama 
desert, the home of curious remains of subterranean type, and even 
in the late seventeenth century rendezvous of a gang of pirates who 
called themselves u Brethren of the Black Flag", used five languages 
to hide their movements, and who left a bundle of musty and faded 
documents in code, found in 1 934, in Santiago, about a cache they 
made here, in this weird desert. 

The southern end of the tunnel is, thus, lost somewhere in this 
mysterious salt desert of Atacama, a thirst-stricken waste of llanos 
and alkaline deserts, out of which flow only scanty runlets of brackish 
water, so that coastal ports in this region rely on sweet water brought 
from long distances. May be, when the mysterious tunnel was made, 
perhaps thousands of years ago, the climate was very different from 
today, and the landscape one of beauty and fertility. Quien sabe, 
seKores? Over this mysterious tunnel crosses a canetera, cart-track or 
high road, which runs across the northern edge of the great desert 
to the aptly named Rio de Mala Agua (de Loa), or Bad- Water 
river, passing Indio Muerto shacktown (Dead Indian Gulch), and 
ending up at old Potosi. Truly is this Desierto de Atacama one of 
strange secrets ! 

When Bolivia had a port at Cobijo, her government, about 
1850, heard rumours about this mysterious tunnel of gold and lost 
secrets, and, secretly, sent out agents to try to locate it. Alas for 



THE ATLANTEAN * * S U B T E R R A N E A N S * * 171 

success, the quest met with exactly that attending the seekers of other 
old Inca caches ! All in vain ! Probably, the Chilenos are too matter- 
of-fact and unimaginative to waste time on such a quest, in what is 
now their territory ; and, perhaps, they may know nothing about it, 
in which case this book will bring to their bureaucratic knowledge 
a very rare secret ! 

Arica, a port now also in Chili, but in Peru in the i86os, stands 
not far from a mysterious bluff, into which are cut the hieroglyphics 
seen by Madame Blavatskaya, about 1851, or 1853, anc * which 
denote for those who can interpret them ! the signs and the key 
to the secret entrance. Not far inland is a little river, the Payquina, or 
Payaquina, a name also given to a cerro in that region, which, re- 
marks Madame Blavatskaya, is so named from the little waves 
which used to drift chispas of gold from the old land of the Brazils. 
If that be so, the tunnel-makers may be men of that same lost white 
Atlantean race, the mantle of whose high culture and science un- 
doubtedly fell on old Peru, ere Hy-Brazil vanished into the land of 
shades, leaving behind only a faint memory in wild, South American 
Indian traditions. She says the Incas derived their gold from this 
little river ; but, of course, even so, it was merely one source of the 
supply. (Actually, it must be said that no Latin-American military 
or diplomatic map of the years 1840-1880, shows any rivulet, 
Payquina or Payaquina, running into the Pacific near Arica.) 

"We found a few specks of gold in a handful of sand from this 
little river, the Payaquina, which we brought back to Europe," says 
Madame Blavatskaya, writing of a time somewhere between 1851 
and 1853, when she is believed to have visited South America as well 
as Mexico. She is thought to have visited both lands twice, between 
1851 and 1855. At the date when she visited Peru, she says the "little 
river Payaquina was the boundary between Peru and Bolivia". 
But here the mystic's memory must have been at fault.* 

Madame Blavatskaya went a little way inland towards the cor- 
dillera of the Andes when she came in sight of three curiously 
formed separate peaks a landmark specially, as it seemed, con- 
trived by nature for some singular purpose of man. These peaks 
formed a very curious triangle. Behind, ranges the mighty cordillera 

* AUTHOR'S NOTE: Madame Blavatskaya's memory must have been at fault; for, as a 
succession of military and topographical maps of Peru, between 1840 and 1890, show, the 
boundary between Bolivia and Peru, in the years 1840-1860, when Bolivia had an outlet 
to the Pacific (whose loss she has never ceased to deplore, though never making it a casus 
belli t as European dictators and nationalists would do), was the Rio de Loa, Pay'quina 
being a hill a good way inland and distant from the actual border when Madame Blavatskaya 
was there. The key to the riddle of the lost entrance of the amazing tunnel lies in the deci- 
pherment of the strange hieroglyphs cut into the enormous rock, on the shore near Arica. 
The rock is called the "tomb of the Incas". But the actual entrance, revealed by the key, 
lies somewhere in one of the three peaks, in a triangle, close to the Rio de Loa, the old 
Peruvian-Bolivian boundary, in 1840-1860. Payquina of the gold is, today, actually not a 
rivulet, but a district inland, back of the quebradas and pampas, on this nearly waterless 
coast of former Peru, near the mouth of the Rio de Loa. the old boundary with Southern 
Bolivia. 



172 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

of the Andes, of which they are outposts. One mysterious Quichua, 
in a neighbouring village, whispered that the only practicable 
entrance into the tremendous subterranean leading northwards is 
somewhere cut like an adit into one of these queer peaks. Yet, lack- 
ing the secret of the landmarks which can be unriddled only by 
those who can decipher the meaning of a certain row of "hiero- 
glyphics", or inscriptions cut into the rocks and visible only when the 
sun's rays strike the cliffs at a certain angle, a regiment of Titans, 
equipped with tri-nitro-toluol, or amatol high explosive, or dynamite 
cartridges, might even, today, rend the rocks in vain and then not 
unmask the mystery. 

(There are, it may be mentioned here, spots along the canon of 
the Rio Colorado, where arrows cut deeply into the face of the sheer 
walls can be seen in certain lights and incidences of the solar rays. 
They are, by roamers who go hunting treasure westwards across the 
Gila Desert and unpeopled, thirst-stricken and heat-crazed Arizona, 
believed to be pointers towards ancient caches of unknown and 
extremely ancient races, and, it may be, are memorials of the un- 
known race whose buried temples, lofty stone pyramids, seven of 
them within a mile square, and massive granite rings and dwellings, 
circular walls round venerable trees, and blocks of hieroglyphics 
speak of ruins of some very ancient Egypt, or Phoenicia of the wild 
region, at the head of the Gulf of California, "a day's march from 
San Diego", in 1850, when they were discovered.) 

Yet, even were some one to discover the hidden entrance into the 
subterranean and explore the vast bore until he came as far as the 
wall bounding that inner sepulchre of some long-dead, Inca (?) 
King of the Sun, he would still lack the open sesame to the treasure 
tomb itself. How would be cause the great slab to turn on its pivot? 
If he could not find the hidden mechanism controlling the slab, and 
tried to blast his way into the great tomb, the old, unknown archi- 
tects have been before him and his like. Almost exactly in the manner 
of the makers of the tombs of Thebes and Memphis along the hills 
of the dead, by the banks of the Nile of ancient Egypt who, in their 
day, thousands of years ago, foresaw the ghoulish tomb-robber for 
whom no Pharaoh's Kha was sacred, and who tore the jewels from 
the brow of the royally dead and smashed the elaborately painted 
mummy-case, in order to filch the ceremonial vessels of carved and 
chased gold and remove the sheets of pure gold swathing the dead 
Pharaoh the Incas (or the unknown architects) anticipated the 
robber-intruder. They have arranged the superincumbent rocks so 
that, if force be applied, the mass will fall and bury sepulchres and 
contents in common ruin. 

A mysterious Peruvian told Madame Blavatskaya, nearly a 
century ago : "A thousand soldiers, were they in that tunnel, would 
be forevermore one with the dead, did they attempt to force their 



THE ATLANTEAN ''SUBTERRANEANS*' 173 

way into the treasure-tomb of the dead Inca. There is no other 
access to the Arica chamber, but through that hidden door in the 
mountains near the Rio Payquina, Arica. Along the entire length of 
the immense corridor, from Bolivia to Lima and royal Guzco, are 
smaller hiding-places filled with treasures of gold and gems and 
jewels, that arc the accumulations of many generations of Incas. 
The aggregate value of the treasures is beyond the power of man to 
estimate." 

A plan of this fantastic tunnel* existed some years ago, and, 
probably, still exists until the owner judges the time has come to 
put his plans to the proof. (Meantime, in this book, I have given a 
remarkable and graphic chart based on my own secret information 
of this mystery. Vide : the end paper.) 

" We had in our possession," said Madame Blavatskaya, nearly a 
hundred years ago, "an accurate plan of the tunnel, the sepulchre, 
the great treasure chamber and the hidden, pivoted rock-doors. It 
was given to us by the old Peruvian ; but if we had ever thought of 
profiting by the secret it would have required the co-operation of the 
Peruvian and Bolivian Governments on an extensive scale. To say 
nothing of physical obstacles, no one individual or small party could 
undertake such an exploration without encountering the army of 
brigands and smugglers with which the coast is infested, and which, 
in fact, includes nearly the entire population. The mere task of 
purifying the mephitic air of the tunnel not entered for centuries 
would also be a serious one. There the treasure lies, and tradition 
says it will lie till the last vestige of Spanish rule disappears from the 
whole of North and South America." 

Possibly, that time is nearer at hand today, when the last vestiges 
of Spanish caste rule in the western states of Central and South 
America the bureaucracies and cabinets of the genie decente are 
being threatened by the rising parties and socialising movements, 
representing the peones of old Mexico and the down-trodden, land- 
less disinherited Quichua Indians of old Peru. 

A word about this mysterious engineering of an antediluvian 
world is by no means out of place here. Again we have the shadow 
of old Atlantis and Hy-Brazil projected into our own era. 

Tunnels and labyrinths have played a mysterious part in ancient 
civilisations in regions of what may wrongly be called the older worlds 
of Asia and Europe and Africa. Who can say what the ancient priest- 
emperors of old Peru knew of, or had inherited, from these vanished 
civilisations which are not even a name, or more than a faint and 
ghostly shadow? An ancient tradition of Brahmanic Hindostan 

* My information is that Madame Blavatskaya's chart of the tunnel is now in the Theo- 
sophical archives at Adyar, Madras; but my own chart, in no way derived from that of the 
late mystic lady, is based on independent sources of Peruvian information, checked by my 
own original researches. Until I had nearly completed this book, I did not know that her 
chart was still in existence. AUTHOR. 



-1 74 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

speaks of a large island of "unparalleled beauty" which, in very 
ancient times, lay in the middle of a vast sea in Central Asia, north 
of what is now the Himalayas. A race ofnephilim, or men of a golden 
age, lived in the island, but there was no communication between 
them and the mainland, except through tunnels, radiating in all 
directions, and many hundreds of miles long. These tunnels were said to 
have hidden entrances in old ruined cities in India such as the 
ancient remains of Ellore, Elephanta, and the Ajunta caverns in the 
Chandore range. 

Among the Mongolian tribes of Inner Mongolia, even today, 
there are traditions about tunnels and subterranean worlds which 
sound as fantastic as anything in modern novels. One legend if it 
be that ! says that the tunnels lead to a subterranean world of Ante- 
diluvian descent somewhere in a recess of Afghanistan, or in the 
region of the Hindu Kush. It is a Shangri-la where science and the 
arts, never threatened by world wars, develop peacefully, among a 
race of vast knowledge. It is even given a name : Agharti. The legend 
adds that a labyrinth of tunnels and underground passages is extended 
in a series of links connecting Agharti with all other such subter- 
ranean worlds ! Tibetan lamas even assert that in America it is not 
stated whether North, South, or Central there live in vast caves of 
an underworld, reached by secret tunnels, peoples of an ancient 
world who thus escaped a tremendous cataclysm of thousands of 
years ago. Both in Asia and America, these fantastic and ancient 
races are alleged to be governed by benevolent rulers, or King- 
archons. The subterranean world, it is said, is lit by a strange green 
luminescence which favours the growth of crops and conduces to 
length of days and health. 

Ferdinand Ossendowski, in his Beasts, Men and Gods (Edward 
Arnold, London, 1923), also mentions this strange Kingdom of 
Agharti, which, he says, he has been told by learned China lamas and 
Mongolian princes, has many men and tribes of incredibly ancient 
races, long vanished from the kingdoms of day. He mentions an old 
Brahman of Nepaul who, on a mystic pilgrimage, met a fisherman, 
apparently in the interior or on the coast of Siam, or Thailand, or, 
may be, another part of Indo-China, who ordered the Brahman to 
take a place in a boat, and obey the will of the gods by sailing with 
him on the sea to an Arabian Nights' island where live people 
"having two tongues" which "can separately speak different langu- 
ages". He landed in the mysterious island, which Monsieur Ossen- 
dowski does not say might very well be located somewhere in the 
rock-pinnacle and coral-studded China Sea, a region shunned and 
unexplored today, off the main steam lanes, and not even charted 
by the Admiralty, who advise navigators to stick to the well-known 
sea lanes. But wherever it might be, these strange islanders showed 
the old lama a bird with teeth that caught sea fish and an unknown 



THE ATLANTEAN ''SUBTERRANEANS'* 175 

animal with sixteen feet and one eye. The islanders said : "We come 
out of the subterranean kingdom, where, in cars of type unknown 
to Western races, men rush through the subterranean world through 
cleavages in the earth." 

Clearly, this story is of the believe-it-or-not type; but it would be 
wisdom not to dismiss the story as pure fantasy. There is no smoke 
without fire, nor are all the Eastern wandering mystics necessarily 
romancers of the Baron von Munchausen type, nor men whose 
imaginations have been over-strongly impressed by the fantasy and 
most entertaining novels of the H. G. Wells of a more youthful day ! 
I say gently, again, reader, remember the Komodo dragon ; and I 
could also add, of my own curious knowledge, the strange parch- 
ment charts of the China Sea of the year 1669, kft by Captain 
William Kidd, the pirate-privateer, whose originals are now in a 
house in Sussex. 

For what purposes, however, were these amazingly long tunnels 
of old Peru intended? What mysterious cults did they serve? 

Quien sabe, senores? 

A startling clue, gained in a very peculiar and romantic manner, 
to one of the purposes of these mysterious tunnels, and which is 
directly concerned with the mysterious stone city in the Lancandones 
territory, of which I have written elsewhere, came in the course of 
a chance talk between a very old Peruvian a Quichua Indian 
and the same well-known mystic and American woman traveller, 
the late Madame Helena P. Blavatskaya, who, as one sees, was 
journeying through the mountains of Peru, in 1851 or 1853. The old 
Peruvian had passed all his life vainly trying to conceal his hatred 
towards the official Peruvians, and the Spanish conquerors. He called 
them brigands. 

"I keep friends with them, these bandidos" he said, "and their 
Catholic missioners, for the sake of my own people. But I am as 
much a worshipper of the sun as if I had lived in the days of our 
murdered emperor, the Inca Atahualpha. Now, as a converted 
native and missionary, I once took a journey to Santa Cruz del 
Quich< (in Western Guatemala), and, when there, I went to see some 
of my people by a subterranean passage leading into a mysterious city behind 
the cordilleras. Herein, it is death for any white man to trespass !" 

Said Madame Blavatskaya : 

"We believe his story, as it is corroborated, elsewhere, by 
Stephens in his Travels. Besides, a man who is about to die wiU 
rarely stop to invent idle stories." 

Similar strange tunnels of incredibly ancient date, and unknown 
origin, in the West Indies, were brought to the attention of Christo- 
pher Columbus, when he visited Martinique. No doubt, the white, 



176 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

Atlantean race built splendid cities in what are now West Indian 
islands, but which, at the far-off date, may have formed part of a 
now submerged, middle American continent, whose name is com- 
memorated in the word: "Antilles". A curious tradition of the old 
world of Asia, is that old Atlantis had a network of labyrinthine 
tunnels and passages running in all directions, in the day when the 
land-bridge between the drowned land and Africa, on one side, and 
old Brazil, on the other, still existed. In Atlantis, the tunnels were 
used for necromantic and black magic cults. Anyway, it is curious 
that the Caribs, in 1493, told Columbus that, in the old kingdom of 
the Amazon women warriors, anciently existing in Madanino, or 
Martinique, there were great subterraneans, and when the women 
were likely to be pestered, out of due season of love, orgasm and 
rutting, by periodical, cannibal lovers, the women went down to the 
great tunnels and hid themselves. If the lovers, not to be put off, still 
followed them, their ardent passions were cooled with showers of 
well-aimed arrows from Amazon bows, and many a cannibal beau 
was brought to an untimely grave, in this way, by the fierce Venuses 
of old Martinique. 

Fuentes, who lived about A.D. 1689, and wrote an unpublished 
MS. history of Guatemala, speaks of the amazingly large and 
ancient towns (inhabited by an unknown and long vanished race) 
found there by the conquistador es. 

He says: 

"The marvellous structure of the tunnels (subtenanea] of the 
pueblo of Puchuta, being of the most firm and solid cement, 
runs and continues through the interior of the land for the 
prolonged distance of nine leagues to the pueblo of Tecpan, 
Guatemala. It is a proof of the power of these ancient kings and 
their vassals." 

He gives no hint of the uses to which these amazing tunnels, 
more than thirty miles long, on the basis of the old Castilian league, 
were put by these ancient races of old America. 

-It may be, too, that the great tunnel of the Incas had a branch, 
underground way leading under the forests, eastwards of Guzco, 
in the very direction taken by Inca Tupac Amaru, his army 
and his host of camp- following refugees, in the late sixteenth 
century? May be, the fleeing Peruvians vanished into these 
mysterious tunnels and left only the whispering leaves of the 
trees of the dense green forests, as mute witnesses of their secret 
exits? 

The Inca fled to the mysterious "White House" of the elusive 
South American empire of Gran Paytite^ about which I shall write in 
another booL It is evident that the men of this mysterious land 



THE ATLANTEAN c c S U B T E R R A N E A N S * ' 177 

of Paytite must have had contacts with the Incas'long before the 
Spanish conquistadores overran the Peruvian empire. 

At intervals of about forty years the last being in 1942 ! there 
come rumours about the existence of men of a lost Mayan, or Azte- 
can race who fled before the faces and horses of Don Hernando 
Gortes's cavalry. From time to time, strange, elusive Indians appear 
in the market-places of lonely frontier pueblos in the provinces of 
Chiappas and Western Guatemala. They contact only with Indians, 
barter goods, and vanish as suddenly as they come, no Mexican or 
Guatemalan official being any the wiser. They are emissaries from a 
lost city of the ancient, civilised race that once governed old Mexico. 
No white man has ever penetrated the region of this wilderness, 
where, it is rumoured, these lost-world men live as did their fathers, 
erect or maintain the same majestic stone buildings, palaces and 
temples, large courts and lofty towers with high terraces of stone 
staircases, and are still carving in stone the mysterious hieroglyphics 
that no modern scholar can decipher in the ruins of old Yucatan. 

At intervals of half a century the story is revived. It was first 
told to the American traveller, J. Lloyd Stephens traveller men- 
tioned above by Madame Blavatskaya by a Spanish priest he met 
at Chajol, or Chajul, a pueblo in Western Guatemala, in 1838-9. 
The priest swore to Stephens that he had seen with his own eyes a 
mysterious lost city, and so earnest was the old priest's manner, 
that Stephens believed him. Said Stephens, in London and New 
York, in 1839 and 1840: 

"The padre of the little village near the ruins of Santa Cruz 
del Quiche, had heard of this unknown city when he was in the 
village of Chajul (Chajul lies in the mountains, in Western Guate- 
mala, close to the headwaters of the Rio Usamacinta). The priest 
was then a young man, and with much labour, climbed to the 
naked summit of the topmost ridge of the sierra of the Cordillera. 
When arrived at the height of ten or twelve thousand feet, he 
looked over an immense plain extending to Yucatan and the 
Gulf of Mexico. At a great distance, he saw a large city spread 
over a great space, and with turrets white and glistening in the 
sun. Tradition says that no white man has ever reached the city; 
that the inhabitants speak the Maya language, know that 
strangers conquered their whole land, and murder any white 
man who attempts to enter their territory. . . . They have no 
coin; no horses; no cattle; mules, or other domestic animals, 
except fowls ; and the cocks they keep underground to prevent 
their crowing being heard." 

One may, parenthetically, point out that it was down this 
mysterious river, Rio Usamacinta, marked on the most recent War 



178 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

Department maps of the U.S. Army, unknown as to a greater part 
of its tortuous course and cut up by gorges and hilly jungle, that 
Wodan, or Votan, the Phoenician, travelled to the splendid stone 
cities of Palenque, Uxmal, Copan, and the mysterious stone city 
visited by the old Peruvian sun priest, in the nineteenth century, 
A.D. Of course, in Votan's far and legendary day, these cities hummed 
with life and high civilisation, being far from dead or lost ! It is also 
known to the bush Indians that on a bluff over this Rio Usamacinta 
is the mound-tomb of Guatemotzin, last prince of Aztecs, whose 
body with regalia and much treasure was taken there and buried by 
sallow-faced Aztecan priests in Cortes's days. Any greaser or gringo 
seeking to cut into this royal huaca is sure of warm attentions from 
the bush Indians and the dangerous and dwarfish "white" Lancan- 
dones, who must be survivors of a once highly and ancient civilised 
race of old Central America. 

The learned Americanist and scholar, Abb6 Charles Etienne 
Brasseur-de-Bourbourg, when he was ecclesiastical administrator in 
the Mexican frontier state of Ghiappas, about 1858, heard the story 
again with the addition that men of this lost stone city suddenly 
appeared and vanished in frontier pueblos and townships, where 
they came to barter. An English filibuster and adventurer claims he 
heard a similar story in 1935. 

In March 1942, President Roosevelt invited to the White House 
two Californians named Lamb (husband and wife) who seem to 
have made contact in the bush of Chiappas with a degenerate tribe 
of Lancandones, or other Indians, who are hereditary guardians of a 
lost Mayan city wherein is a temple containing, on gold plates, the 
hieroglyphical history of the race and the world, and predicting, it is 
said, Great War No. 2. One gathers that the Lambs were not allowed 
to see this lost city, which lies behind a pass in high mountains. May 
be, there is more than one lost or dead city in this dense and unex- 
plored jungle territory. According to the Lambs, the degenerate 
Indians go to the lost or hidden city to worship in its Mayan temple, 
on certain days, and they told them of the "Great Things of the Old 
Ones", written on sheets of solid gold, and telling of a Great 
Deluge. 

The story above is derived from a West country evening news- 
paper extract cabled from a New York daily newspaper in summer 
1940; but I may add that an English engineer whom I have men- 
tioned in another part of this book as having spent many years of his 
life in both Mexico and the Argentine, and who died in Gloucester 
Royal Infirmary, in 1938, told me that, in the state of Jalisco, some- 
where in the little-known southern extension of the great range of the 
Sierra Madre, about 121 kilometres (about 75 miles) east of the 
Cabo de Corrientes, are prehistoric ruins known to the Indian 
pednes. The region is one that is never visited by Mexicans, unless in 



THE ATLANTEAN "SUBTERRANEANS" 179 

times of insurrection when a band of revolutionaries has sought to 
escape the Government troops by fleeing to the recesses of the savage 
mountains. Jalisco is, of course, a province well known as one of the 
centres of the Aztec race, just as is the valley of Anahuac in the 
territory round the capital. 

The Aztecos Indids in Jalisco state say that these ancient ruins 
were once the home of a people who were civilized and benevolent. 
Whether they were of the Mayan race or some even more ancient 
people with Atlantean connections derived from the Hy-Brazilian 
pioneer and civiliser Quetzalcoatl, only exploration by competent 
field workers can decide. The dead city lies on a mesa (plateau) and 
from it, at certain hours of the day, or at dawn, comes the sound of an 
eerie, vibrant drumming. The sound is heard from afar, even on the 
Pacific! The Indians declare that the drumming emanates from 
los Espiritds (ghosts), and comes from stone vaults of a great temple 
where there was once worshipped "the ruler of the Universe". One 
day, say the Indians, the wheel of life, or cycle of events, will come full 
circle, and the ancient people will return and re-introduce a golden 
age. (As one has seen, millennial prophecies of this kind are common 
all over the regions where the Atlantean Central and South American 
empire once held sway.) 

The dead city is said to be of stone and massively and enduringly 
built. Ruins of cyclopean walls surround it. On a hill above the 
mesa is another city of the dead, which seems to be a necropolis of 
the princes or archons of this ancient race. It is said that pyramidal 
structures stand on the tops of great mounds, made by man and not 
nature ; and, as in Yucatan and Guatemala, are shrouded in jungle 
and trees. Great blocks of paving lead towards the dead city in 
whose vaults treasures or records are concealed, watched by mystic 
guardians from whom the drumming emanates. Needless to say, no 
Aztecos will venture into this region. It is clearly of the sort described 
by Mr. Masefield, in Sard Harker: "a place whose gods do not wish 
it to be known". 

Ruins of dead cities not yet reached by archaeologists also 
exist, one has been told, in Mexico, on the borders of the state of 
Tehuantepec. In this state there is said, by Mexicans, to exist today 
a community of dancing matriarchs. As this is the very region wherein 
as I shall speak of in a book to follow this were those very Amazon 
women of whom a certain Gastilian don wrote to "Kaiser Carlos 
V.", the Holy Roman Emperor and King of old Spain, it, probably, 
in ancient days had Atlantean connections; since the Amazons 
of the old world of Africa and Europe more than once fought with 
Atlanteans, if not in the island-continent certainly in a submerged 
North-West African colony which Diodorus, citing vanished 
Carthaginian records, said had been submerged by a cataclysm 
long before his day. 



l8o MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

Here, again, this Oojah, or mysterious drumming* is heard, coming 
afar over the environing jungle and ranges. One such dead city 
stands on a mesa girdled by cliffs. The region is covered with shrouded 
pyramids to which lead ancient roadways of massive paved blocks. 
In vaults of this dead city, the Indians of Ghiappas say there are 
hidden, and guarded by the ghosts of Mayan priest-rulers, "books" 
written on gold leaves recording the history of ancient things and 
races of Ante-diluvian, or later Mayan times. Competent explora- 
tion is, of course, necessary, before these riddles can be solved. 

Farther south, in the unknown mountain wilderness of South- 
western Darien, today, there is told by the forest Indians a similar 
story of a stone city in the mountains wherein tremendous treasures 
are hidden and priests perform sacrifices. It may be identical with 
the city sought by the Castilian soldiers under Vasco Nunez de 
Balboa. 

Old legend says this stone city (called Dahyba) had a secret 
subterranean temple at the bottom of a cavern, where strange rites of 
the underworld were performed. No smoke without fire in these 
legends of mysterious America ! A native whisper in Darien says 
these rites are by no means extinct, nor the subterraneans, today ! 

In the mountains of modern Ecuador and in Colombia the 
traveller encounters the same whispered stories about islands in the 
middle of wooden mountain tarns, to which access is gained on a 
certain day of the year., through a secret tunnel known only to the 
Indians, often speaking a tongue which they will allow no others to 
learn. In these sanctuaries are, also, said to be wonderful treasures of 
gold and jewels, and sacred vessels, or gemmed insignia of some cult 
of the moon-goddess Chia, or of Inti, our Lord the Inca's Sun, and, 
on that one day of the year, the Indians, good Catholics to all 
appearance, on the others, worship their old goddess, or gods. 

Always, the hunters, whether or no gringos or greasers, have 
come up all standing against enigmatic towering cliffs with no signs 
of a fissure, or old rifts in the sides of some lone cordillera, where, 
say the informants, there existed in the days just before the hoofs 
of the horses of Don Hernando Cortes's Castilian caballeria, or Don 
Francisco Pizarro's conquistadores clattered over the passes of the 
sierras and the Cordilleras on to the ruin of old Mexico-Tenochtitlan 
and old Cuzco, entrances to amazing tunnels and labyrinths. 

* This mysterious drumming does not seern to be akin to that found among the Eskimos 
or the Lapplanders, who use it to induce hypnosis and an abnormal mental state wherein 
telepathic messages can be received, or clairvoyant visions of the future be seen by men in 
whom has been produced a dilation of the normal consciousness. It recalls, rather, that 
heard among the gentilars in that prehistoric dead city close to Trujillo, in Northern Pert, 
where great treasures, including the "Great Gold Fish richly jewelled'*, have been hidden. 
Von Humboldt, who heard of it when he visited those regions about 1820, theorised that 
the sound suggesting galloping horses or boiling waters might originate from differences 
of temperature or underground waters. The noises are heard after dark, on this Chimu or 
pre-Chimu hill, near Trujillo, and no adequate explanation has yet been advanced of this 
tnystery. 



THE ATLANTEAN *' S U B T E R R A N E A N S * * l8l 

Today, in the wilds of South America, when you encounter these 
mysteries of the mountains, and, with a good pair of binoculars, 
pick out what looks like signs of ancient carving or hieroglyphic 
inscriptions sunk in the weathered rock, your guide shrugs his 
shoulders and does not even attempt to repeat the parrot talk about 
the Incas knowing nothing of writing before the Spaniards came. 
You may ask him if any native has the key to those strange signs cut 
yonder in the wall of the cliff. What do they mean ; who carved them ; 
and when, and why? 

He looks up into the gloomy sky, with dark and patient face, and 
from his subdued eyes comes a smouldering fire overlaid and damped 
down by a long-standing grief, of a conquered ancient nation. 

"Quien sabe, senor? They are long ago dead who knew, and what 
they knew was more than those bandoleros odiosos of Pizarro ever 
dreamt. No one can read those signs today. None ever will." 

Nevertheless, one need not be too certain that no one, today, 
among these sad -faced Quichua Indians has any knowledge of these 
secrets of a very ancient race. The face and the mind of the soft- 
spoken men of the low-pitched voices whose mules and llamas and 
burros pick their way so quietly through the hushed, narrow streets 
of old Cuzco, with no street cars and hardly any modern traffic, is 
not an open book for any foreigner or modern descendant of Spanish 
Creole to read. People who have lived for any time in Central 
America or Peru, Yucatan, Guatemala, Chiappas, or Ecuador, sus- 
pect that these ancient tunnels and mysterious caves are still, today, 
in 1945, playing their secret part in the hidden life of the modern 
descendants of these ancient races. The secret rites and memories of 
the old man-god, Quetzalcoatl, of the Aztecs' murdered em- 
peror, Montezuma, and Inti, the sun-god of the assassinated Inca 
Atahualpha, die hard, as hard as Votan of the Quiches of old 
Yucatan. 

Indeed, this question is forced on the attention of the thoughtful 
guest of these countries ! Is there, today, as in the past, some mysteri- 
ous central organisation of a native, theocratic character, existing 
in the Peruvian montana, or behind the Central American Cordilleras, 
which still keeps in touch with the down-trodden Indians, giving 
them orders, keeping alive the flame of old culture and race, pre- 
serving sacerdotal cults and magical rites among men who, though 
nominally Cristianos and good Catholics, and good subjects of 
Mexico or Peru, are, yet, not quite what they seem? Even today, 
nagualism, or the worship of Montezma or Quetzalcoatl, is still 
practised, in subterranean vaults, and secret and very ancient caves 
and tunnels, by bothpednes and, in some cases, men of old Spanish 
descent who live in remote pueblos of old Mexico, Yucatan, or over 
the border in Honduras and Guatemala. Nor can the Roman 
Catholic Church stop, or even trail it ! 



l8a MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

People who have never lived in these lands and who derive their 
ideas of them from films or travel books by no means always 
written by devout worshippers of the George Washingtonian ideal 
of truth at any cost, whether self-advertising or not ! or even from 
the orthodox professors and unteachable academicians, too often 
blind leaders of the blind, may smile at these "fantasies". Yet, the 
fact remains that authorities such as Dr. J. J. von Tschudi, the 
Peruvian historian, and the famous American, William Hickling 
Prescott, believed in the existence of an organisation of this secret 
sort, about the middle of the nineteenth century. 

A bold or ignorant man would he be who asserted that no such 
secret, native organisation, of a native, theocratic character, exists, 
today, either in Western South America, or old-modern Mexico, or 
Guatemala ! If early Christians, in old Rome, had their catacombs 
and their pass-words, why may not this much more ancient world 
of South and Central America possess its mysterious tunnels and 
amazing labyrinths, which put in the shade any catacomb, or maze, 
existing in any time from old Thebes and the Minotaur of Minos 
to those of the lamas of the mystic land of old and modern Tibet? 



CHAPTER VIII 

TIAHUANACU AND THE GIANTS 
"There were giants in the earth, in those days." Genesis. 

TROPICAL South America, including, as it does, the most ancient 
land in the world never submerged by the ocean, and never ground 
under the tremendous glaciers of the Ice' Ages, may very well have 
beefc the cradle of the earth's civilisation, from which it spread out- 
wards to Europe and Africa, on the one side, and Asia on the other. 
We cannot yet say ; and yet, what has become known in the decades 
since 1920 is a mere, tantalising peep at amazingly ancient and un- 
known worlds sunk in the night of time, and still shrouded in opaque 
clouds of darkness and mystery. From time to time, the wind of a 
freakish time spirit blows the rack aside and lets an urchin shaft of 
starlight it is hardly a sunbeam ! glance through the rift ; then, 
before more than a momentary glimpse is given, the clouds coalesce 
and the crack closes up again. 

In Guayaquil museum, on the coast of Ecuador, I have seen 



TIAHUANACU AND THE GIANTS 183 

strange stone arm chairs, which look as if they had come across 
broad seas from those wild moors of old Cornwall, in the neighbour- 
hood of St. Just, or the pixie-haunted ruins of Chapel Carnbrea, 
where the ancient kings of Cornwall or the white-bearded arch- 
Druids sat in granite seats and drank from great golden goblets of 
mead, whilom sky-blasting notes were blown from bronze-golden 
trumpets, upraised under the ancient, mystic moon! Yet, these 
strange stone chairs come from the northern border of the state of 
Ecuador, where there is a large field encircled by similar chairs. 
What nation of ancient South America met in strange conclave and 
sat in these mighty stone seats as if they had been meeting on the 
Wiltshire plain at Stonchenge, or down in La Vendee, or in among 
the grey cromlechs of Brittany? 

No one knows; nor, up to date, has any South American pre- 
historian been able to form even a theory, about the origin or identity 
of this stone-chaired race. 

Again, in the same country of Ecuador, on the sea-shore, close to 
a place called Esmeraldas, queer relics have been found which are not 
only pre-Incaic, but seem even to have preceded the old European 
stone age ! The haciendadero, Senor Mufioz, points out that these sub- 
marine relics, which include fine statuettes and busts of almost 
Tanagra type, and both men and women, are of almost every race 
(white, yellow and black) in the world, including Japanese, and of 
some that no longer exist. This race, in its unknown day, perhaps 
100,000 (!) years ago, may have ranged right across old Brazil; 
for, in Marajo island, a prehistoric graveyard at the mouth of the 
Amazon- Maranon, one finds, in a series of amazing ceramics, exactly 
the same varied types of human beings, represented on funerary 
urns. (Esmeraldas has also Karian statuettes!) 

The artifacts of this unknown nation, whose city is below sea off 
Ecuador's shores, are singular. Besides fine obsidian mirrors, carved 
like lenses in a way to suggest that the race had a knowledge of 
optics, there are queer, oblong-shaped prisms, on whose facets are 
carved animals, hieroglyphs, or symbols. They may have served the 
same purpose as the chop or personal seals which every Chinese 
mandarin used formerly to affix to documents, which were not 
legal without such a seal. (I note that Colonel Braghine has also 
reached this conclusion in his fine book on Atlantis.) 

An imaginative man or woman might, therefore, have some 
warrant for theorising that the queer remnants of old races met in 
out-of-the-way or dangerous regions of this continent are survivors 
from some post-palaeolithic, or antediluvian age of the world's his- 
tory. They are oddments dragged out of the dusty lumber-room of 
evolution and dawn-history and not popular with world-historians 
whose encyclopaedic views will, when this latest evidence is weighed, 
corrected and accepted, need some adjustment, especially as regards 



184 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

notions of the age of human civilisation, which, possibly, did not 
start after the Ice Ages ! 

My friend Mr. Richard Oglesby Marsh, former U.S. chargi 
d'affaires^ who has travelled over the Andes to the Amazonian head- 
waters' country, finds that the ancient Hy-Brazilians of the Matto 
Grosso's dead cities, 20-40,000 years ago, used the same names for 
the Zodiacal constellations as we use today ! Lieut. W. Smyth met 
the Sencis of the Rio Ucayli, of Northern Peru, in 1836, and heard 
them "name the planets Mars and Jupiter and ten constellations". 
They are a tribe of primitive Indians, and the knowledge could not 
have originated with them. Col. Fawcett, D.S.O., said in 1921: 
"I have lived among South American tribes who have a name for 
every planet, barring Neptune, and although far from Inca in- 
fluence, know the sun by the name of Vira-Vira and sing hymns 
to its rising." Neptune, it will be observed, is the most recently dis- 
covered planet, the outermost known one of the solar system, found 
in 1846 as a result of the calculations of Leverrier of Paris and Galle 
of Berlin. (Vide: p. 146 supra.) 

Again, the pre-Vedic sun-god of Brahma was called Fzra-dj, and 
according to Manu, the law-giver, was the demi-ourgos, or Jahveh of 
old Hindostan. The queerly Sanscritian sound about words in some 
of the South American Indians' tongues, or dialects, may cause one 
to wonder whether ancient South America had colonists from some 
long since drowned land in the Pacific, who settled on her western 
coasts, and, in a far day, when the Andes had not been violently up- 
heaved, spread inland. According to Louis Jacolliot, in his Histoire 
des Vierges : Les Peuple et Us Continents Disparus, this drowned Pacific 
continent was known as Rutas, in the traditions of the goparams, or 
India's pagodas, the root Ru meaning war, as the people were re- 
doubtable militarists and imperialists. Their language, called 
Sansar, was said to be the parent of Sanscrit. 

The mystery, again, of the origin or identity of the unknown and 
very ancient and highly civilised race, once ruling over what is now 
the comparatively unknown and still largely unexplored region of 
montaHa y cerro, and highlands in modern Colombia, is no nearer 
solution, today, than in 1840. In one detail this race unknown 
suggests a comparison with the other unknown, North American 
people who ranged from the Aleutian land-bridge to the River 
Columbia of Oregon and Washington, across the Rockies, through 
Central America to old Peru. This latter race, though on a lower 
plane of civilisation and culture than the unknown in old Colombia, 
yet, like them, constructed systems of irrigation canals. They also 
left a trail of petroglyphs pver about 5,000 miles of country. 

In summer 1931, Monsignor F. Lunadi, of the Apostolic Nuncia- 
ture of Santa F6 de Bogota, organised an expedition into this un- 
known region, which lies in the little-explored jungles of San 



TIAHUANACU AND THE GIANTS 185 

Agustin. He found traces of a very ancient, South American empire 
extending about sixty miles along the banks of the Rio Magdalena, 
a gold-river so well known to the old British buccaneers of the seven- 
teenth century. This unknown race not only built irrigation canals ; 
but erected colossal statues, cut from solid rock, and transported 
them by unknown means over great distances. Many of the colossal 
statues had been created in the faces and figures of the great men 
over whose tombs they stood. In this wild region, a village named 
San Agustin has houses filled with curious antique statues which are 
also set up in the plaza, four of these great statues of a race unknown 
combining to uphold the marble form of El Liberador, Simon 
Bolivar.* 

There is a suggestion of Easter Island, and of Maiden, Pitcairn, 
the Marquesas, and Ponape about these ancient megalithic ruins in 
the recesses of the unknown Andes. In the Rio Negro, tributary of 
the mighty Amazon, are rock-pictures, two of which strike the 
imagination. They are of tall men (Vide sketch, page 139 supra) of 
archaic type, wearing long robes, one figure with arms extended, the 
other grasping a long baton ; but what is most striking is the remark- 
able head-dress like an extended halo ! Sir Robert Schomburgkh, in 
1838, saw colossal haloed figures of just this sortf in the rock of 
Timeri (Dutch Guiana), and along the cataracts on the upper waters 
of the Rio Corentyn, borders of British and Dutch Guiana. It is 
curious that head-dresses of this strange type are found in some of the 
monuments of Tiahuanacu, the pathetic remnants of that city in the 
Andean clouds, in rarefied air, a long dead city which must have been 
raised to a great height by titanic forces of vulcanism, perhaps rein- 
forced by some appalling, cosmic catastrophe of the sort which, I 
have hinted, utterly destroyed the great civilisation of white Hy- 
Brazil, some 11-12,000 years ago. 

Colonel Fawcett advanced a theory which, breath-taking as it 
must be to many people, and even ridiculous to the orthodox 
archaeologist who still holds that civilisation is hardly older than 
5000 B.C., is seen by the unprejudiced and thoughtful observer who 
has calmly weighed the available evidence of tradition, folk-lore and 
geology to be near the incredible truth. It also suggests that when 
native races in South America speak in their tribal and national 
"legends" of old and civilised races existing in a day when mountains 

* The Guarari Indians have a tradition that these ancient races of Colombia "made fife 
and light by strange means". Had they a knowledge of electricity, or some form of radiology? 
(See Chap. 3, pp. 83-4 supra.) 

t Poor Sir Robert was beset by peculiar difficulties in his zeal to copy these strange 
inscriptions. On November 25, 1838, he was about to climb great granite boulders twelve 
miles south-east of Mount Mania, Guiana of which one boulder was 400 feet high and 
covered with hieroglyphs when an Indian, bitten by a snake as he fished in a brook, insisted 
that Sir Robert procure for him a small cup of milk drawn from what an American acquain- 
tance of mine called "mammy's titties". So, stifling an oath, Sir Robert was forced to send 
for an Indian woman, chafe the Indian's leg, and abandon the rubbing or copying of the 
strange inscriptions. AUTHOR. 



l86 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

were not, they are not talking what the modern American called 
"childish baloney". 
He said: 

"These megalithic ruins of Tiahuanacu were never built on 
the Andes at all. They are part of a great city submerged ages 
ago in the Pacific Ocean. When the crust of the earth upheaved 
and created the great Andean Cordilleras, these ruins were 
elevated from the bed of the ocean to where you now see them."* 

This, if accepted, at once shatters a theory of some South 
American Indianistas who advance a story that Tiahuanacu was 
an outport of the Atlantean-Brazilian empire of old Brazil, and was 
partly swept away in the catastrophe that overwhelmed Atlantis, 
Moreover, fantastic as Colonel Fawcett's theory may seem, it must 
be remembered that Lake Titicaca, close to Tiahuanacu, has a 
chalky deposit of ancient seaweeds, with lime, about two yards 
deep, which indicates that the ridge where it is found was once an 
ancient seashore. In fact, modern geologists say that the actual 
shore of Titicaca was once immersed in the ocean, and more than two 
miles lower or a great deal below modern sea level of the Pacific ! 
If Tiahuanacu sprang from the bed of the ocean the Pacific 
where a terrible catastrophe had sunk it, under tidal waves released 
by vulcanism and stimulated, perhaps, by some cosmic forces, then 
civilisation must be much older than many modern archaeologists 
and historians are ready to concede. Collateral evidence about the 
catastrophic alteration in the height of Tiahuanacu exists in the 
"Giants' Field", near Bogota, in modern Colombia. This strange 
field is on the same level as Tiahuanacu, and it is covered with fossilised 
or petrified bones of mastodons, overtaken by catastrophe, withering 
of pasture grounds, once, near the sea, and dead of cold and rare- 
faction of air. Extinct animals figure on ceramics dug up in the plain 
of modern Tiahuanacu, and geologists and biologists assert that 
these animals were extinct thousands of years ago. In fact, their 
fossil remains have been found in this same strata of Tiahuanacu. 

The great heaps of hewn stone, once found at Tiahuanacu, 
abandoned by their ancient builders suggest, as in Easter Island, 
sudden catastrophe. (Alas, the modern Governments of Bolivia have 
used these ruins merely as a quarry for ballasting the road-bed of the 
railroad !) 

Even the astronomers do not altogether resolve the riddle of the 

* One other theory, raising the still unsettled problem of the a$e of the Andes, is that 
Tiahuanacu may have been a port, or outpost of some long- vanished Pacific continent, 
standing at sea level at a time when the Andes had not been upheaved from the ocean bed. 
This would account for the sea-horses (hippocampi) and flying fish images found among the 
prehistoric ornaments of the structures. It may also suggest some vanished link in the shape 
of some land, sunk by cataclysm in the Pacific, where giraffes were of the fauna. (Vtde 
p. 189 infra.) 



TIAHUANACU AND THE GIANTS 187 

age of Tiahuanacu. They say that the great Kalasasaya a name 
which, again, has a queerly Sanscritian sound and suggests a con- 
nection with some drowned continent in the Pacific or sun temple, 
in the vast stadium of modern Tiahuanacu, was built some time 
between 21,600 B.C. and 2800 B.C. a range of 18,800 years. This 
calculation is arrived at by using data connected with the obliquity 
of the ecliptic, or wobbling of the earth's axis in the polar spin. 
German astronomers from Potsdam Observatory used signs found in 
this stadium and calculated that the Kalasasaya was left unfinished 
about 9550 B.C. But there is some agreement outside the ranks of 
"conventional" and academic archaeologists that ruins of an 
ancient port are found near the stadium of Tiahuanacu, suggesting 
that it was once near the sea-shore, and that cast-down builders' 
tools, found in the ruins in the sixteenth century of our own era, 
also suggest a hurried abandonment, in a far day. Obviously, how- 
ever, these evidences are by no means inconsistent with a catas- 
trophe that occurred ages before the great upthrust of the crust of 
the earth that raised the Pacific shore and heightened the Andes, 
say geologists, about 12-13,000 years ago. 

Suppose Fawcett is right? 

Then, perhaps, 100,000 years ago Tiahuanacu was a "recent" 
colonial outpost still in the building when cataclysm overtook 
it and drowned the great motherland of Mu, or Lemuria. It is 
significant that, in this connection, there stands in the plain of the 
bleak paramo on the Andes, at Tiahuanacu, a colossal statue, wear- 
ing a strangely inflated skull-cap, one hand clasping to his breast a 
sceptre of a condor-head, the other a tablet with hieroglyphics. The 
guide told me, when I was gazing at this colossus whose thick, 
tightly closed lips, square and powerful jaw are those of a man of a 
master-race, that he is called Ra-mac. 

Ra-Mac is singularly like the name of the sun-god, which the old 
Sanscritian traditions say, in the drowned Pacific continent of Mu- 
Lemuria, was called Ra-Mu. And Ra, of course, was the sun-god of 
old Egypt. 

The old Peruvians told Cieza de Leon, who visited Tiahuanacu 
in a day about A.D. 1540 when immense walls were still standing, 
and there were two colossal figures in stone, with long robes reaching 
to the ground and with ornamental caps on their heads : 

"... Some of the natives told me . . . that all these marvels 
sprang from the ground in a single night. . . . There are not such 
stones in any of the hills around." 

The natives may have been alluding not to necromancy, but to 
tremendous volcanic action resulting in the upthrust of the Hima- 
layas and the Andes, after the cataclysm that sank the great land 



l88 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

of Mu into a pit of fire and then poured the raging ocean into the 
inferno. 

The place has suffered terrible modern vandalism at the hands 
of modern railroad and permanent- way makers. But even before 
that modern day the old misionero, Diego de Alcobaso, tells us of what 
he saw in the sixteenth century of our era : 

"I saw a vast hall carved on its roof to represent thatch. There 
were the waters of a lake which washed the walls of a splendid 
court in this city of the dead, and, standing in its fine court, in the 
shallows of the water, on the platform of a superb colonnade 
were many fine statues of men and women. So real they were 
that they seemed to be alive. Some had goblets and upraised 
drinking-cups. Others sat, or reclined, as in life. Some walked 
in the stream flowing by the ancient walls. Women, carved in 
stone, dandled babies in their laps, or bore them on their backs. 
In a thousand natural postures, people stood or reclined." 

Of this host of life-like statues, not one is left today ! And yet they 
existed in the days of Atahualpha, the last murdered Inca emperor. 

"These are the words of Fray Diego de Alcobaso who hath 
been visitor and preaching friar among the Indians in many 
provinces of this kingdom." 

One of these statues wore a beard. And the Indians or Indianistas 
of South America are, and were, beardless and glabrous. 

When the early Inca emperors entered Tiahuanacu, in the 
second century A.D., they found it had long been a deserted city. 
Its streets were still beautifully paved and splendid temples still 
stood in its deserted plazas. There were also remains of fine aque- 
ducts, and fine statues graced the bed and sides of ancient water- 
ways. Among the ruins of megalithic buildings stood heaps of hewn 
stones, ready to place in situ, perhaps, when sudden calamity dis- 
persed the ancient builders. That this city of the dead probably 
the oldest in the world was originally built in the clouds, in rarefied 
air, where breathing is a torture, and in a waste of scrub, on a bleak 
paramo, where nothing grows that is edible, or can grow, is most 
improbable. There are also remains of what looks like an unfinished 
port off the field of the Kalasasaya, and ports are not usually built 
on the tops of high plateaux. 

When Pizarro's conquistadores entered Tiahuanacu they com- 
mitted terrible vandalism in its ruins. Thousands of fine statues were 
smashed with hammers wielded by soldiers hungry for gold, or set 
on by fanatics with fires of madness and intolerance burning in their 
monkish eyes. One man, standing by a great monolith in a square 



TIAHUANAGU AND THE GIANTS l8g 

of the dead city, noted that a mammoth silver bolt riveted the 
stone. He called up other bandidos and straightway there began an 
orgy of iconoclasm. The monoliths were broken up in order to 
extract the silver bolts, which weighed from half to three or more tons. 

Yet, I do not believe that this dead city of Tiahuanacu was ever 
an outport of the bearded men in black who ruled Hy-BraziPs 
Atlantean civilisation, some 20,000 or more years ago. The Inca- 
Quichuan tradition was that the man in black, Viracocha vira 
meaning the sun who brought to the primitive Peruvian tribes the 
elements of civilisation from the east of the Cordilleras, entered the 
city of the deady Tiahuanacu, when already it lay in grey, deserted ruins. 
Tiahuanacu may, then, have been a city of an even earlier civilisa- 
tion dominating the Pacific, perhaps that called Rutas, in the early 
Brahminical traditions of old Hindostan. The men depicted on its 
statues are really, I think, too archaic in type to be compared with 
the beautiful youths and maidens and the men of Grecian character- 
istics carved in stone in the dead Hy-Brazilian city entered by the 
bandeiristas in A.D. 1750. 

They were a reddish-skinned race, though among them, as re- 
markable statuary, dug up from the ruins shows, were also black 
men, with prognathic features. One splendid piece of terra cotta 
depicts in beautiful colours a high priest of the sun, with remarkably 
Egyptian eyes and having on his fine, large forehead a mitre and the 
sign of evolution, called by Bolivian archaeologists, el simbolo escalonado 
(the stairway sign). Only a race that had attained a very high degree 
of civilisation, perhaps more than 25,000 years ago, would have 
reached such a concept of descent from some mystic Central Sun, 
symbolising the Great and Unknown God-head of the cosmos. 
There was a college of surgeons who in bronze age Tiahuanacu 
trepanned with bronze knives! 

The great Sun Temple of ancient Tiahuanacu was built on the 
top of a gigantic truncated pyramid, one more pointer towards the 
probable or possible fact that the ancestors of the ancient Egyptians 
of the Pharaohs came from some lost land far out in the Western 
Pacific. The astronomers of Tiahuanacu had all the elements of the 
modern telescope : reflectors and lenses ! They do not seem to have 
known the Moon which certainly suggests that that planet was 
captured by the Earth, about the time the great catastrophe de- 
stroyed their civilisation, and possibly that of Easter Island and the 
lost land called Mu, or Lemuria. Another remarkable piece of 
statuary is the head of a. giraffe. 

That animal, as we know, is not found in South America. From 
over what lost land-bridge, then, came this piece of evidence to 
Tiahuanacu, off the western shore of archaean South America? 

All the signs on the ruins of Tiahuanacu point to a great earth- 
quake, accompanied by tremendous vulcanism. The sea, sweeping 



1 90 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

inshore in gigantic tidal waves, engulfed the great city. Then came 
a second appalling disaster, which buried the smoking ruins under a 
great heap of muck, alluvium, mud and sand. Everything was re- 
duced to chaos. Fragments of skeletons of men and animals lie any- 
how among the broken, massive stones of megalithic proportions. 
Bits of pottery depict prehistoric animals which must have been 
familiar to the old Tiahuanacuans. Pottery, jewels and implements 
of engineering and architecture are inextricably mixed in utmost 
confusion. The heaps of blocks of masoned stone bear every evidence 
of having been abandoned by men fleeing for their lives, and taken 
by surprise. 

Look inside the great ruins, today. Some of the pillars were 
obviously decorated in colours, like the interiors of old English 
naves of cathedrals of pre-Reformation days. There are remains of 
great drainage systems cloaca maxima, such as were found in old 
Rome. But what strikes the imagination so vividly are the coverings 
of extremely ancient volcanic ash and powder which overlay the 
ruins of this city of the great unknown and mighty dead. Decom- 
posed felspar itself a volcanic rock lies at the bases of massive 
walls that it seems giants must have heaved into place. How long 
did it take this felspar to rot? 

Ages and ages, say geologists. 

Standing in niches of the powdered walls were finely carved 
images of the men of this great city. One of them has been found. 
It is carved out of human bone, and depicts a man of strong face, 
wearing a queer turban. He has a perforated ear and carries a sceptre 
in one hand, and a bundle of inscribed slabs in the other. So far back 
is his time that he and the images found in the muck of ages are 
fossilised and petrified. . . . Very suddenly, like a thief in the night of 
time, came disaster on this colonial outpost of a Pacific continent 
at the doors of ancient South America. Only men engaged, probably, 
in mining in the proto Andes, then, on this theory, not part of arch- 
aean South America, and far lower in altitude, then, than now, 
escaped. And, even so, they could not have carried away any of the 
civilisation ; for the subsequent violent and sudden elevation of the 
Andes would have wiped even them out. 

Two mighty continents vanished, apparently almost in a day 
and a night and at the same time : most part of Mu, or Lemuria 
in the Pacific, that had survived an earlier catastrophe, and Atlantis 
in the northern tropical part of the Atlantic Ocean. Alike with these 
ancient lost continents, this riddle of a city of Tiahuanacu of in- 
credible age, perhaps even 30,000 years old has suffered cataclysms 
separated by great intervals of time, and probably in the far-off day 
before what are now the Andes arose, for the second time, from the bed 
of the Pacific Ocean. 

One may be forgiven, when contemplating the amazing com- 



TIAHUANACU AND THE GIANTS igi 

mand of these ancient engineers and masons over vast masses of 
rock in a way that can hardly be rivalled by modern engineers with 
all their wonderful technique and power appliances, for speculating 
whether they were a race of giants in stature?* 

If they were a race of "the giants in the earth, in those days", 
who built this strange city, it is clear that when they vanished from 
the earth whether by inundation and vulcanism, in some Pacific 
lost continental-island, or on the Andes themselves they left 
behind them degenerate men who, too, were master-builders in 
stone. This is no fantasy of mine. It is a story of very ancient Peruvian 
tradition; for, in the reign of the Inca Ayatarco Guso (Inca XII), 
giants entered Peru from the sea. Fernando Montesinos, native of 
Osuna, in old Spain, probably derived this story from the lost MSS. 
of the famous Bias Valera, whose mother was a Peruvian lady and 
father a conquistadorian soldier. 

These giants arrived in boats made of reeds, or a sort of rushes, 
and they landed from the Pacific off the Point Santa Elena, close to 
Puerto Viejo, in the old empire of Peru. The times were extremely 
remote, say the Indians, "and we had the tradition from our parents". 

Here was the peculiar story told by the Quichua-Peruvian 
Indians to Don Gieza de Leon, the old Spanish soldier-priest, in 
A,D. 1545. "These giants from the sea were so great in stature that 
from the knee down, they were as tall as a tall man. It was amazing to 
see how the hair hung from their great heads to their shoulders. 
Yet were they beardless. They ate more than fifty ordinary men. 
Their eyes were big as plates (como pequenos platos). Their arms and 
legs were proportionately huge. Some were clad in skins of animals; 
others quite naked. No women came with them. Going inland, they 
ravaged the country, and, finding no water, these builders in great 
stones set to and sank an immensely deep well in the living rock" 
. . . "and today (in A.D. 1545), the water of this ancient well is so 
clear and cold and wholesome that it is a pleasure to drink of it." 
This well the giants lined with masonry, from top to bottom "and 
so well are these wells made that they will last for ages". 

The giants overran all lowland Peru, beat down the puny 
resistance of the Indians, and took their women to wife. "But they 
ruined the women ; for they were too big for them, and the women 
were ruptured and died." 

Gieza de Leon also tells how in Cuzco, in A.D. 1560, in the days 
of the viceroyalty of Don Antonio de Mendoza, a tomb was found 
containing large human bones, and says that similar bones were 
already found in Mexico City. Let none suppose these were bones of 
dinosaurs, or other prehistoric mammoth mammals, any more 
than were the bones of giants "of huge greatness" which, says 

*The Montagnais Indians of Canada have a tradition that God was angry with the 
Giants and sent an inundation upon them* 



IQ2 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

another old Spanish missioner and historian, Padre Acosta, were 
found round Manta, Peru, in A.D. 1560, (This Manta is identical 
with the Manta of the Central Railroad of Ecuador, where bones of 
similar human giants were found, in a cave, in 1928, behind great 
stalagmites on the petrified floor. The remains found in this cave 
were of ancient men over eight feet in height ! And the stalagmites, 
testifying to the remote age of the bones, were of immense size. 
Scientists know how long such stalagmites take to grow.) 

Similar remains of giant men have also been found on the Pacific 
shores of modern Mexico. In his Eighth Decade of de Orbe Novo, 
Peter Martyr de Anghiera tells a queer story of that Diego de Ordaz 
who, subsequently, went out on an El Dorado quest into the in- 
terior of Eastern South America. Diego was he who, according to 
Las Casas, in his Historia de las Indias, climbed the high volcano of 
Popocatepetl, near Mexico City. 

Says Peter Martyr : 

"De Ordaz found in the sanctuary of a temple the thigh bone 
of a giant, which had been cut and half-gnawed away with age. 
This bone was brought to Vittoria to be sent to Rome to the 
Pope. Said Ordaz : C I have preserved this bone, which measures 
from the neck to the knee-cap (patella) five cubits (about 8 feet 
4 inches !) Its width is in proportion.' Men sent by Cortes to the 
mountains of the south, later discovered the country inhabited 
by these giants. In testimony of their discovery they have brought 
back several ribs torn from the dead bodies." 

This race of giants entered Mexico, in some far distant day. 
Near Tepic, Sefior de Valda, in 1938, found a series of very ancient 
grave-mounds wherein were seven skeletons of men and women 
lying under thin slabs of grey stone of slaty-blue colour. The skele- 
tons were all from eight to nine feet tall. No trace of metal was found 
in these ancient Mexican graves, but there were fragments of un- 
glazed pottery, and bowls with a pattern of painted Greek-line 
Meander design, in blue and red lines. Senor de Valda took a foot 
and arm each of the skeletons and showed them to Dean Cummings 
of Arizona University. 

It has been found that giants ranged far south in South America 
into what is now Patagonia. Years ago, indeed, Charles Darwin, 
landing in a fjord at Ultima Speranza, entered a cave where he found 
dung-balls of chewed grass lying close to the gigantic bones of a 
monstrous prehistoric type of mylodons. Only giant men, it may be, 
could have tamed such huge animals at that far time of day and 
used them, as they did, as beasts of burden. 

It may, or may not be, that those were descendants of this 
incredibly ancient race of giant men who overwhelmed the warm 



TIAHUANACU AND THE GIANTS IQ3 

lowlands of old Peru, as the Ayar-Inca traditions tell, and forced the 
ancestors of the early Incas to retreat to walled mountain cities 
12,000 feet up in the cordilleras and paramos above old Guzco, 
where the city of retreat hung like a fly on a ceiling, and was reached 
by men toiling painfully up 536 hand-hewn masoned steps past 
tiers of white granite walls with a gradient of 50 degrees. The ruins 
of this ancient refuge city were found, in 1940, by the Axel Wenner- 
Gren expedition led by Dr. Paul Fejos. (The Peruvian authorities 
at Lima intend to make an automobile road to this strange dead 
city.) 

One may theorise, with probability, that lack of oxygen and the 
rarefied air at these great altitudes were the more potent guards 
against the irruption of these giants, used to the warmer lowlands. 

At one time of day, and not long ago, either, these and all such 
stories would have been dismissed as "mistakes" by or naivetd of 
men who knew not the difference between the bones of men, pre- 
historic saurians, or giant mammals. Today, one is not so positive 
that that is always the explanation ! 

If one may believe the queer stories that, from time to time, come 
from the North- West territory of Canada, giants still exist! There 
is the story told by trappers and Indians, as recently as A.D. 1938, 
that, in the unexplored recesses of British Columbia's rugged hinter- 
land, a race of hairy giants, called locally "The Sasquatch", are to 
be found, today. The Indians say these hairy giants are eight feet 
tall, and covered, except round the eyes, with short woolly hair of 
simian character. J. W. Burns, Indian agent in Chehalis Indian 
reservation, says these modern giants are very shy men, descendants 
of an ancient primitive tribe, and meet in secret conclave atop of the 
Morris Mountain. The Indians say they have met the giants, and 
an article on them appeared, quite recently, in the Victoria Daily 
Times, British Columbia. 

At Pachacamac, where, today, exist ruins that have received 
much attention from the archaeologists of U.S. and British museums 
and the Carnegie Institution, the giants, mentioned (as we have 
stated above) by Bias Valera and Fernando Montesinos, repeating 
ancient records of the Inca priestly caste, built a sumptuous temple 
with iron tools. This, as already stated, was in the time of the Ayar- 
Inca emperor (the twelfth), Ayatarco Cuso, about 500 B.C., the time 
when one British authority suggests that only savages inhabited 
South America ! (Here seems to have been a case where a stone age 
race were also workers in iron). 

This curious passage seems also to import that the giants remained 
in the land for a long time after their landing on the coast, though 
it is odd that the Incas are said never to have used iron tools ! Did 
the giants bring such tools with them? Later on, the giants became 
homo-sexual, according to the story and traditions of die Peruvians ; 



194 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

"for they had no women with them, and, one day, when they were 
publicly polluting the market-place with these practices, the fire 
from heaven rained down on them, and consumed them". 

But not all were burnt in this Sodom-Gomorrah holocaust 
either of some immense aerolite, which, before now, and as recently 
as 1932, has devastated hundreds of square miles of Brazilian jungle, 
or from vulcanism. Some of the giants ascended the Cordilleras, and, 
outside old Guzco, were met by the armies of Inca XII (Ayatarc6 
Cuso) and dispersed. 

That giants of this sort existed in ancient Peru is a fact depicted 
on some ancient pottery, dug up near Pachacamac, which shows 
them engaged in these perverted amours. And giants must, at one 
time, have ranged very widely over the equatorial belt of South 
America not to speak of the ten-footer Goyazes, or Brazilian Curiii- 
queanos, of the Amazons, in quite recent times, who were adorned 
with gold; or the ten-footer Marquitas, who fought under women 
chieftains. 

Whoever these giants of old Peru were, they were clearly makers 
of megalithic structures as were the men of mysterious Tiahuanacu. 
Were they an outlying colony whose remote ancestors had escaped 
the cataclysm that drowned a great land and great cities formerly 
located well out in the ocean off the western shores of ancient South 
America, and which, as to one ancient city, was later upthrust 
from the sea-bed to below the peaks of Andean Cordilleras as we see 
them today? 

Old Europe had also giants. 

Homer's Lestrygones were giants. Some have supposed that the 
land they inhabited was ancient Norway, where in caves have been 
found tremendous human arm, leg and head bones, long antecedent 
to any Aryan invasion. It will be remembered that these giants of 
old Europe, allied to the Cyclops, fed on human flesh, and that when 
Odysseus, or Ulysses came on their coasts, they sank his ships and 
ate his companions. Homer does not name their country, but says 
their capital city was called Lamus. One Lamus led a colony of 
these giants or so said ancient authors into Italy, where they 
built the town of Formiae. 

A discovery made in a field in the Jalpaigur district, near Simla, 
in June 1938, suggests that old Hindostan had, too, her giants. 
Many footprints, apparently human and of unknown date, were 
there found in a field. The footprints are said to have been two feet 
in length and eleven inches wide, and it was reckoned that those who 
made them must have been at least eighteen feet tall. 

I have, for a very good reason, alluded to the world-wide 
provenance of these giants who, said the Babylonian priests, corro- 
borated by Eupolemus, built ancient Babylon after escaping the 
Great Deluge. They were said to have erected a tower of Babel, 



TIAHUANACU AND THE GIANTS 195 

and were great astrologers who received from their fathers, "The 
Sons of God' 5 , all secret learning which they imparted to the ancient 
priests of Babylon, according to Eusebius (Vide: the Praeparatio et 
Demonstratio Evangelica), and desposited in the Babylonian temples 
records of the periodical cataclysms they themselves had witnessed. 

Some have been tempted to euhemerise these Giants of the pre- 
and post-diluvian eras as leaders of a lower Atlantean caste in that 
old island-continent, who had revolted against the ruler-castes, as 
the Titans did against the Gods, or Lucifer against the Ruler of the 
Heavenly Fields. It is, however, evident that Giants in the ancient 
world cannot all be allegorised away in this fashion. They certainly 
existed, unless the reader be prepared to dismiss all these evidences 
from South America, old Europe or old Asia. Who they were, 
whence they came, and what relation they bore, if any, to the lost 
world-races of Atlantis or Rutas-Mu-Lemuria are still enigmas. 
The legends of the Fomorians in old Ireland, of Gog Magog in ancient 
Britain, and of Albion, the giant-god of old Britain, seem to enshrine 
ancestral memories of such people. 

Some light may have been thrown on the riddle by the discovery 
in Western Missouri forests, in 1875, of conical mounds, on high bluffs 
overlooking the Missouri river, which were the tumuli of skeletons 
with head bones of monstrous size. The lower jaw of one skeleton 
was double the size of that of a civilised man. The thigh bone looked 
like that of a horse ; but the receding human or anthropoid frontal 
bone indicated a low order of intellect. These skeletons were found 
in sitting posture with flint knives and scrapers. Are they, then, of 
palaeolithic age? 

Once more we grope dimly through the mists and darkness of 
very mysterious ages in the world's most mysterious continent, 
perhaps at a time before the ice ages had gripped our planet, and 
when glaciers, still existing above the level of 12,000 feet, reached as 
far south as the Sierra Nevada, including a large glacier about 250 
miles north of Los Angeles, California. The last great ice age is 
said to have ended some 15,000 years ago, leaving, as echo soundings 
made with dynamite recently indicated, a continental ice sheer, in 
the interior of Greenland, which is over a mile deep. (Thousands of 
years hence, much of the ice may return to the sea, and the polar 
zones become what they have been before: lush, warm lands 
with tropical vegetation reaching as far north as the Canadian 
border.) 

Scientists have arrived at the conclusion that the mystery of the 
cause of the (last) ice age is that volcanic activity, with heat and 
fire, touched off the ice age. This theory, one of others, seems true, 
perhaps, in a way not quite appreciated, in view of what one has 
written in this book. Man, it is said, arrived in the North American 
continent, about 15,000 years ago, at a time when an animal trap 



ig6 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

existed in what today are the McKittrick tar seeps in the San Joaquin 
Valley. An earlier prehistoric animal trap is found in the La Brea 
tar pits of Los Angeles, contemporary with a day some 25,000 years 
ago, when imperial mammoths, thirteen feet high at the shoulder, 
huge wolves, sabre-toothed tigers, camels, horses, sloths and bears 
roamed the North (and South) American lands. 

The reader may remember the camel found carved in a pottery 
statuette in the ruins of Tiahuanacu, and also the figure of a horse in 
a pre-Incaic inscription existing ages before the conquistadores in- 
troduced the Gastilian jennet into the "Spanish Indies' 5 . All that 
has gone before may suggest to some that a rectification of a chrono- 
logical and palaeontological character seems long overdue in re- 
lation to the remote date when civilised man appeared in America. 
May be, in the pre-cataclysmic ages, not 15,000, but 25,000 years is 
nearer the truth in relation to man's appearance in America. 

We may now return for a last glance into the dimmed mirror of 
pre-history in which is reflected a hazy picture of "the age of giants" 
whose work was the Cyclopean city of Tiahuanacu, the great and the 
mysterious. It is a riddle of die "dark backward and abysm" of 
Time upon which, probably, no last word may ever be said. 

In a preceding part of this chapter, concerning the problem of 
the age of Tiahuanacu, I referred to the astronomical calculations 
of the Potsdam Observatory staff who used certain data, in part 
furnished by the remains of the Kalasasaya, or Sun Temple at Tia- 
huanacu, to determine the date of this extremely ancient civilisation. 
I have left to the last some comments on the very interesting theories 
advanced by Mr. H. S. Bellamy, in his fascinating book: Built 
Before the Flood (Faber and Faber, London, 1943). He visualises a 
heaping up of the tides, swelling from northern and southern hemi- 
spheres, in a great girdle roughly corresponding with the zones 
between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. He appears to suggest 
this phenomenon occurred some quarter of a million years ago, under 
the pull of a disintegrating satellite that preceded the capture of the 
present moon. His interesting theories are inspired by the glacial 
cosmogony and "Welteislehre" studies of the late Hans Horbiger, 
"Maschineningenieur" of Atzgersdorf, near Vienna. According to 
Mr, Bellamy, the dead city of Tiahuanacu was surrounded by a 
rampart of the Andes, which barred off the rising waters of the 
Pacific, until, under increasing pull and pressure from the disinte- 
grating satellite, those waters spilled over and drowned the city. 
Twice the city was drowned, while, on the "inter-Andinian plateau", 
lived races who had sought refuge there from the catastrophes that 
had, in the north and south hemispheres, drowned populations. The 
final cataclysm happened, he says, about 13,500 years ago, when the 
ancient metropolis was to have formed a source of building materials, 
or to be repaired. Before the final disaster, there had been no satel- 



TIAHUANAGU AND THE GIANTS 197 

lite accompanying the earth, the first "moon having been disin- 
tegrated, and its debris thrown on to the earth." After the "lunar 
interregnum," our present moon had approached near the earth and 
been attracted into its gravitational field. The survivors lapsed into 
primitivism and the ruins were henceforth avoided, and put under 
taboo. 

We are asked to believe that this interregnum time between the 
death and disintegration of No. i satellite and the capture of our 
present moon lasted about 230,000 years and that in all this 
immense stretch of time survivors from the cataclysm that ruined 
"classic" Tiahuanacu were living in the lush, warm lowlands on 
the paradisial coast of Western South America ! When the present 
moon threatened them with another inundation, they sent pioneer- 
ing "scouts" to view the uplands where stood the ruins of Tiahuanacu, 
which was merely a dim memory or myth among them as well it 
might be after more than 200,000 years ! All one can comment is the 
famous remark of the celebrated dominie in Scott's novel : "Mon, 'tis 
prodeegious !" A race whose paradise on the Pacific littoral lasted 
230,000 years ! 

I say nothing about this theory existing in a vacuum that 
apparently has no relation to the cataclysmic loss of a continent or 
continental islands in the Pacific Ocean. 

In its second prime, under a bronze age race which had de- 
veloped a lost technique of tempering bronze that could cut and 
shape the very hard stone used andesite their world was very 
different. Frequent vulcanism shook the country, and the tre- 
mendous megali thic structures were deeply embedded in the ground 
in order to withstand tellurian shocks. At that time, he says, the 
climate of the Andean Altiplano, on which the ruins stand, must 
have been tropical. 

It is, however, I suggest, very difficult to understand how at a 
height of over 1 2,000 feet, conditions such as these prevailed, where, as 
Mr. Bellamy points out, the great structures of Tiahuanacu in 
Quichua, meaning "city of darkness or waning light" were built 
unroofed and open to the sky as assembly places for great multitudes. 
Nor, unless the region of the dead city, the Altiplano, once stood at a 
far lower level in a day before the rise of the Andes to their present 
elevation, can one comprehend how prehistoric animals, existing 
only in lush, warm regions and unable to withstand glacial tempera- 
tures, could have ranged these regions, or how fossil fishes of tropical 
type can be found in the strata round the dead city. 

Even if, as Mr. Bellamy, following HSrbiger's glacial theory, 
urges, the pull of the disintegrating satellite, that preceded in earth's 
skies the capture of our present moon, caused the belt of our atmo- 
sphere to be drawn off from the poles and northern regions into a 
relatively thicker blanket over this region of archaic South America 



198 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

as well as over other sectors environed by his girdle tides of global- 
cincturing range round "the waist" of our earth, then this denser 
belt of air could hardly have created lush tropical conditions at the 
height of 1 2,000 feet in the clouds at which Tiahuanacu even then, he 
presupposes, was situated. (One has a comparable state in the high- 
lands of Kenya Colony on the equator ; where, despite the fact that 
the region is on the equator, the cold at great heights is not lessened 
in the fact that, below, is an atmospheric belt of relatively greater 
density.) 

Mr. Bellamy, too, is opposed to the theory of scientists that there 
occurred about the end of the Tertiary Age a catastrophically sudden 
and unbalanced rise of South America out of the waters of the ocean, 
which elevated the continent more strongly in the north than the 
south. When this occurred, say scientists, the Andes must have been 
jerked up more than 12,500 feet on an average. This catastrophic 
movement by the way, not confined to this region of our world 
exposed a continental shelf which is now the arid lowlands of Peru 
and North Chile, and raised into regions of rarefied air this dead city 
of Tiahuanacu as well as the mountain ramparts girdling it, all of 
which, prior to their sudden elevation by tremendous forces of both 
tellurian and cosmic origin, had been submarine mountains with a 
paramo, or plain set in their crests, also under sea. 

When this happened, some 13,500 years ago, say, the dead city 
of Tiahuanacu had simply risen dead from its watery tomb under the 
old Pacific Ocean, and what are now the Andean Cordilleras with it. 
The problem is, clearly, one of chronology and resolves itself into 
one main question : just how old are the Eastern and Western cordil- 
Icras of the Andes? That question has not really been resolved. The 
remarkable unevenness of the forces would account for the curious 
fact that shore or strand lines, found on mountain slopes and walls 
on the Bolivian Altiplano, and denoting the beaches of ancient seas, 
or ancient sea levels, are not level either with the present level of 
Lake Titicaca or with that of the modern Pacific Ocean. 

One other point may be noted : the mitre of the high priest in 
terra cotta, found under the earth at Tiahuanacu of today it is 
depicted in pages 90, 132 supra of my own book. This archaic and 
very beautifully made and designed statuette bears, on its polychrome 
cap, 4 quadrants of symmetrical symbols which are in the form of el 
simbolo escalonado, with a black crosslet and orb in the centre of the 
design. They are the subject of a rather fantastic suggestion by 
Mr. Bellamy, who says that the pictograph on the cap of this mitre 
of a Tiahuanacu high priest denotes "a highly conventionalised map 
of the world, known to the inhabitants of the Andinian Life Asylum, 
which also features certain magical (or religious) elements". 

But is this not a far-fetched notion? Surely, the world, as known 
by these very ancient races, could not have been so symmetrical 



ATIAHUANCU AND THE GIANTS 1 99 

in the shape of all its continental outlines as to be capable of repre- 
sentation in this way? I advance the theory and I am not alone 
in it that the simbolo escalonado, found also on later Mayan glyphs, 
on artifacts all over South America, and, today, in native non- 
Christian wayside altars at Carangas, and in the form of a sacred 
volute at Chimbote, Peru, was the sign of evolution from the god- 
head ; denoted by the Central Mystical Sun of the universe : the 
unknown God, or Dyas, of whom, in old Hindostan, Brahma was the 
demi-ourgos. 

As for the black crosslet and yellow orb in the middle of the 
cap of the mitre, with the stairway signs on all four sides, which Mr. 
Bellamy calls a heaven-pillar magically warding off lunar dangers 
from the earth denoted, he says, by the hierographs of the four stair- 
way signs that crosslet is identical in origin with the Venus sign of 
reproduction the phallic symbol of coition, the cross, or Egyptian 
tau found on glyphs in Mayan Guatemala and Yucatan, and on 
tombs of the Etruscans in old Italy. 

If this interpretation of mine be correct, the yellow orb in the 
middle of the black crosslet, denotes not Mr. Bellamy's "evil" 
yellow, former tellurian, pre-Luna satellite of the earth, but the 
Mystic Central Sun of the universe, which the sun of our own plane- 
tary system symbolised. After all, these ancient men of Tiahuanacu 
were sun-worshippers, and so, far more likely to set his sign on the dome 
of a mitre, than a yellow disk of merely "evJl" significance. One 
might as well have expected a mediaeval abbot to set the horns, tail 
and trident of the Evil One not on a gargoyle but on the topmost 
turrets of a minster or abbey, rather than the Christian cross ! I 
hope Mr. Bellamy will forgive me for my constructive criticism of a 
part of his very interesting and illuminating book. Many of us are 
faced by the danger of pressing our theories too far. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

AD AIR, James. History of American Nations (1735-75). 

AELIAN, Claudus. Varia Historia (A.D. 140). 

ALCEDO, Antonio de. Diccionario geogrdfao-histdrico de las Indias occidentals 
6 America. (Madrid, 1786-89.) 

ALCEDO Y HERRERA, Dionisio. Captain-General of Quito. Died A.D. 
1777. 

ARCHEOLOGIA BRAZILEIRA ARCHIVOS (Rio de Janeiro). Various volumes 
from Museu Nacional, Rio. 

ARCHIVO GENERAL DE INDIAS (Sevilla). Papeles pertenencientes d los Generates 
y Almirantes de Armados 9 afios 1520-1624, y 1705-80. 

ARCHIVOS DE LA ACADEMIA DE HISTORIA (Madrid). 

ARISTOTLE (384-322 B.C.). Meteorologica, 

Pseudo- ARISTOTLE. Aristotelis Liber de Mirabilibus Auscultationibus expli- 
catus a Joanne Beckmann. (Edn. : Gottingae, 1786.) 

AUDIENCIAS (Cartas and Reports of, in Archivo Grl de Indias > relating to 
El Dorado and El Gran Paytite, sixteenth to early eighteenth 
century.) (Many of these reports are, for the first time, trans- 
lated into English in this and a subsequent book.) 

ST. AUGUSTINE. Latin citations in De Civitate Dei from lost Roman 
Greek and other authors, relating to the Great Cataclysm, called the 
Deluge, and also referred to in Plato's dialogues from Solon and old 
Egyptian temple records at Sais and Heliopolis. 

AVIENUS, Rufus Festus. Ora Maritima. (Early Phoenician and Cartha- 
ginian voyages into the Atlantic.) 

AZTEC CODICES. Chimalpopoca, Telleriano Remensis, Dresden, and Mexicanus 
Vatican. 



BACH, Dr. Articulos : Revista do Museo Paulista. 

BACH, Johann Nicolaus. Solonis Atheniensis carminum quae supersunt (Ed. 
A.D. 1825). 

BALDWIN, John Denison. Ancient America (1872). 

BARAZA, Fray Cypriano. Relacion Surnaria de la Vida . . . del U.P. CyfP. 
Baraza . . . muerto d manos de Barbaras en la Mission de los Moxos de la 
Provincia del Perti. (Lima, Imprenta Real de Josef de Cofriras, 1704.) 
Very rare, blackletter vol. S. Americana. 

BEDE, The Venerable. Historia Ecclesiastica. 

BENALCAZAR, Sebastian (de Moyano). Conquistadorian eye-witness of 
affairs in the Popayan, and Nueva Andalucia y Nueva Granada 
(modern Colombia. S.A.). (Died at Benalcaz. A man of action, he 
is not known to have left any MSS., or diaries.) 

BERREO, Antonio de. (See DE BERREO.) 

BLAS VALERA, Fray. Lost sixteenth-century Latin MS. histories of Peruvian 
antiquities, cited in Fernando Montesinos's Memorias Antigas 9 histori- 
iales y Politicas de Perti. (Only one MS, known to exist, and (No, 3) 
published anonymously by Sefior Ximinez de la Espada at Madrid.) 



2O2 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

BOAS, F. Report on N. W. Tribes of Dominion of Canada. (Brit, Asscn. 

meeting at Bath, September 1888.) 
BOEGK (German Hellenist). The Panathenaean Festival (ancient Athens) 

on Atlantean memories. 
BRASSEUR-DE-BOURBOURG, Abb6 Etienne-Charles. Popul Vuh (Quich6 

reprint, with French translation); Histoire des nations civilises du 

Mexiijue et de VAmerique centrale. (Owner, in 1874, of very rare and 

valuable MSS. on obscure Central American races, Spanish and 

native writers.) 
BRAZILIAN ARCHIVES (Museo Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, and Archives, 

SSo Paulo. 
BUEHLER, Georg. Grundriss der Indo-Arischen Philologie und der Altertums- 

kilnde. 

BUFFON, Comte Georges L. L. Histoire Naturelle. 

BURTON, Sir Richard Francis. Travels in the Brazilian Highlands (1869). 
BUSTAMENTE, Carlos Maria. Mexican Historian, 17 74- i 



CALMET, Dom Augustin. Dissertorum Hebrorum Ritu Phaenicio de Urbe West 
Capell (circa A.D. 1710). 

CARVAJAL, Fray Gaspar de. Descubrimiento del Rio de las Amazonas segtin 
la Relacion de Fr. G. de C. (Various sixteenth and early seventeenth 
century MSS.). 

CASTELNAU, Comte Michel de (Sieur de la Mauvissire, Touraine). 
Expedition dans les parties centrales de VAmerique du Sud (6 tomes, Paris, 
1850-1). 

CEDRENUS, Georgius. Compendium historarium ab urbe condito ad Isaac 
Comnenum (eleventh- century work). 

CENSORINUS. Liber de die Natali (circa A.D. 238). 

CHARLEVOIX, Pere Francois Xavier de. Histoire et description generate de 
la Nouvelle France ( 1 744) . 

CIEZA DE LEON, Pedro. La Crdnica del Perti (circa A.D. 1555). 

CLAVIGERO, Francisco Javier. Historia del Mexico (1781); Storia Anlica 
del Messico (Cesena, 1780). 

COCHRANE, Captain Charles Stuart, R.N. Journal of a Residence in 
Colombia (London, 1825). 

COLUMBUS, Christopher. Viages. ( Vide : NAVARRETE, and PETER MARTYR 
DE ANGHIERA.) 

CoNGRfes DES AMERICANISTES. Various reports and conferences in Euro- 
pean capitals. 

COSMAS INDICOPLEUSTES. Topographia Christiana (sixth century, A.D.). 

GRANTOR. Philosopher of Soli, of First Academy of Platonisls. Refer- 
ences from Egyptian temple records, re. Atlantis. 

CUNNINGHAM, Sir Alexander. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum. 

CURTIN, Jeremiah. Creation Myths of Primitive America. 



DA ROCHA PITTA, Sebastiao. Historia da America Portugueza (Lisboa, 1880), 
DARWIN, Charles. Voyage of the Beagle, 

DA SYLVEIRA. Capitao Symao Estacio. Relafdo Sumaria das Cosas do Mar~ 
anhdo (Madrid (?), 1624. Very rare vol.). 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 203 

DAVIS, Rev. Edward. Mythology of the British Druids (London, 1807). 

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DE AcuftA, Fray Cristobal. New Discovery of the Great River of the Amazons 

(Eng. trans, of the Madrid edn., 1641). 
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de Ocharte (A.D. 1571). 
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. . . relaci6n de los ritosy costumbres de los Culebras. (Concg. Votan and 

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DE ORTIGUERA, Toribio. Noticiasy relacion de Qjiitoy del rio de las Ama&nas 
DE RIBEIRA, Don Hernando. Conquistador and follower of Cabeza de 

Vaca, in Paraguay, A.D. 1541. Testimony about the Amazon 

women. 

DE RIVERO Y USTARIZ, Mariano. Antiguedades Peruanos. 
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(Lisboa, 1826 edn.). 
DE SAN VICENTE, or VINCENTE, Fray Marcelino. MS. Relacion de modo de 

decobrir el Dorado. 

DE VALLENCEY. Collectanea de Rebus Hibernicis. 
DE ZAMORA, Fray Alonso. Historia de la Provincia de S. Antonio del Nuevo 

Reino de Granada, del Orden de Predicadores, compuesta por el M.R.P.M. 

F. Alonso de %amora, su Provincial Qjialificador del Santo Offidoy Examina- 

dor Sinodal de su Arcobispado. Dedicada a la Milagrossa Imagam de 

JV". Seftora del Rosario que se venera en su Conuento de la Cwdad de Santa 

ff. (Barcelona: Em la Imprenta de Joseph Llopis, Ano de 1701.) 
DIODORUS SICULUS. Works. 



204 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

"ENCYCLOPEDIA UNIVERSEL ILLUSTRADA EUROPEO-AMERICANA" (Bar- 
celona). 

EUSEBIUS, Bishop of Caesarea (A.D. 267-340). Praeparatio et Demonstratio 
Evangelica (edition Vigerus, fo. 2 vols., Rothomagi, 1628). 

FAWCETT, Colonel P. H., D.S.O. References to lectures at Royal Geo- 
graphical Society, London, and to letters. 

FERGHIL, or VERGIL, or VIRGIL (Bischof Vergil von Salzburg). Irish 
monk who was threatened with excommunication for asserting 
the existence of the Antipodes, and of America ! 



GAFFAREL, Professor Paul. tudes sur les rapports de VAmerique et de VAncien 

continent avant Christophe Colomb (Paris, 1869). 
GANDAVO, Pero de Magalhaes de (Peter Magellan). Historia da provincia 

de Sacta Cruz. (Very rare volume on the colonial history of Lusitanian 

Brazil, edition 1576.) 

GERHARD, EDUARD. Ueber die Kunst der Phoenizer. 
GESENIUS, Guil. Scripturae Lingaeque Phoeniciae monumenta quotquot super- 

sunt (Lipsiae, 1837). 
GOTTFRIED, J. L. Newe Welt und Americaniche Historien (edition 1631); 

De Aanmerkenswaardigste Zjee-en-Landreizen, etc. (edition 1727). The 

South American section is based on De Bry's Historian Americae 

whose "iconae" Gottfried reproduces. 
GRAHAM, R. B. Cunninghame. Gonzalez Jiminez de Quesada* 
GREGORY, Professor J. W. Physical and Comparative Geography of South 

America (1896). (Gregory was drowned, in an overset canoe, in 

1932, while crossing the Pongo de Mainique rapids on the Rio 

Urubamba, Peru, when leading a geological expedition to settle 

the problem of the age when the Andes were upheaved from the 

bed of the Pacific.) 
GUMILLA, Fray Joseph. Histoire naturelle y civile, et geographique de VOrenoque. 

(Eidous's translation into French of the Spanish edition. Paris, 

1848.) 

HAKLUYT, Richard. Principal Navigations. 

HANNO. Periplus (fifth century B.C.). 

HARRIS, John. Moral History of the Spanish West Indies (London, 1705). 

HERODOTUS. Melpomena. 

HERRERA, Antonio (see DE HERRERA). 

HOMER. Odyssey. 

HORNIUS, George. De Originis Americanis (Hague edition, 1652). 

Hue, Abb6 Evariste-Rgis. De la Tartarie et du Tibet. 

HULL, Professor. Geological works on South America. 

HUMBOLDT, Baron Friedrich Alexander. Ansichten von Natur (3 Ausgabe) ; 
Vue de Cordillires et Monuments ; Monuments and Ancient Inhabitants of 
America:, Researches concerning the Ancient Inhabitants of America. 

IXTLILXOCHITL, Fernando de Alva Cortes. Historia de los Chichimecs. 
(edition 1658 (?)). 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 205 

JEFFERSON, Thos. (ex-President U.S.A.)* Notes on the State of Virginia 

(1784). 

"JENAER LITERARZEITUNG" (1874). 
JORDANES (JORNANDES). Getica (sixth century A.D.). 
JOSEPH, F. L. (of Trinidad). History of Trinidad (1840, very rare volume). 
JUVENAL. Roman satirist's references to frog-worship and augury. 



KAETZER, Doktor Friedrich. Grundzuge der Geologie des unteren Amazonas 

gebietes (Leipzig, 1903). 
KINGSBOROUGH, Viscount (Edward King). Antiquities of Mexico (1830- 

48). (He tries to prove a Hebrew migration to Mexico; but it is no 

more convincing than the rumour that there are Irishmen suffering, 

in Jerusalem, owing to Anglo-Saxon persecution.) 
KIRGHER, Athanasius. Oedipi Aegyptiaci Theatrum Hieroglyphicum. 



LERY, Jean de. Histoire d'un voyage au Bresil en 1556-58. 

LESGARBOT, Marc. (French traveller to North America). Histoire de la 

Nouvelle France ( 1 65 1 ) . 

LOCH, Captain Erskine, D.S.O. (Letters to author of this book). 
LORENZANO, Francisco. Documentos Mexicanos. 



MARGELLINUS, Ammianus. Historia Rerum Gestarum Libri XXXI (Paris, 
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MARCELLUS. Tois Aithiopikos (lost work cited by PROGLUS). 

MARCOY, Paul (pseudonym: Saint-Cricq-Laurent) . Voyage a trovers 
UAmerique du Sud (1869). 

MARKHAM, Sir Clements. Expedition into the Valley of the Amazons ; 
numerous works on Peru; and introductions to translations of 
Spanish-American chroniclers and historians, in the Hakluyt 
Society's series. 

MARTINI, Fray Martin, or Martinius. Historia Sinensis (very rare volume). 

MARTYR, Peter (PETER MARTYR DE ANGHIERA, or ANGLERIA). De Orbe 
Novo (edition 1526). 

MAWE, John. Viagem ao Interior do Brasil (Lisboa, 1812). 

MEANS, Philip Ainsworth. Introduction to Fernando Montesinos's 
Memorias Antigas Historiales del Peru. (Means considerably under- 
estimates the great antiquity of South American civilization.) 

MOCQUET, Jean. Voyages (editions 1645 and 1655). (A Rouen, chez 
Jacques Caillove, dans le Cour du Palais.) 

MOLINA, Avila. MS. Tratado y Relacidn de las fabulas y ritos de los Ingas 
(Madrid, Archivos). 

MUNTER, Frederick. Religion d. Karthager (1827). 

MUSEO NACIONAL (Rio de Janeiro), Archeologia Bra&leira Archivos. 

NAU, E. Histoire des Caciques d' Haiti (Port-au-Prince). 
NAVARRETE, Martin Fernandez. Viajes de los Espaftoles. 
NEPOS, Cornelius, Citations from his lost books. 



2O6 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUTH AMERICA 

Nufltez, H. B. Archaeological works on Venezuela (Caracas, 1925). 

NuStez DE LA VEGA, Fray Francisco, Constitutions diaecesanas del obispado 
Chiapas (Roma, 1702). (Very rare volume not in British Museum, 
but of sections of which I have obtained photostats from the 
Biblioth&que Nationale (old French Royal Library), a few months 
before the Germans entered Paris, in 1940.) 



OAKENFULL, J. C. Brazil, Past, Present and Future (1919). A carefully 

written account of modern Brazil. 
ORDONEZ Y AGUIAR, Ramon de. MS. in Museo Nacional, Mexico 

City; Historia del cieloy la tierra . . . y relation de los ritosy costumbres de 

los Culebras, 



PAUSANIAS. Periegesis. 

PAUW, Cornelius de. Rechercfas philosophiques sur les Americains (1768-70). 
PHILO JUDAEUS. Of the Indestructibility oft/ie World (Paris, 1640). 
PIEDRAHITA, Don Lucas Fernandez. Historia General de la Conquista del 

Nuevo Reyno de Granada. 
PLATO. Dialogues, and Scholiast ad Plat. Rep. (Politeian), referring to 

memories of Atlantis. 
PLINY (The Elder). Historia Naturalis. 
PLUTARCH. De Facie in orbe Lunae. 
POGOCK, Roger. Chorus to Adventurers. 
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Carthage. 

"POPUL VUH" (The Bible of the Quiches of old Yucatan). 
POSIDONIUS. Lost book (fragments of), on Atlantis. 
POSNANSKY, Professor Arturo. Thesaurus ideographiarium americanarum (in 

Spanish and German: Berlin, and La Paz, Bolivia, 1913). Also, 

La Guia general ilustrada . . . de Tihuanacu e Islas del Soly la Luna ( Titi- 

cacay Koaty. La Paz, Bolivia, 1925). 
PROCLUS. Commentary on the Timaeus. 
PROCOPIUS. History, with references to expelled Hivites, Canaanites, or 

Phoenicians, and their colonies in North Africa. 



RALEIGH, Sir Walter. Discouerie of the Empire of Guiana; also MSS. attri- 
buted to him, in the Sloane Collection. 

RAMUSIO, Giovanni Battista. Raccolta di Navigation* et Viaggi (1550-63). 

RANKING, John. Historical Researches concerning Perti, (London, 1827). 

RAWLINSON, Sir Henry Creswick. Cuneiform Inscriptions in Central and Wes- 
tern Asia. 

REMESAL, Antonio de. Historia de las provincias de Chiapa y Guatemala 
(Madrid, 1619). 

RIVAE AMERICANAE. Traditions Amiricaines sur le Deluge. 

RIVERO, Mariano Eduardo (and VON TSCHUDI, John James). AntigfUdades 
Peruanas. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 207 

ROBLEDO, Capitan Jorge. MS. Relation de lo que sucedio al Magnifico seftor 

capitan Jorge Robledo, en el descrubrimiento que hizo de las provincias de 

Antiochia. (The time for the publication of this valuable MS., which 

x is in the archives of the Academia Reale de Historia, Madrid, is 

considerably overdue, unless it is intended that it be left to maflana !) 

ROOSEVELT, ex-President Theodore. Trails through the Brazilian Wilder- 
ness. 



SAHAGUN, Fray Bernardino. Historia General de las Cosas de Nueva Espana> 

with Bustamente's Commentary on old Mexican antiquities. 
SALLUST, C. S. Crispus. Historiarum Fragmenta. 
SALVADOR, Fray. El Dorado cartas (letter-reports) to the Council of the 

Indies (Archivo Gral, Sevilla). 
SARMIENTO, P. Apology for Padre Feijoo's Theatre Critique (on the South 

American Amazon women). 
SCALLON (the late), General Sir Robert Irvine, K.C.B., K.C.I.E. Letters 

to the author of this book on Arabo-Sabaean Inscriptions and old 

Indian antiquities. 
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in South America. 
SCHOMBURGHK, Sir Robert Herman. Journals of Travels in Guiana and 

North Brazil 

SCHUCHERT, Professor. Geographical Review, Vol. Ill, 1917. 
SCHWENNHAGEN, Professor Ludovico. Antiga Historia do Brazil^ Imprensa 

official, Theresina, 1928. 
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King of Persia, to make discoveries in the East) . Periplus (Amster- 
dam, 1639). 

SENECA, L. Annaeus (4? B.C.-A.D. 65). Medea. 
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Suasoriae et Controversiae. 

SHORT, John T. North Americans of Antiquity (1880). 
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Akkadian Deluge, from the bricks of the cuneiform library^ at 

Nippur-Nineveh. 
SMYTH, Lieutenant W., and Mr. F. Lowe. Journey from Lima to Paraguay 

(1835). 

SOCITE DES ANTIQUITES DU NORD (Kobenhavn). Journals, 1839-40. 
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Plato, as a relation, had access for the Platonic dialogues Timaeus 

and Critias. The poem was written somewhere between 570 and 

560 B.C. 
SOUTHEY, Robert (A.D. 1774-1843). Commonplace Book; Travels in Brazil; 

and History of Brazil (1817-22). 

SPANISH DOCUMENTS re THE AMERICAS. (See ARCHIVO G&\L DE INDIAS.) 
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Travels in Central America, 1838-39. 

STRABO (Greek Geographer, 63 B.c.-post-A.D. 20). Geography. 
STRAHLENBERO, Philip Johan. Description of Northern and Eastern parts 

of Europe and Asia (Siberia and Great Tartary) (1738). 



2O8 MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT SOUIH AMERICA 

SYRIANUS (teacher and master of PROCLUS, the NeoPlatonist of fifth 
century A.D.). Taught that Atlantis had actually existed. 



TE PITO TE HENUA (or Easter Island). Paymaster Wm. J. Thomson, U.S. 

Navy (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1891) 
THEOPHRASTUS (Greek philosopher, who died aged 107, denouncing 

Nature and the gods for granting longevity to the crow and the 

stag! Born 395? B.C., died 288? B.C.). History of Plants. 
THEOPOMPUS of CHIOS. Greek historian, (flor. 354 B.C.). Lost books 

cited by AELIANUS. 
THEVET, Andre. Les Singularites de la France Antarctique (Paris, 1558). 

Cosmographie Universelle. 

THOMSON, Paymaster W. J., U.S. Navy. (See TE PITO TE HENUA.) 
TORQUEMADA, Fray Juan (Franciscan monk). Monarquia Indiana (edition 

1723)- 



VALLANCEY. (See DE VALLANCEY.) 

VARRO, M. Terentius (Roman scholar and writer, 116 B.C. -A.D. 27?). 
De gente Populi Romani (lost book cited by St. Augustine). 

VELASCO, Fray Juan de. Historia del reyno de Qjiito. 

VENEZUELA DOCUMENTS (British Government: Guiana Boundary Com- 
mission, MSS. Dept., British Museum). 

VIRGIL. (See FERGHIL.) 



WALLACE, Alfred Russel (English naturalist, A.D. 1823-1913). Notes of 

a Botanist on the Andes. 
WALLIS BUDGE, Sir E. On tlie Sumerians. 



XIMINEZ, Fray Francisco (Dominican missioner in Yucatan and Mexico) . 
Vocabulario del lengua 



(See DE ZAMORA.) 
ZAPATA. (See DE LLANO ZAPATA.) 

ZARETE, Agustfn de (Spanish Historian, A.D. 1492?- 1560?). Historia de 
la Conquista del Pent. 



INDEX 



Page numbers marked with an asterisk (*) refer to footnotes in the page numbered. 

in, 113, 118, 125 et $eq., 129, 140, 

142, 144, 146, 148, 170, 171, 173, 174. 

(Vide also Cataclysms) 
Atlantis, 13, 16, 17, 22, 23, 34, 45, 77, 

78, 79, 82, 83, 84, 86, 87, 99, 103, 

146-8, 151 
Atlas, 10 1 
Audiencias, 163 

Axel-Wenner-Gren Expedition, 193 
Ayar (Inca), 144 
Ayar Manco Capac, no, in 
Ayatarco Cuso, or Cusi, 191, 193-4 
Aymara Indi6s, 95 
Azangaro, 161, 166 
Aztecs, 14, 102, 102,* 108, 115 



ABYLA (West Morocco), 77 
Acapulco, 15, 1 6 
Acosta, Fray Jose" de, 143, 162 
"Adoratorio", 90, illust, 3; 132, illust. 

19; caption, p. 133 
Aelian, Claudus, 21, 78 
Aerolites, ioetseq. t 114-15, 135 
After life, the, 124 
"Agharti," 174 
Ainu, the, 134 
Airships, n 

Ajanta, or Ajunta Caverns, 174 
Alaska, 133-4 
Albinos, 59 
Alcobaso, Fray Diego de, 188 
Aleutians, 134, 138, 140 
"Alleluiah!", 100 
Alphabet, of unknown and ancient race, 

I2 3 I 33.' European, 89 
Altamira, 124 

"Amautas," The, 142, 143, 144 
Amazons, 50, 66, 88, 121, 176, IJQ, 184 
"Amenti," 92 
America, 22-3, 79 
American Indian Foundation, 98 
American Natural History Museum, 114 
Anahuac, 29, 179 
Ancient man, 195 
Andes, n, 64, 96, 104, 113, 184, 186, 190, 

198, 204 

Angkor Wat, 104 
Anjan or Unjan, 158, 158* 
Ante-diluvian, 26, 27, 174, 175, 192. 

(Vide Rio Roosevelt Plateau) 
Antillia, 116, 151 
Araguaya, Rio, 76, 89 
"Araucara" ( Vide deErcilla, Don Alfonso) 
Arcadians, The (or Pelasgians), 29, 86, 87 
Archaeologists, 37, hie et ubique 
Archives do Museu National, 125 et seq. 
Arequipa, p, 142, illust. 
Argentine, 80 

Arica, 168, 171, 171,* 172, 173 
Arks, 13, 16, 25 
Armageddon, 34, 85 
Arran Isle, 80 
Arranmore, 81 

' ' Arraua, ' ' 1 1 1 . ( Vide Viracocha) 
Aruvudus, of Brazil, 68, 70, 74 
Asoka, 62, 63, 119 
Atacama, 170 

Atahualpha, 154, 156, 157, 159, 160, 188 
Athens, 22 

"AH," 129. (Radical of name Atlantis) 
"Atlan," 52* 
Atlantean, or Hy-Brazil, or O'Breasal, 

10, 16, 23, 24, AI et $eq.> 50 et seq., 76 

et s*q. t 86, 87, 89, 97, 98, 102, 103-10, 



BAAL, 141 

Babel Tower, 16, 28, 29, 33, 100, 108, 194 

Babylon, 28, 33, IIQ; phallicism of, 125; 

146, 194 

Bahia, 38, 55, 56, 57 
Balam-Agab, 106 
Banana, 88* 
Bandeiristas, 37 et seq., 44, 45, Q2, 96, 

146 

Basilea, 87 
Bates, H. \V. f 134 
Bearded "Indians", 188 
Bealtine, The, 84.* (Vide also Light 

Pillars) 

Belern, 63,* 123 
Bellamy, H. S., 32, 196-200 
Benalcazar, Sebastian de, 154 
Bering Strait, 140 
Berthelot, 154 

Berzil, Bracie, Brazil, Brasil, 80, 8r, 8^ 
Betyles, 151 
"Biancaea Sappan," 80 
Bianco, map of, A.D. 1436, 116 
"Black Magic," 151 

Blavatskaya, Madame Helena Petrovna, 

168, 169, 171, 171,* 172, 173, 175, 17? 

Blusterer's mountain. (Vide Serra do 

Roncador) 
Bochicha, or Zuhe, 31, 65, 65* ; longevity 

of, 109; TII, 115, 116 
Bogota, Sante Fe* de, 52,* no 

Bolivar, Simon, el Liberador, 185 

Bolivia, 170, 171 

Brahma, 34-5, 137, 148 

Brasseur-de-Bourbourg, Abbe" C. E., 82, 
106, 150, 158* 

Brazil. (Vide Atlantean -Brazil) 

Bredon Hill, 115 

Brendan, 81 

"Brethren of the Black Flag," 170 

British Columbia, 65; 132, illust. 16 

"Brujos, los," 103 

Brutus, The "Pauch", 84 



2IO INDEX 



Buamanga, 143 
Buccaneers, 57 
Budge, Sir E. Wallis, 30 
Buffon, Comte de, 82 
Burton, Sir Richard, 158* 
Bushmen (of Kalahari), n 
"Bush Telegraph," The, 59, 71 
Bustamente, Carlos Maria, 15 



CASUAL, Dom Pedro Alvarez de, 36, 

80, 82 

Caches. (Vide Incas) 
California, Gulf of, 172 
California (South), U.S.A., 123, 133 
Calpe (Gibraltar), 77 
Cambodia, 103 
Camels, 196 
Campeache, 102 
Camuhibal (Popul Vuh), 85 
Canals, 138, 184-5 
Canaries, The, 10 
Cannibal, 94 
Cannon, 128 
Cape Verde Islands, 10 
Caii (Colloan chief), 112, 117 
Carian- or Karian-Colloans, 48, 49, 61, 

94, 95, 116, 122. (Vide also Karians 

or Carians) 
Carians, or Karians, 84, 124; 132, 

illust. 13 and caption 13; 139, 183. 

(Vide also Amazons) 
Caribs, 135, 176 
Carlos Inca, 163 
Carlos V (Charles V), 160, 165 
Cam Brea, 183 
Carthage, 77, 87, 93 
Casa de Contratacion, 154 
Casa del Sol. (Vide Cuzco) 
Cataclysms, Cosmic, n, 13, 14, 15, 

17* *9, 21, 30-1, 32-4, 52,* 86, 103, 

in, 112, 112,* 113, 115, 116. (Vide 

also Quetzalcoatl, Men in Black, 

Deluge Myth, Moon, Atlantean- 

Brazil) 

Caupolican, 89 
Caves, 144, 150 
Caxamarca, 156, 157, 160 
Cayapos, 68 
Cedrenus, 85 
Ccnsorinus, 32-3 
"Central Sun of the Cosmos." (Vide 

Sun) 

Cerro de Pasco, 166 
"Ce Tecpatl" (year of Flint, ancient 

Mexican Calendar), 15 
Ceylon, 62, 103, 104 
Chairs, 183 
Chajol or Chajul, 177 
Chambers, Admiral Bertram, C.B., R.N., 



. 
Chasqtus, 143 



Chemis, or Zemes, 150-1 

Chia, 31, 180 

Chiapas or Chiappas, 101, 177, 178, 180 

Chibchas, myths of, 31, 109. (Vide 

also Muycas, or Moscas) 
Chicha, 162 
Chichen Itza, 101 
Chillicothe, 125 
Chimus, 1 80* 
China, 30, 31, 125 et seq. 
China, or South China Sea, 1 74 
ChollulanorCholuhuan, 29, 100, 102, 105 
Christ (Horus), 128-9 
Cibaos, Sierra de, 149, 149* 
Cieza de Leon, Pedro, 48, 49, 95, 117, 

121, 154, 155, 157, 162, 187, 191 
Cisneros, P., 147 
"Citadels," 103 
Citinatonali, 105-6 
Civilization, age of, in N. America, 89, 

122-3, 186, 196 
Clavigero, F. J., 99 
Clothed Indians (S. America), 109 
-Code, 98 

Cocotovito, Juan, 142-3 
Codex (Codices): Letellier, 14; Chimul- 

popocan, 14, 25, 98; Vaticanus, 105; 

Dresden (Aztecan), 128-9 
"Cold Light ' ' ( Vide Light Pillars) 
Colombia, S.A., oriente of, 134; 137, 151 
Colorado, 172 
Colossi, 25, 27, 136, 184-5 
Colours and Perspective, 124 
"Columbia Race," 103 
Columbus, Bartolomeo, 149 
Columbus, Cristofcro, 175-0 
Comets, 10 et seq. 
Conane, 82 
Conquistadores, 152 
Copan, 178 
Copper- workers, 131, 133. (Vide also 

Atlantean-Brazil) 
Copts, 100 
Corentyn, Rio, 185 
Corn, 131 
Cornwall, 183 
Cortes, Hernando or Herndn, 101, 102,* 

107, 108, 177, 180; 192 
Counay, no, 124* 
Council of the Spanish Indies, 160 
Craige, Captain John Houston, 150 
Crantor, 22 
Cross, The, 128 
Cuneiform (in Brazil), 93 
"Curveros," 48 
Customs Mede, 84* 
Customs Scrubs, 84* 
Cuyaba, 83 

Cuycurus, or Kuikurus, Indi6s, 68, 70 
Cuzco, 91, 156-7, 160, 161-2, 164, 168, 

181. (Vide also Sachsahuaman) 
Cycles, 32, 130 et seq., 195 
Cyclopes, 194 



INDEX 



211 



D 



DAHYBA, 180 

Darien, 59, 160; 180. (Vide also 
Buccaneers) 

Dark-skinned race, 102-3 

Darwin, Charles, 192 

Das Mortes, rio, 67 

Dead City (Mexico), 104-5 

Dead Horse Camp, 68 

De Bry, Theodore, 159-60; De Carvalho, 
Benigno Jose", 53 et seq; de Ercilla, 
Alfonso, 143; de Garcia, Bartolom6o, 
148; de Herrera, Antonio, no-ii; 
de Llano Zapata, Jos Eusebio, 165; 
de Leguisamo Francisco, 162, 164; 
de Leon, Ponce, 100*; de las Casas, 
Bartolome", 144, 156, 160, 192; de 
Ondcgardo, Pola, 162; de Ordaz, 
Diego, 143; de Ordonez y Aguiar, 
Kam6n, 108; de Orellana, Francisco, 
66; de Pomares, Felipe, 163; de 
Quesada, Jiminez, no, 137; de 
Souza, or Sousa, Francisco, 38-9; 
De los Rios, Pedro, 29, 100 

Deluge, The Great, n, 13, 16, 17, 18, 
28, 29, 31, 87, 99, 108, 134-5, I 7 8 / I0 4- 
(Vide also Moon, Cataclysms, Atlantis, 
Atlantean-Brazilian) 

Dementia. ( Vide Cataclysms) 

Demi-Ourgos, 86, 148 

Denmark, 92 

Derrotero, 166 

Descourtilz, M. E., 150-1 

Devil-worship, 84 

Dewan-I-Shah, 158 

Dias, Roberio, 38-9 

Diodorus, Siculus, 77, 77,* 78, 87, 121, 
177, 179 

Dolmens, 131 

Dome (Mohammedan), 128 

Dominica, or San Domingo, 149, 149* 

"Dots" (rupestrian), 05, 96, 122 

Doyle, Sir Arthur Conan, 33-4, 65, 89, 

134 

Dragons, 104 
Drumming, 179-80, 180* 
Dyaus, Dyas, or Deus, 122, 199. (Vide 

also Sun, Central of the Cosmos) 
Dyott, Cdr. George. (Vide Fawcett) 



EAR-LOBES, 27; 90, illust. i. (Vide 

also Orejones) 

Earth, 15, 16, 20, 30, 31, 32, in 
Earthquakes, 88, 105, 106, 189. (Vide 

also Vulcanism) 
Earth Sign, 90, illust. 2a; 91 
Easter Island, 25, 26, 27; 90, illust. 7 
Eckener, Doktor, n, 64, 74 
Ecpyrosis, The, 32 
Ecuador, 20, 124,* 183, (Vide also 

Subterraneans) 



Egypt, 85 et hie et ubique; 91, 93, 127, 

129, 138, 189 
Electro-physicists, 24 
Elephanta, 174 
Ellore, 174 
El Simbolo Escalonado. ( Vide Stairway 

symbol) 

Emanuel, Dom, 80 
Emeralds, 157, 162 
"Empire of the East/' 106. (Vide 

Atlantean-Brazil and Atlantis) 
"End of the World/ 1 34-5 
Erse-speaking Indians, 24* 
Eskimos, 133-4 
Esmcraldas (Ecuador), 183 
Esquivil, Dona Maria, 163 
Ethiopia, 95 
Etruria and Etruscans, 133; 177, 

caption 

Eupolemus, 28-9, 194 
Eusebius, 195 

Evil, alleged "aura" of, 63, 64,* 65 
Evolution. (Vide Stairway symbol) 
Ezekiel, 92 



FARO DE CATATUMBA, 153 

Fawcett, Colonel P. H. f 62-70, and foot- 
notes; 73, 76, 81, 88, 94, 97, 117-8, 
146, 185-6 

Ferghil, Fergil, or Vergile, 80, 80* 

Ferro, 95, 122 

Fidelio, Fray, 114 

Flying fish, 186* 

Fomorians, 195 

Formiae, 194 

Fossils, 89 

Fountain of Youth, The, 100* 

Friends 1 Islands (Rattan), 133, (Vide 
also Mound-builders) 

Frobenius, 151 

Frog- worship, 139 

Frot, Apollinaire, 93, 94* 

Fuentes, Fray, 176 

Fulton (Ohio), 131 

Furetana, 84 



GADBIRA, 77 

Gades (king of Atlantis?), 77* 

Gambling, 157-8 

Gann, late Dr, Thomas, 103-4 

Genesis, 28, 29. (Vide also Deluge) 

"Gentilars," 180* 

Geraes, The. ( Vide Minas Geraes) 

Gesenius, GuiL, 93 

Giants, 17, 22, 28,29, 33 ; passim, 191-200 

"Giants' Field/' 18, 186 

Gilbar, Fray Narcissus, 65, 121, 146-8 

Gilgamesh, 29 

Giraffe, 90, Must. 4; 189 

Glass (ersatz), 91, 94 



212 



INDEX 



Gloucester (Eng.), 178 

Gog Magog, 195 

Gold and platinum, 52, 92, 93, 94, 161 

"Golden Age," 30-1, 179 

Gondwanaland. (Vide Rutas) 

"Goparam," 9 

Gorotire Indians, 71 

Goyaz. (Vide Roosevelt (Rio) Plateau, 

S.A.) 

Goyazes, 194 
Graham, R. B. Cunninghame, "Don 

Roberto", foreword, 5; 136-7 
Grande Rio (British Honduras), 103 
"Gran Paytiti," or "Paytite," 48, 65, 

107,* 176-7 

Grave's Creek (Ohio), 139 
"Great Gold Fish," 180 
Greeks, 32 
"Green Rays," 174 

Gregory, the late Prof. J. W., 64, 204 
Griswold, Lawrence, 144 
"Guaca, or Huaca," 143 
Guamanaga (dead city), 48 
Guanacauri, 165 
Guara Indians, 185* 
Guatemala, 102, 177 
Guatemotzin, 178 
Guayaquil, 182 
Guayra (dead city), 47 
Guiana, Dutch, 185 
Guiana, 86, 185* 

H 

HAITI, 141, 149, 150, 151 

Haldane, Professor J. B., 140 

"Half Moon Coins," 48 

Haloes, 52, 66; 90, illusts. g and 12; 
136-7, 139, 185. (Vide also Psenth) 

Harris, John, eighteenth-century his- 
torian of Spanish America, 158 

Hawaii, 113 

Head Hunters, 130* 

Hebrews, 96, 205 

Heitsi-Eibib, 13 

Heliacal Year, The, 32 

Heliographs, 102* 

Heliolithic Culture, 79; 122, 123, 141 ; 151 

Heliopolis, 77 

Hercules, Pillars of, 77. (Vide also 
Pharos) 

Herreros, 13 

Hieroglyphs, 89, 93; 104; 134, 135, 143, 
168, 171, 171,* 172, 185* 

Himalayas, 96, 187 

Hindostan, 82,* 125 

Hippocampi, 186* 

Holden, Dr. Wm,, 114 

Homer, 64, 194 

HOrbiger, Hans (Wien), 32, 196, 197 

Hornius, G., 149 

Horse and Hippine, 140, 196 

Horns, 128, 129 



Huacas, 94, no 
Huallagu, no, 146 
Huanacaui, 142 
Huatanay, no, 166 
Huayna Capac, Inca, 162 
Huayti, Peru, 141 
Hubbard, Father Bernard, 134, 138 
Hue, AbbE. R., 118 
Huemac, 101, 102, 105, 116 
Humboldt, Baron Alexander von, 83, 
86, 134, 135; 146-8, 180* 



ICE AGES, 20, 32; 91-2, 113, 182, 195 

Ideograms, 89 

Illatici (Alleluiahl), 143 

Illinois, U.S.A., 131 

Incas, 88; in, 141-4, 152, 154-5, *57 

158, 160, 162, 164, 165, 166, 169. 

(Vide also Peru) 
"Inca Way," The, 49 
Inquisition, 159 

Insignia (of Quetzalcoatl), 106-7, 107* 
Intercalary Days (Mexico), 14 
Inti, 1 80, 181 
Intihuanta (Peru), 91, 94 
Iqi-Baiam (Popul Vuh), 106 
Ireland, ancient, 24,* 80, 80,* 81, 84 
Isaiah, 92. (Vide also North-pointing 

Statues) 

"Isle of the Blest," The, 81 
"lurucrunu," 169 
Ixtlilxochitl, F. de Alva Cortes, 99 

J 

JACOLLIOT, Louis, on Rutas, 184 
Jahveh, or Jehovah, 148. (Vide also 

Demi-Ourgos) 
Jalisco, 178, 179 
Jeans, Sir James, 20 
Jebel Musa, 77 
Jesuits, 65, 70, 92, 117, 142 
Jowett, Ben, 82 
Juara, rio, 144 

K 

KALASASAYA . ( Vide Tiahuanacu) 
Kanheri, 61, 119 
Karians. (Vide Carians) 
Karnak, 14, 22 
Kathiawar, 119 
K&tzer, Friedrich, 64 
Kelts, 80, 80,* 81, 84 
Kenya Colony, 198 
Kha, The, 172 
Kidd, Captain Wm., 175 
Kingsborough, Lord, 205 
Koaty, 43-6; 90, illusts. 2, ^a\ 95. 

120-1; 122, 141.* (Vide also Atlan- 

tean-Brazil) 
Kosambi, 119 
Kounboum, or Kounboun ("Alphabet 

Tree" of), 118, 188* 



Krasnoyarsk!, 139 

Krupps, 58, 64 

Kuluene, no, 67, 68, 70 

Kumesene, or Kulusene, rio, 67, 71, 74 



LA BREA, 196 

Lancandones (Indi6s), 59, 175, 178 

Laplanders, 180* 

La Pena Tejada, 137 

Lasso (Garcilaso de la Inca), 155 

Lecointe, M., 91 

Lemuria. (Vide Rutas) 

Lescarbot, M., 100 

Lestrygones, 194 

"Life Ray/' (Holland), 86 

"Light Pillars, 1 ' 83, 84, 85. (Vide also 
Sun-Worshippers) 

Lights ("Cold"), 66. (Vide also Per- 
petual Lamps) 

Lingam, The, 124-5. (Vide also Phal- 
licism) 

"Little Sun of Cuzco," The, 162 

Livingstone (C. America), 106 

Locomotion (legend of), 175 

Lorenzano, F., 107 

"Lost Ten Tribes," The, 148 

"Lost World," 40 et seq. (Vide also 
Conan Doyle) 

Lucero, Fray Juan, 48, 146 

Ludlow, General, 81 

Lunadi, Federico, 184-5 

"Luz del Dinero" (Money Light), 152-4 

Lynch, Colonel Dr. Arthur, 71 

M 

MADEIRA, rio, 93 

Magdalena, rio, 185 

Mahucutch, 106 

Mala Agua, rio (Bad Water river) , 1 70 

Maiden Island, 185 

Mammoths, 18, 19 

Manco, 144 

Manetho, the Mendesian, 77, 97 

Manos, or Manoa, 147-8 

Manu, 184 

Maraj<5 (Brazil), 91 et seq. t 123 et seq., 

130, 130* 

Maranon, rio, 8, 19, 23, 97, 186 
Marcellinus, Ammianus, 78 
Markham, Sir Clements, 160-1 
Marquesas, 185 

"Marquis of the Mines" (Brazil), 38 
Marquitas, The, 194 
Marriage, 87 

Marsh, R. Oglesby, 88-9, 184 
Martinius, Fray Martin, 30 
Martyr, Peter (de Anghiera), 149, 150, 

192 

Mania, Mount (Guiana), 185* 
Maryland (U.S.), ancient Irish in, 80* 



INDEX 213 

Masefield, John, 179 
Mastodons (America), 18, 19, 186 
Matto Grosso (Brazil), n, 58, 64, 67, 

83-85 
Mayas (C. America), 88, 103, 149, 158, 

177, 178, 179, 1 80 
McKittrick, prehistoric animal traps, 

Cal.. 195 

Means, Philip, 144 
Medellin, story of man of, about lost 

white cities of an ancient S. American 

race, 49-53* 96 
Melcarth, 84 
Memphis, 85, 172 
Men (king of the Mayas), 92 
Menes (king in ancient Egypt), 92, 138 
"Men in Black," 24 et seq., 96 et seq. 

(Vide also Quetzalcoatl, Bochicha, 

Manco Capac, Viracocha, Zuhe, World 

Wars) 

Mercurio, el Peruano, 147 
Methuselah, 30 
Metzli (Moon), 100 
Mexico, 11-13, 104-5; Gulf of, 97 
Micoatl, 99-100 
Mills, Dr. (Ohio), 131 
Minas Geraes, 39, 49 
Mines (Lost), 38, 39, 4 1 - ( vide also 

Gold) 

Mississippi, 131 
Mixtlan, 102 
Moated Cities, 129. (Vide Chapter II 

of this book) 
Moeris, Lake, 168 
Mohican (U.S.S.), 26 
Moir, Reid, 89 
"Monkey -Men," 16, 144 
Monsters. (Vide Ante-diluvian, 

Roosevelt-Goyaz Plateau, Easter 

Island) 

Montesinos, F., in, 142, 143, 191 
Montezuma (name of culture-hero), 16; 

last Aztec emperor, 107, 181 
Moon, 13, 17, 21, 24, 29, 31, 32, 86, 87, 

100, 109, 1 1 6, 150, 189, 196-200 
Moon Island. (Vide Koaty) 
Moon Temple, 162 
Morass (Post- Andean), 134 
Morcegoes, 71 
"Moribeca." (Vide Mines) 
Morris, Mount (N.W.T.), 193 
Moscas, or Muyscas (S. America), 109, 

H5 

Mound-Builders, 130-1 
Mu. (Vide Rutas) 
Mua (Indians), 76 
Mummies, 162 
Mylodons, 192 

N 

NACXJT and Ranaual, 106 
Nadir Shah, 158 
Nafuca Indians, 68 



214 INDEX 

Nagualecas, 99 

Nahuatls, 102, 102* 

Nat or Nata, 24-5 

Nata and Nena, 15 

Nau, E., 150 

Negro, rio, 136, 137, 139, 185 

Neith, 127 

Nemteresqueteba. (Vide Bochicha) 

Neolithic Age, 115 

Nephilim, 17, 174, 175 

Neptune, 146, 184 

Netto, Dr. LadislSfo, 125 

Nile (Guatemala), 92 

Noah, 13, 1 6, 25 

North-pointing Statue, 43, 63, 92 

Nueva Granada, 109 

Nufiuamayu, 95 

Nunez, H. B., 52* 

Nuflez de Balboa, Vasco, 180 

O 

OBELISK, 91, 94. (Vide also Atlantean- 

Brazil) 
O'Breasal, or Hy-Brazil, 80, 81, 82. 

( Vide also Atlantean-Brazil) 
Obsidian, 131. (Vide also Heliographs) 
"Obumbraculum," 85 
Odin (S, America), 66, 106 
Ogham, 8 1 
Ogyges, 15, 29, 89 
Olivia, Fray Anello, 142 
Onkh, 132, ittust. 15 
Onohualco, 102 

"Oojah, or Ouija." (Vide Drums) 
Ophir (in Brazil,) 149 
Orej6nes, 27 
Orinoco, 97 
Osendowski, F., 174-5 
Osiris, 85, 97 
Ostrich, 140 

O'Sullivan, Lieut. -Col., 63, 63* 
Ousdal, Dr. Osbjorn, 123, 133 
Ova-Herreros, 13 



PACCARI-TAMPU, 144 

Pachamac, 93, 193 

Pachacuti (Inca), 143 

Pacoval (Maraj<5), 123 et seq. 

Painted Peruvian MSS., 148 

Palenque, 101, 107, 178 

"Pampas Enthral" (Argentine), 80* 

Panch-Atta. ( Vide Pauch) 

Pan" os Indians, 146-8. (Vide also von 

Tschudi, JJ.) 

Panuco (Mexico), 98, 99, 105, 108 
Paranatinga, rio, 68 
Paria (Indi6s), 52* 

Patanios (or Patanian Indi6s), 24,* 80* 
"Paterans," 137 
"Path of the Dead/* 99-100 
Pauch, or Panch-Atta, 84 



Payquina, rio, 171, 171,* 173 

"Peacock, Golden Throne," 158 

Pearls, 131 

Pedregal, San Agustin, 15 

Pelasgians (or Libyans?), 21 

Peplos, The, 22 

"Perpetual Lamps," 85-6 

Peru, 141-2, 143 

Petroglyphs, 90, and illusts. 8-12; 

93 > 941 r 3 2 ittust. 13 and caption in 

133; 134 et seq., 135, 136-7, 138, 

139, 142, 151, 185 
Phallicism, 26, 125, 128; 132, illust. 

15. (Vide also Lingam, Yoni, 

Cannon) 
Pharos, The, 16; 24, 127. (Vide also 

Light Pillars, Pillars of Hercules) 
Phoenicians (in Brazil), 87, 93, 134, 

137-8, 139, 144. (Vide also Ophir, 

Pauch) 
Phrygian (S. American head-dress), 

132, illust. 13 

Physicists, 185.* (Vide also Light Pil- 
lars, and Chapter 111) 
Pillars of Hercules, 83 
Pilquixta, 14 
Pirua, 144 
Pitcairn Island, 185 
Pizarro, Francisco, 19, in, 156-7, 

158, 159, 161, 1 88 
Pizarro, Gonzalez, 159 
Pizarro, Hernando, 160 
Planets, 146. ( Vide also Sencis) 
Plantain Leaves (S. American paper), 

I 43~4- (Vide also Gilbar. N.) 
Plato, 25, 78-9, 82 
Plutarch, 22, 85 
Poindexter, Miles, dedication, and 76-7, 

116 

Ponape (Carolines), 183 
Popul Vuh, The, 15, 80, 99, 106, 128, 135 
Portulanos (in ancient 33razil), 93-4 
Potosi, 152-3 

Potsdam, Observatory of, 187, 196 
Prescott, Wm. Hickling, 182 
Prester John, 100* 
Price-Mars, Dr., 151 
Psenophis, 21, 79 
Psenth, 90, illusts. u, 12 
Psonchis, 23, 79 
Ptolemy, The Geographer, 82 
Puna, Isla de, 164 
Pygmies, 49, 51 
Pyramids, 24, 26, 29, 52, 100-2, 127-30, 

131, 144, 172, 189 



"QOACUTEC, Qoahau, Qocaib," 106 

"Qoaglgal," 65* 

Quetzalcoatl, 29, 65, 65,* 66, 66,* 84, 85, 
9i 97> 98, 100, 100,* 101, 102, 103-4, 
105, 106, 107, in, 116, 117, 123, 128; 
vide caption 18 in p. 133; 179, 181 



INDEX 



215 



Quiches (Kings of the), 80, 84, 106 
Quichua, or Quechuas, 91 
Quilcas, 141, 142, 143, 148 
Quinoans. (Vide Buamanga) 
Quippus, or Quippos, 141-2, 148 
Quito, 1 60 

R 
RA, and Vi-Ra, Raymi, 91, caption 

10; 162 
Ramac, 187 
Ra-Mu, 187 

Rainbows, 2getseq.,$i t 86 
Raleigh, Sir Walter, 148 
Rameses, Pharaoh, 132 
Ramos, Bernardo de Azevedos da Silva, 

36 

Randle, Dr. (India Office Librarian), 118* 
Rastrakuta-Govinda, 119 
"Rayed Men," 132, illust. 18 and caption 

bottom 133; 136-7, 139 
"Red Sea," The (of Quetzalcoatl), 104, 

1056, 107 
Rimell, Raleigh, foreword, and vide 

Fawcett 

Rio de Janeiro, 36 
Rivero y Ustariz, Mariano, 141 
Rondonia. ( Vide foreword) 
Roosevelt-Goyaz Plateau, 23; 75, 88; 

89, 93, 94> 134, M<> 
Royal Geographical Society of London, 

Eng., 66, 68, 69, 71, 73 
Ru, 184 

Rufus, Publius Cornelius, 108 
Russell, Dr. H. Norris, astronomer, 33 
Rutas, 9, 20, 21, 28, 32, 82, 82,* no, 

118, 129, 138, 139, 184, 186, 186,* 

187, 190, 200 

S 

SACHSAHUAMAN, 163-4 
Sacramento, rio, 146 
Sahagun.Fray Bernardino, 15, 98, TOT, 102 
Sahara, 141 
Sahpuayacu, 141 
St. Augustine, 85 
St. Just (Cornwall), 183 
St. Thomas (apostle), 108 
Saint-Mery, 150 
Samboes, 56, 57 
Sampaya, Isla de, 95, 141* 
San Agustin (Colombia, S.A.), 184-5 
San Diego (Cal.), 172 
San Domingo, (Vide Haiti and 
* Dominica) 

San Domingo ("Cori-Cancha"), 182 
San Francisco (convent), 160 
San Salvador, 91 
Sansar, 82,* 118, 119, 184 
Sanscrit, 66, 184, 187 
Santa Cruz del Quiche, 175, 177 
Santiago, 149 
"Sar-Degon," 161, 184 
"Sard Harker," 179 



Sasquatch, The, 193 

"Satanaxio," 116 

Sawkins, Richard. (Vide Darien) 

Schomburghk, Sir Robert, 134, 135, 

185, 185* 
"Scomalt," 17 
Secret Native Societies (C. and S. 

America), 164, 170, 175, 181, 182 
Sekhet, 128 
Seleidiva, 61 
Sends, 146 
Seneca, M. A., 61 
Serapeum, 128, 132; 133, illust. 17; 

133, caption 
Serpent, 97, 98 
Serra do Ciii9ora, 54, 58 
Serra do Mar, 18 
Serra do Roncador, 67, 70-1, 75 
Serrano Indians, 166 
"Sertao" (Brazil), 36 et seq. 
"Shangri-La," 174 
Shoshones Indians, 138 
Shuara Indians, 144 
Siberia, 18, 134 
Sidonia, 95 
Sierra Madre, 178 

Sierra de Santa Marta, no; 132, illust. 
18; 133, caption] 136 

Smith, Professor Sir Graf ton Elliot, 79 

Smithsonian Institution, 122-3 

Smyth, Lieut. W. f 146, 184 

"Snorer's Mountain." (Vide Serra do 
Roncador) 

Sodom and Gomorrah, 16 

"Solanium Aureifolium," 95 

Solon, 78 

Sonchis. (Vide Psonchis) 

South America, 19, 73, 76 

Southey, Robert, 94 

Spain, 141, 155-6 

Spanish Galleon, 135 

Spence, Lewis, 70, 94, 95 

Spitzbergen, 20 

Squier, Ephraim, 164 

Stables, Dr. Gordon, 118* 

Stairway Symbol (of Evolution), 90, 
illusts.; 91; 132, illusts. 15, 19-21; 
i33> 189; 198-9; 199 illust. 

Stephens, J. Lloyd, 175, 177 

Stonehenge, 115 

Sua, or Suna (Sun), 116. (Vide also 
Bochicha) 

Submarine Vulcanism . ( Vide Vulcanism) 

"Subterraneans" or Ancient Tunnels, 
104, 152 et seq. t 167, 170, 170,* 172, 
*73 I74~5 I77~8, 180, 181, (Vide 
end-paper chart) 

Sumer, kings of, 30 

Sun (Gold of Cuzco), 161, 164, 168 

"Sun, Central of the Cosmos, 97, 162, 
164, 189, 199, 200. (Vide also Vira) 

Sun-Pillars. ( Vide Light Pillars) 

"Suns," 31, 135 



2l6 



INDEX 



Sun-Worshippers, 24, 52, 84, 109, no, 

129, 134. H* 142.* i?5. 189. 20 
Suyas Indies, 68 

T 
TABAS (Thebes?), 132, Must. 13 and 

caption 

Tabasco, 102, 122-3 
Tallies, 141-2 
Tanis, 130 

Tapados (caches), 153 
Tapajos, rio, 63 
Tapirape Indians, 71 
Taprobane, 61; 82 
Tapuya or Tapuyos Indians, 94-5 
Tartary, 139 
Tau, 130; 132, illust. 17 
Tehuantepec, 179. (Vide also Amazons) 
Tello, Professor Julio, 91, 94 
Teocallis, 100 
Teri, or Tore, 123, 126; 132, illust. 17; 

133, caption 
Tetzontli, 15 
Thaumaturgists, 169 
Thebes, 172. ( Vide also Tabas) 
Theopompus of Chios, 21, 22, 78 
Thmei, 169 

Thomson, Paymaster, U.S.N., 27 
Three-Master Ships (Easter Island), 27 
Thugga, 95. 96 
Tiahuanacu, 18, 18,* 19, 25,* 48-9; 90 

illusts. 1-2; 132, illust. 14; 136, 185- 

6, 1 86,* 187, 1 88, 189, 190, 197 
Tibet, 61, 118, 118* 
Ticcapato, Tito Cusi, 164, 165 
"Tiger King," The, 48 
Titans, 29, 195 
Titicaca, Lago de, 19, 186 
TlalpaHan, 100,* 102, 105, 107 
Toledo, Don Francisco, 160 
Toltecs, 79, 99 
"Tomb of the Incas," The, 171, 172 

(Vufcalso Arica) 
Tonatiuh, 100 

Torquemada, Fray Juan, 98, 99, 102, 108 
Totem Poles, 102 
Touaregs, 95-6, 122 
Treasure "Derroteros", 93, 94, 102 
Tnncomali, 61 
Troano MS. (Mexico), 128 
Troglodytes (Brazil), 70, 91 
Troy, Wars of, 121 
Trujillo, 165 

Tschudi, Dr. J. J. von, 140, 148, 149, 182 
Tuberculosis, 131 
Tucuman, 153 
Tula (Tulteca), 99 
Tullan, Tulan, 99, 101, 102, 105-7 
Tulliola (Cicero's daughter), 85 
Tupac Amaru (Inca), 48, 176 



A*$, no, 70. 
Troglodytes) 



(Vide also Medellin, 



Uassu (Noah of Amazonas), 18 

U-Booten (Nazi), 88 

Ucayli, rio, 138, 147; MSS. of Indiana of, 

121 

Unta, 144 
Uraeus, 128 
Urim and Thummim, 169 (Vide also 

Thmei) 

Urubamba, rio, 64 
Usamacinta, rio, 177-8 
Uxmal, 178 



VALERA, Dora Bias, 142, 143, 144 

Valverde, Fray Vincente, 159 

Varro, 30 

Venezuela, 52*, 134 

Venus (The Black), 151, (Vide also 

Haiti) ; planet of cataclysm, 29-32, 86, 

in, 112; symbol of coition, 199-200; 

132, illust. 17 

Vienna (congress of scientists of), 20, 32 
Vira (Sun), 122, 142,* 161, 184, 189. 

( Vide also Pirua) 
Viracocha, 143, 189. (Vide also Men 

in Black, Ayar Manco Capac) 
Virgin Birth, 105 
Vitreous (huaca artifact), 91, 94 
Voodooism, 151 
Votan (Odin, Woden, or Wodin), 106, 

108, 178 
Vulcanism, 9, 85, 87, 97, 99, 135, 195 

W 

WALL-PAPER (Incan), 164 

Wells, H. G., 23, 51 

West (The), 129 

White and Bearded South American 

"Indians," 47, 48, 49 et seq., 52,* 

102, 103, 108, 116-17, 120-4 
White House, The (S. America), 176 
"White Mountains,' 1 The, 71 
Wissier, Dr. Clark, 66 
Wodan, Wodin, Woden, 65, 178. (Vide 

also Votan) 
World Wars, 87, 88. (Vide also Men 

in Black) 

X 

XEQUBS, 116 
Xingu, rio, 63, 70, 134, 135 



YONI, 124-5 
Yucatan, 102 . 

Z 

ZACHARIAS (Pope), So 

Zagues, 109 

"Zak Gazlem," 85 

Zodiac, 88; 132, illust. 20; 133, captions 

20 and 21 ; 145, 284 
Zuhe. (Vide Bocfcfcha) 




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